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Liverpool District,' by saying that it is precedence, no place was assigned to the “disappointing from the fact that many Prime Minister; and the editorial reply was interesting names are not noticed." I fear immediately made :that MR. BOYLE is likely to remain dis- ^ The precedence of the Prime Minister is given appointed if will - o’- the - wisp names like according to the office he may hold in conjunctiou Stonby Green are types of those which he with the Premiership.” would like to see in the volume. Little wonder An anecdote is told concerning Lord that an old resident in Wirral should write Palinerston which strikingly illustrates this asking where the place was ! The book did answer. When he was visiting Glasgow in not pretend to deal with the fancy or hap- the spring of 1863, during his last Premiership, hazard names of modern villas or new to be installed as Lord Rector of the Unibowling greens; nor was it deemed necessary versity, to insult the reader's intelligence and waste the captain of the Guard-ship son the Clyde), space by explaining such names as Ashfield, I anxious to do honour to the occasion, was hindered Westwood, Woodchurch, Red Brow, High- by the fact that a Prime Minister was not recognized field, Knotty Ash, &c. It is, however, by the code of naval salutes ; but he found an escape possible that two or three naines in the com- | from his dilemma in the discovery that Lord paratively wide district covered are omitted,

| Palmerston was not only First Lord of the Treasury,

but also Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, for which ought to be added to the two hundred

which great officer a salute of nineteen guns was odd places included in the volume, and the prescribed." - Evelyn Ashley, 'Life of Lord Palmerdefect will probably be remedied in due ston,' vol. ii. p. 422. course.

When Mr. Gladstone as Prime Minister I am afraid that MR. BOYLE's interest in attended the opening of the new Law Courts place-names is much greater than the trouble by the Queen, in December, 1882, he took prewhich he has taken to keep himself posted cedence as Chancellor of the Exchequer, with regard to their etymological and his- which office he at that time held. torical treatment, or he would know--to As to the general question of the origin of mention one instance only—that Prof. Tait, the term “ Prime Minister," I would note that of Victoria University, dealt at some length a correspondent (9th S. iii. 273) describes my in the Athencum for 1895 with the extra- statement (ibid., p. 109) that it was first ordinary passage on p. 86 of 'Feudal applied to Harley as incorrect, because England' relative to Wirral place-names. I he' has found it in a book translated from The author, Mr. Round, must think that he the French, which has an introduction is never going to hear the last of his unfor-dated 8 May, 1711, and "consequently tunate slip. The blunder, like some others, made before the term could with any prowas, however, so transparent that I did not priety have been applied to Harley." But (8th mention it in the above-named onomasticon. S. xi. 510) I had previously proved that it

HY. HARRISON. was so applied, and in the month named, "KING OF BANTAM” (9th S. iv. 419. 488. 526 : | while it was indicated seven years beforev. 18).-In Hudleston's Notes and Extracts on 29 Aug., 1704-in a prophetic utterance of the Proceedings of the Council of Fort | destined to be fulfilled. St. George,' published 1871, there is printed

ALFRED F. ROBBINS. a letter from the Hon. Court of Directors of CHURCH IN CANTERBURY OLDER THAN the East India Company to the President St. MARTIN'S (9th S. V. 26). — Surely the and Council of Fort St. George, dated existence of old St. Pancras's Church has 15 December, 1676, in which complaint is been long known to your readers familiar made of the practice of private trading by with Canterbury and its antiquities. I have the Company's servants. It is mentioned not Mr. Brent's 'Canterbury in the Olden that this unlawful trading was carried on Time' beside me (Simpkin & Marshall, about under assumed names, one man trading | 1880), but, if I am right, it gives an account under the title of the “King of Bantam." of it. Certainly such an account exists. It As a matter of fact there was no such person. is from association with this saint that the Does this assist your correspondent?

London church of St. Pancras takes its name. FRANK PENNY, LL.M. | Is his day in the calendar not 12 May ! Fort St. George.

J. L. ANDERSON. PRIME MINISTER (8th S. x. 357, 438 ; xi. 69,

Edinburgh. 151, 510; xii. 55, 431 ; gth S. ii. 99; iii. 15, 52, HENRY CAVENDISH (9th S. v. 4).-In the 109, 273, 476). — The original question under Tyssen Library, at the Town Hall, Mare this heading was as to why, in the table of Street, Hackney, there is preserved an account of Mr. Newcome's school at Hackney, together knowledge of the art. Many of the evidences with letters concerning it, and bills of the of this are apt to escape the attention of a plays performed there every third year. I student of the plays and poems who knows cannot say whether this collection contains "no more of the scales than a cow does of the any references to Henry Cavendish or his zodiac."

St. SWITHIN. schoolfellows, but the library is open for consultation every Tuesday evening, and I am

“BROTHERHOOD OF FOOLS" (9th S. iv. 539). — sure that MR. BRESLAR would meet with any

Full accounts of this order will be found in necessary assistance at the hands of the

Hone's 'Every-day Book,' 1 Oct. ; also in courteous hon. librarian, Mr. Geo. Chambers. / Chambers's 'Book of Days,' 12 Nov. Divested

'W. E. PRIDEAUX. of detail, the order was founded at Cleves

about 1381, and was in existence in 1520. “ WOUND” for “WINDED" (9th S. v. 4).

Two of its principal objects were to relieve ** Wound," in Scott's line

the wants and alleviate the miseries of sufferBut scarce again his horn he wound, ing humanity, and to banish ennui during is proscribed at the above reference “as an the numerous festivals observed in those ages, instance of a false past tense.” This is a by preconcerted methods. somewhat remarkable deliverance, seeing that

RICHARD Lawson. *wond” or “wound," and not “winded,” is Urmston. the real and regular past tense of the word ' For a long article on the Feast of Fools' ** wind." A notable instance later than that in the ‘Lady of the Lake' occurs early in

in A.D. 1431 (suppressed in 1445) and the

Office of Fools' see N. & 0..' 3rd S. iv. 487. Tennyson's "Elaine. Sir Lancelot, having

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. lost his way through giving the reins to his

71, Brecknock Road. fancy and his steed, at length beheld the towers of Astolat:

A VOLTAIRE ENGRAVING (9th S. iv. 328).Thither he made and wound the gateway horn. Desnoiresterres, in his 'Iconographie VoltairIt has of late become so common to tilt at ienne' (Paris, 1879), at p. 27, gives an account

The Scott's laxity as a stylist that it is a pleasure of the print referred to in this query. to uphold his practice when, as here, he is

design is by Huber. The engraving pubunquestionably correct. THOMAS BAYNE.

| lished by Sayer is said to be rare. There is Helensburgh, N.B.

a later counterfeit print with additional

figures. Desnoiresterres considers that this “HORSE - BREAD” (9th S. iv. 83, 173, 333, is the design of Huber's to which Voltaire 647).

| refers in his letter of 11 Dec., 1772, to the Ralph. “O brave, Robin ! shall I have Nan Spit, Empress Catherine. See vol. xlviii. p. 244 of and to mine own use ? On that condition I'll feed the edition of 1883-5.

R-N. thy devil with horse-bread as long as he lives, of free cost.”-Marlowe, 'Dr. Faustus,' quarto of SIR WALTER SCOTT'S DIALECT (9th S. iv. 242, 1614. J. G. WALLACE-JAMES, M.B.

330, 421, 503).---This seems to be a question Haddington.

whether Scotch is a language or not. If any

one will venture to moot the question in a LINCOLNSHIRE SAYINGS (9th S. iv. 478 ; v. Scotch weekly-say the Weekly News-such a 38).- As quoted at the latter reference I do storm of undoubted "language” will descend not remember to have previously met with upon him as to satisfy the most exacting. If the saying, but have in recent years known it Scotland had been the bigger country would used in London, by an elderly lady born and the Scotch of Knox not have taken the place bred in Northamptonshire, in the form “As of the English of Shakespeare throughout black as Old Sam's nutting-bag.” I always Britain after the union of the crowns ? The understood that the saying was commonly removal of the Court to London made English used in her native county as applied to the universal tongue. Had the Court coine to things much soiled or dirty, which required Edinburgh, Scotch would now be the uniwashing; and I believe that the “Old Sam "versal tongue. The following interesting alladed to was identical with “ His Satanic note on Scotch being used by men of firstMajesty."

W. I. R. V. rate abilities and acquirements at a recent

period is from Dr. Smiles's Life of Nasmyth, WAS SHAKESPEARE MUSICAL? (9th S. v. 22.) | the mechanical genius and inventor of the - If MR. J. B. McGOVERN will read Mr.

steam hammer. The year was 1858 :Edward W. Naylor's 'Shakespeare and Music'

“But not the least interesting part of my visit to I think he will be led to the conclusion that

Edinburgh on this occasion was the renewed interthe poet had no inconsiderable technical course which I enjoyed with many of my old

friends. Among these were my venerable friend firmed by the charter of Charles II. The Prof. Pillaus, Charles Maclaren (editor of the Scots. mayor and other officers are elected by a jury man), and Robert Chambers. We had a long of twenty-four guild burgesses, empannelled * dander' together through the Old Town, our talk

by two elisors who are appointed for that being in broal Scotch. Pillans...... in his position of Rector of the High School had given rare evidence purpose on the Friday before the festival of of his excellence as a classical scholar. He was | St. Wilfred. afterwards promoted to be a Professor in the Uni- The Guild Merchants' festival is recorded versity. He had as his pupils some of the most as beginning in 1328, and to have been kept excellent men of my time. Amongst his intimate friends were Sydney Smith, Brougham, Jeffrey, |

| once in twenty years regularly since 1562. It Cockburn."

was duly celebrated in September, 1862, and Nasmyth himself, it need hardly be said, September, 1882. was welcomed in the best society, from the

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. Queen and Prince Consort downwards.

71, Brecknock Road. S. F. H.

CowPER (9th S. V. 44).—It might seem Perth.

strange that I did not refer to the pathos of Guild MAYOR (9th S. iv. 538). - The town of Cowper, which is remarkable. It is always Preston (Lancashire) can claim a goodly list connected with his own troubles. It is not of charters, with numerous privileges granted, the pathos of Homer, Sophocles, Virgil, Tasso, dating back to Henry II.“ To uphold these Shakspeare, Goethe. I observed that the charters, as embodied in their Merchant Guild, style of several poets depended on that of an order was made by the mayor's court, Milton. I may give one instance to show circa 1348, for the “saïd Maior baliffes and how they followed, directly or indirectly, that burges there hey res and successors to sett a great writer. In Paradise Lost' is the Gyld Marchand at every xx yere end,” to be expression “held on the Monday next after the Feast of

Me of these the Decollation of St. John Baptist."

Nor skilled nor studious. It is an important canon held by the jury. These

he jury These words “nor skilled nor studious entrusted with the selection of mayor for the are in the

or the are in the 'Cider' of Phillips. They can be year that the Guild commemoration will be touna also severa

tion will be found also several times in 'The Chase of held that an experienced and influential man Somerville, who seems to be, in his style, shall be chosen. Though for a period of some under the influence of Phillips. I feel something like three hundred and twenty years

what uncertain how to spell the name of this the members of the house of Stanley have

last-mentioned author. Thomson, who refers taken part in these jubilations in some form

to him with admiration in his' Seasons,'spells or other (as, in 1822, the then Earl of Derby th

the name as I have done. Cowper, who also provided a cockfight for 200 guineas), it will pays a tribute of praise to him in his “Task. be the first time that a titled mayor. in the calls him Philips.

E. YARDLEY. person of the present Earl, will have been "To PRIEST” (9th S. iv. 514: v. 10).-It is appointed Guild Mayor.

| clear, from the courteous strictures of your Though the Municipal Corporations Act of

| more experienced correspondents, that I was 1835 has annulled the favours contained in its charters, proud Preston does not allow

hasty in assuming that priested was an un

desirable neologism. I have appealed to some its carnival to fall into desuetude, and no doubt the observance in 1902 will equal in

clerical friends, and one, a D.D. of Oxford,

vicar of an important South London parish, glory its numerous predecessors. At a fancy dress ball, held at the celebra

assures me that the word is nothing more tion of 1822, the late Mr. James Crossley (one

than “ecclesiastical slang,” and that he has of the founders of the Chetham Society)

heard bishops and other high dignitaries appeared as a “Lancashire wnggoner"-a | '

y laugh at its use. In my friend's words :personation a newspaper critic naively pro

| “I can find no such verb as to priest or to be

priested in Johnson or in any ecclesiastical authority. nounced "a well-supported character."

I do not think any such verb has ever been reRICHARD LAWSON. cognized. Priested is an obvious abbreviation of Urmston.

being made or ordained priest,' in use only among

clerics, and not often among then. Every proLewis, in his ‘Topographical Dictionary of fession, the clerical not excepted, has its professional England and Wales,'explains that the Preston phrases, lying outside the dictionary of the average Guild, or “Guilda Mercatoria," a jubilee cele-citizen. Such an expression is priested ; at least so brated every twentieth year, is the tenure by which the freemen retain their privileges. it ! Priested, then, is an analogy with knighted. was originally granted by Henry II., and con- It is curious that in other substantives signi

see,

fying rank and cognate participles the sense slightest acquaintance with phonetics will of the latter does not signify conferring of show how impossible it is. rank, e.g., captained and marshalled. As The evidence seems to show that the right to bishoped, my friend reminds me that form is hargh; cf. Siritis herche, Niandes-hergh, sixteenth and seventeenth century writers Solh-her, Bret-largh. The loss of h in a use this term in the sense of “being confirmed secondarily accented syllable is common ; by a bishop,” in the ceremony of confirmation. indeed, it is too common even when the He never heard of deaconed ; and I wonder syllable contains the primary accent. whether anyone knows of archbishoped. If this be so, the origin is perfectly obvious. Pace the Rev. C. S. WARD, with due respect | There was no necessity for Mr. Atkinson to to him I must still be considered over-resort to Icelandic (with the modified vowel sensitive with regard to these verbs.

ö), when all the while the word is native Francis P. MARCHANT. English. Of course in the Wessex (AngloBrixton Hill.

Saxon) dialect the a (before rh or rg) will be

“broken ” to ea. Thus, just as the New The Poet PARNELL (9th S. iv. 495 ; v. 33). - | Those interested in the Parnell pedigree may timid, from

English Dictionary'derives the adj. argh,

A.-S. earg or earh, so the form like to know that a branch of this family is

hy is hargh is rightly represented by A.-S. hearh located in West Haddon. It is found firmly loan

(gen. hearges), cognate with Icel. hörgr. The established in the village as far back as 1682, in which year one Thomas Parnell was church

original sense was a heathen altar or heathen

temple; and I suppose there is no reason warden. His name inay still be seen carved

why there may not once have been a temple over the south porch of the church and also inscribed on the third bell. There have been places indicated.

also or place of worship (once heathen) at the five generations in this branch since then, in each of which the name Thomas Parnell duly I come harõh, hergh, argh, ergh in Anglo-French

Again, just as the nom. hearh would beappears.

John T. PAGE. West Haddon, Northamptonshire,

spelling (the scribes constantly dropped

initial h), so the case-stem hearg(e) would SIR JOHNS (9th S. iv. 534).-Halliwell gives give Harrow, as in Harrow-on-the-Hill. "Sir-John, a priest," with the following Why not work by phonetic rules instead quotation :

of making impossible guesses ? "With much adoe and great difficultie obteined

WALTER W. SKEAT. that a poore chapell, served with a single Sir John, “Sock” (gth S. iv. 539 : v. 53).--I was aware and destitute both of font and churchyard, might remaine standing in the place. – Lambard's 'Per

per that “sock” is quite common, but the other ambulation,' 1596, p. 317."

form is, I think, not so common; and it was A writer on ‘Parish Registers,' in Fraser's

about this that I inquired. Mr. RATCLIFFE Jagazine for 1861, p. 361, says :

says he has heard it at Worksop. This is "In the registers of this period (middle of six. I interesting, as proving that it is not purely teenth century, we shall come upon the old terms of local, but it does not throw any light on the "Sir Knyght' and 'Sir Prieste.' ......whilst in the origin of the prefix.

C. C. B. churchwardens' books we meet with the more fainiliar phrase 'Sir John'itself.”

LES DÉTENUS (9th S. iv. 288, 354, 425, 522).

H. ANDREWS. --My grandfather, Dr. James CarmichaelGainsborough.

Smyth, Physician Extraordinary to the King, For various examples and variants of this

was in Paris with his wife and two of his nickname, see the valuable 'General Index'

| children when Napoleon insulted the English to the Parker Society's publications.

ambassador, declared war against England, EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

and thrust some ten thousand English visitors Hastings.

into French fortresses for ten years. As my

grandfather had ten children, mostly under "Argh” (9th S. v. 48).-I think the sup- age, his detention would have been an awful posed etymology from Gaelic may be set calamity. Luckily he had travelled in France aside, and with it the Icel. erg, which is in his early days, spoke French well, and, merely the Gaelic word done into Icelandic. after settling in London to practise his proSee Vigfusson.

fession, carried on a constant correspondence Derivation from Icel. erja is quite out of with eminent physicians in Paris on scientific the question. The j is a mere glide, and the subjects In his distress he applied for their Icel. erja is notoriously represented in Eng-assistance, which was at once accorded. The lish by A.-S. erian, E. ear, to plough, with no President and a dozen other Fellows of the final guttural and a lengthened vowel. The College of Physicians robed themselves and

Angus,

waited on the Governor of Paris, Maréchaltion of the inhabitants of North-East Fife on seeing Junot, and, with no little difficulty, at last the Roman fleet sailing up the Firth of Tay. What attained their object. It is a family tradition

| was the exact scene of the events depicted, in

cluding the battle of Mons Grampius or Granpius, that the doctor was the last British subject

We must leave to the decision of Scottish antiwho managed to escape.

D. F. C.

quaries. The discoveries of Roman coins favour, at least, the theory that the Romans were at some

| period in the north-east of Fife, and the descripMiscellaneous.

tion of the Vernicomes of East Fife as a large. limbed, red-haired race, and other particulars given,

have all inherent plausibility. Concerning pagan NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.

rites, the Beltane, the washing of the face with May Balmerino and its Abbey. By James Campbell, D.D. dew, and other traces of sun and fire worship still (Blackwood & Sons.)

in a modified form traceable among us, Dr. CampWhat the world elects to regard as a generation bell has something to say. In the twelfth and has passed since the appearance of the first edition thirteenth centuries what is called parochial hisof Dr. Campbell's “Balnierino and its Abbey.' That | tory began, and it is in the reign of William the edition, issued in 1867, won respectful "recogni. | Lion, 1165-1214, that Balmerino is indirectly mention. We have not seen it, however, and cannottioned. At this time the chronicle portion of the judge what proportion it bears to the portly volume

work begins, and we have a consecutive account which now appears. Seven hundred pages, of which of the proprietors of Balmerino, and also of the the present work consists, seem a good many to ancient estate, chapel, and castle of Naughton. bestow upon the history of one parish, however Part II. is occupied with the History of the interesting and important. We are of those how. Abbey of Balmerino,' the monks of which were ever, who advocate the gathering together of local Cisterclan, as were those of Melros details; and though we concede that much that is Culross, and other institutions. Balmerino Abbey now said concerning the parish of Balmerino, of itself was founded by Queen Ermengarde, the which Dr. Campbell is minister, would be true of second wife of William the Lion. The pages other places, we hold that its publication is justi- describing the foundation of the abbey and supply. fiable and laudable. As regards prehistoric Scoting the lives of the consecutive abbots consti. land, the information we possess, drawn from tutes the largest, most important, and most articles of various kinds found imbedded in the interesting portion of the volume, and seems soil, though inadequate to our requirements, is worthy of publication at some future date in a trustworthy. Since the appearance of the first separate form. After the battle of Pinkie the abbey edition of Dr. Campbell's work elaborate explora- was surprised and burnt by Admiral Wyndham. tions have been conducted in various parts of Scot- | The particulars concerning the assault, ignored land. With these, the testimouy "of which is until the latter half of the present century, are now practically the same, we find ourselves now and I given in the text or in the appendix. In addition again called upon to deal. In the neighbourhood with to the geology and botany of the parish, the appendix which Dr. Campbell is specially concerned, many gives many documents of equal value and interest. interesting objects have in recent years been brought

| We have not dealt with the genealogical portions to light. In and since 1873, in the highest parts of of the book, which to some will constitute its chief the district, cists have been examined, and the value. The space at our disposal is, however, contents, appetizing rather than satisfying, are occupied, and we must leave those interested now in the private collection of Col. and Mrs. in Scottish genealogies to turn to them. Dr. Anstruther Duncan, of Naughton. Still more Campbell has done a sound and important piece recently an ancient cairn on the summit of Green- of work, to the merits of which we gladly bear bill has been explored. A burial cist, obviously testimony. Numerous and well-selected illustraconstructed for some important personage, was

tions add to its attractions, and it is in most found. It had, however, been previously opened,

respects a model of a parish history. and whatever relics it had contained had been removed. At a previous period many stone coffins

Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life. By E. A. had been investigated. Amongst other treasures

Wallis Budge, M.A. (Kegan Paul & Co.) two pieces of gold of the combined value of 141. had | Egyptian Magie. (Same author and publishers.) been discovered. It is, of course, from the graves | THESE two volumes, the first of a series of of celebrated personages that the most interesting

“Books on Egypt and Chaldea,” by Dr. Budge, objects have been obtained. An inquiry into the the Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antireason for the interment of these objects would quities in the British Museum, constitute important lead us too far. Our readers are, moreover, too aids in the study of Egyptology. Their pricewell instructed to render comment necessary. Of regarding them as works on a recondite subjectweapons belonging to the Stone Age, and of the brings them within reach of most students, and remains of animals consumed for human support, they will be of extreme utility to those who bestow we hear comparatively little, the district supplying on them the attention they claim. The first volume apparently no caves which were used as human

|--drawn principally from that strange and imhabitations. A windy day will, however, reveal

portant collection of religious texts The Book of from under the sand drift flint implements belonging

Che Dead-gives as full an insight as with ou to the neolithic period. Remains also exist of hill present knowledge, is obtainable of ideas and beliefs forts, which extended along the north of Fife, but which, in altering forms, have prevailed over many we hear nothing of the vitrified forts which are thousand years. No systematic account of Egyptian found in other portions of Scotland. Recorded ideas concerning the resurrection and the future history begins, of course, A.D. 83, with the descrip. life exists or is to be hoped. Egyptian theology is tion by Tacitus in the ' Agricola' of the consterna- however, saturated with the idea. The mummi.

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