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'When found, make a note of."—Captain Cuttle.

JanuaryJune 1900.




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EDITORIAL GOOD WISHES. The recent issue of the Jubilee Number of A'otej and Queries having brought the editor into communication, more or less close and personal, with some to whom individually he *M the mere shadow of a name, and having elicited manifestations of toleration and even of sympathy, by which he has been flattered and touched, he feels justified in taking the "pportunity of the first number of the New lew to wish his contributors a full share of the privileges and blessings with which, in JPjte of a not too propitious outset, he is TM» to hope it is charged. His indebtedness to those who make his post enviable sv, 113 'aD0Urs light is not to be expressed. hnould even his aspirations be of no effect, the attitude of benevolence—to use the word in its classical sense—is like that of devotion J", Prayer, good in itself, and is a step « longest that can be taken) towards its Wn '"ltilment. For congratulations on the anwal of a new century he has still twelve months to wait. That fact, simple as it is. "not obvious to all. To him and to most of "« readers it is patent as the sun at mid-day.

That au imperial rescript should put one great and energetic country a year in advance of its neighbours, though a little surprising in modern days, is not unprecedented. On the other side of the land over which this imperial doctor or scientist holds sway is a country in which a calendar other than ours prevails. The same holds true of Turkey, and once held true of Republican France. To add to the complexity of calendars seems a subject for regret. At any rate, in presence of conflicting authorities—imperial, ecclesiastical, or popular—the attitude coincides with that of Galileo when, striking the earth with his foot, he saidj or is reputed to have said, "E pur si niuove." It is still the nineteenth century, and the Editor at least will wait for a time he may never see before congratulating his readers on the advent of the twentieth

THE ORIGIN OF YEOMANRY CAVALRY. In connexion with the decision of the Government, announced on 20 December last, to recruit a new mounted infantry force for service in South Africa from the ranks of the Yeomanry, it may be interesting to place on record the fact that it is to the great Suffolk agriculturist Arthur Young that we owe the inception of "Yeomanry Cavalry. •■ The germ of Young's idea of'forming a

militia of property15 for this country is contained in some reflections on the French Revolution at the end of his 'Travels in France,' published in May, 1792. In August, 1792, he repeated the suggestion in vol. xviii. of his Annals of Agriculture' (p. 491), and expanded it in his well-known pamphlet entitled The Example of France a Warning to England,' which went through four English editions m 1793-4 (besides two editions in rrench—one published at Brussels and the other at Quebec), and made a great sensation in its day.

Young says in this pamphlet :—

"A regiment of a thousand cavalry in cverv county of moderate extent, just disciplined enough to obey orders and keep their ranks, might be enrolled and assembled in companies three days in every year, and in regiments once in seven, at a

very moderate expense to the public It has been

said that such a militia is impracticable; I will not reason on a case absolutely new, but wo may venture to assert that a law which legalises and regulates the mode in which all the land proprietors in the kingdom..,...may instantly assemble, armed,

m troops and regiments a law which prepares

the means of security and defence, while the ra^e of attack unites and electrifies the enemies of peace and order, must be good, and may be essential to the salvation of the community."-Fourth edition, li\H, pp. 141-2.'

Young says in his 'Autobiography,' first published at the beginning of 1898, that nis "great plea of a horse militia produced immediately three volunteer corps of cavalry, which multiplied rapidly through the kingdom." His nealth "was the first toast given for being the origin of those corps which, when assembled, had this opportunity of publicly declaring their opinion" (' Autobiography,' p. 204). At a dinner given by the Duke of Bedford at Woburn, Young was told "by a gentleman of great property, captain of a troop of Yeomanry, that whenever his troop met he always drank my [YoungV] health after the King's, for being the undisputed origin of all the Yeomanry corps in the kingdom" (p. 206). It is significant that in Young's own personal copy of his 'Annals' the passages relating to his suggestions as to the Yeomanry are marked, apparently in his own hand.

In his own county of Suffolk Young enrolled himself as a private in the ranks of a corps raised at his recommendation in the vicinity of Bury St. Edmunds, and commanded by Lord Broome, afterwards Marquis of Cornwallis (p. 205). In vol. xxvii. of the 'Annals of Agriculture' (1796), p. 537, Young prints a statement of the expense of equipping (with jacket, waistcoat, surtout, breeches, boots, gloves, cravat, ifcc.) a trooper in the Suffolk corps of Yeomanry Cavalry —which, under the title of the Loyal Suffolk Hussars, now (1900) has as its Honorary Colonel H.R.H. the Duke of York—and he even prints a song, obviously written by himself, commencing "Hear ye not the din from afar?" and winding up with these unexceptionable if rather tritely expressed sentiments:—

Then, gallant Yeomen, sing with me.
May we fall or conquer free:

Firm our union, just our cause,
Tis our country, King, and laws.

Ernest Clarke. 13a, Hanover Square, W.

A LIFETIME'S WORK. (See9lhS. iv. 550.) In the flush of youth's beginning, When renown seems worth the winning By a score of schemes accomplished

Ere the eve of life draws nigh, Then the mind surveys with pleasure All the length of life and leisure For researches carried forward

To completion ere we die.

But the march of time, incessant,

Proves our hopes but evanescent,

And the plans of finished labours

Dwindle down to two or one;

Strange delays, still unexpected,
One by one appear, detected,
And die more we do, the greater
Seems the task that lies undone.

Still, as year to year succeedeth,
Each in turn more swiftly speedcth;
Fifty years soon fly behind us,

And are dwindlod to a span;
Still the final day draws nearer,
And the truth grows ever clearer
That a life is all too little

To complete the cherished plan.

What remains? Shall we, defeated,
From the project incompleted
Draw aloof, and seek for solace

In an indolent reiiose?
Rather be the toil redoubled,
Though the light grow dim and troubled,
As the swiftly-falling twilight

Hastens onward to its close.

No! let never the suggestion
Of thy weakness raise a question
Of the duty that impels thee

Still to follow on the trace j
Every stroke of true endeavour
Often wins, and wins for ever
Just a golden grain of knowledge

Such as lifts the human race.

Truth is one! To grasp it wholly
Lies in One, its Author, solely;
And the mind of man can master

But a fragment of the plan;
Every scheme, howe'er extensive,
Though it seem all-comprehensive,
Is a portion of a portion

Fitting life's allotted span.

Death is near; and then—what matter
Though a coming hand shall shatter
All the fair but fragile fabric

Thou laboriously didst raise?
If a single brick abidcth
That thine honest toil provideth.
Thy success hath proved sufficient,

Thou shalt win the Master's praise.

Walter W. Skeat.
[The poem has already appeared in print.]

Special Literature Written For Soldiers. —Siuce our soldiers form a great topic of conversation just now, brief allusion to some books written for them when on active service may not be out of place. From the nature of the case, they are few in number. A soldier's first duty is to fight, and he is not supposed to have any leisure to read, except the scanty correspondence he may be fortunate to receive from friends at home. , However, in our great Civil War there were some curious little manuals and treatises written for him, now very scarce and interesting historically. Their dates lie between 1640 and 1649—that is, between the election of the Long Parliament and the king's execution. The Parliament had not long been in power when it began to be clearly seen by those who looked into the near future that on the army would eventually hang the destinies of both opposing parties, that the common soldiers had to be reckoned with as important elements in the contest, and that their politics and religion should therefore be carefully coached and tutored, and, above all, any religious scruples especially cleared and directed. This will appear from the following curious literature, of which but few copies have escaped to our days :—

1. A Spiritual! Snapsacke for the Parliament Souldiers, containing Cordiall Encouragements unto the Siiccesafull Prosecution of this Present Cause. Lund.. 16*3, 4to.

i The Christian SouMier; or, Preparation for Battailo. Lond., 1642, 4to.

3. The Christian Souldiers Magazine of Spirituall Weapons. Lond., 1644, 8vo.

i. The Rehells Catechism. Composed in an easy ud familiar way. 1643, 4to.

5. The Souldiers Language; or, a Discourse between Two Souldiers, shewing how the Wurrcs ?ion. 1644.4to.

6. The Zealous Souldicr.

7. The Mercenary Souldicr. Both broadsheets, r. 1646.

8. The Souldier's Pocket Bible. Lond., 1643, Uhno. And a second edition, Lond., 1644.

9. The Souldier's Catechism, composed for tho Parliaments Army, in two parts, wherein are (hiefly taught: (1) The Justification, (2) The Qualification, of our Soldiers, written for the encouragement and instruction of all that have taken unarms in the cause of (Jod and His People, especially the Common Soldier. Lond., 1644, 12mo.

The last two are associated with the name of Cromwell, as having been issued according to the wish and instruction of his rising Mid influential party. Both are extremely scarce, only two conies each being known of theoriginals. The'rocketBible'is well known, having been frequently reprinted, and is mainly a collection of Scripture texts suitable for soldiers with appropriate headings. Rut the 'Soldier's Catechism' is by far the most remarkable and interesting book ever issued for a soldier's breast-pocket, and, as is acknowledged, was a powerful instrument in determining tho king's execution. It would be interesting to know who drew it up, and how it is we know so little about it. No bibliographers, no historians, even mention it. Ne Quid Nimis.

"Boer."—It may be of interest to note that the word boer, pronounced as a dissyllable booer, is in common use in this part of Scotland (Galloway), although it is not to be found in Jamieson's 'Dictionary.' It is xsed to denote the person, usually a peasant, to whom a farmer lets his dairy cows for the season. Perhaps I should have said that this

seems to be the same word as the Dutch boer and English boor; but it is to be noted that a dairy of cows is spoken of here as a booing, apparently onomatopoeic, and our word booer may signify one who takes over the booing. Herbert Maxwell.

Rogers's ' Ginevra.'—

Within that chest she had concealed herself, Fluttering with joy, tho happiest of the happy; When a spring-lock that lay in ambush there Fastened ner down for ever!

If the following, taken from the Daily Telegraph for 26 June, 1897, is the bond fide account of an actual occurrence, and not an exaggeration or invention suggested by the story, we have what seems to be a striking parallel or illustration :—

"Henderson, Kentucky, Friday.—Two sisters, named Laura and Jennie Melton, aged seven and five years respectively, while playing hide-and seek with three other children at their father's house, hid inside a big trunk in tho cellar. Two others hid in a bed upstairs. Tho fifth child found the latter two, but could not find the others. The parents were away visiting a neighbour, and did not come back for three hours, but, on learning the two children were missing, at once began to search for them. After an investigation lasting an hour, tho father remembered tho trunk, and on opening it discovered tho two girls lying dead in each other's arms. The lid of the trunk fastened with a springlock, and when the children were once in the box, they were unable to open it, and were slowly suffocated.—Dalziel."

The incident, if truly such, lends itself to poetry on the lines of ' Lucy Gray'; but any writer so utilizing it would, of course, be thought to be simply imitating Rogers.

C. Lawrence Ford, B.A. Bath.

"Quagga" And "Zebra."—The names of these two nearly allied animals have never been satisfactorily traced to their sources. Taking Prof. Skeat's 'Dictionary' and the 'Century ' as the two best authorities, I find in the former," Quagga, said to be Hottentot"; in the latter, "Quagga, apparently South African." The word is South African. It is not Hottentot, but Xosa-Kaftir. As early as 1812, Lichtenstein, in his 'Travels,' gives it as such in a vocabulary of Xosa words; and in the 'Dictionary of the Kaffir Language,' by the Rev. W. J. Davis (London, 1872), 1 find it again. Davis spells it iqwara, but his r represents a "deep guttural sound," hence the European forms quagga and quacha (pronounced ktookka). As to zebra, the nearest approach to an etymology of it is due to Littre, who calls it mot ethiopien." Prof. Skeat quotes this only to express doubt of its accuracy, though ne has nothing with which to replace

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