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one species. The bones that have been found at the end. In 1584 he printed Jordanus Brunns, among the remains of the prehistoric races for which he fled, and the next year being in Edin

burgh, he first taught that nation the use of doing are nearly all about the same size, and repre

their work in a masterly manner : where he consent, it is said, a type about the size of the tinued until, by the intercession of friends, he promodern beagle. At the time of the Roman cured his pardon; as appears from a dedication of occupation, however, there were five distinct his to the right worshipful Thomas Randolph, esa.. species, most of which can with certainty be where he returns him thanks for his great favour identified with those of the present day.

and for assisting him in his great distress...... He

printed seventy-eight works, most of which were in There were the house-dog. the greyhound, the

Latin." bulldog, the terrier, and the slow - hound.

The title and dedication of the first work The description by Gratius of the British

printed by Vautrollier in 1570 will be found bulldog leaves no doubt on the mind of the

in ‘N. & Q.,' 2nd S. iv. 84. reader as to its identity with the animal now

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. known by that name. It has been translated

71, Brecknock Road. thus:

The “two printers” were one. Thomas But can vou waft across the British tide, And land undangered on the other side,

Vautrollier having had a press in Edinburgh O, what great gains will certainly redound as well as in London. See the mer oir of From a free traffic in the British hound !

Vautrollier in the ‘D.N.B.,' vol. lviji. Mind not the badness of their forms or face ;

F. ADAMS. That the sole blemish of the generous race:

115, Albany Road, Camberwell. When the bold game turns back upon the spear, And all the furies wait unop the war,

“BUMMEL” (9th S. v. 436). -- Bummeln, in First in the race the whelps of Britain shine,

German, means to do a thing in a feeble. And snatch, Epirus, all the palm from thine.

bungling, aimless manner, as we say to potter The description of the greyhound is perhaps

or to fumble. Bummler is a loafer. 'Three even more striking:

Men on the Bummel' is equivalent to the Swift as the wing that sails adown the wind, older slang, “Three men loafing around.” Swift as the wish that darts along the mind,

M. N. G. The Celtic greyhound sweeps the level lea, Eyes as he strains, and stops the flying prey. When I was a lad in Saxony bummeln But should the game elude his watchful eyes, meant, for us, to loaf or loiter about aimlessly, No nose sagacious tells him where it lies.

without any fixed programme in our heads. The character is as true to life now as it was Mr. Jerome no doubt had this definition in then. Another trait is undoubtedly referred view when he employed the word in the title to by Martial:

of his amusing book. A bummel is almost as

Canis vertagus difficult to render into English satisfactorily Non sibi, sed domino, venator vertagus acer,

as that expressive chic of our lively neighIllæsum leporem qui tibi dente feret.

hours across the Channel. CECIL CLARKE, (For thee alone the greyhound hunts the prey,

Authors' Club, S.W. And brings to thee th' untasted hare away.)

Claudian, too, clearly refers to the bulldog ARMS OF MERIONETH (9th S. v. 377).- It is when he speaks of

stated in the ‘Book of Public Arms' that the The British hound

seal of the County Council displays three That wings the bull's big forehead to the ground.

goats rampant, two and one ; from the dexter The British dogs are said to have been in

i in base the sun in his splendour issuant. great demand in Rome both for hunting and

J. B. P. for the sports of the amphitheatre. J. FOSTER PALMER.

THE THREE WISE MEN OF GOTHAM' (9th S. 8, Royal Avenue, S.W.

v. 169, 293. 465).—The story of the fools of

Gotham, who tried to drown an eel, brings to VAUTROLLIER, PRINTER (9th S. v. 436).-By mind one of the merry tales told at the exthe following extract from Timperley's ‘Dic-pense of the wiseacres of Auteuil (Doubs). tionary of Printers and Printing' (1839), the In M. Charles Beauquier's "Blason Popuprinter at London and Edinburgh bearing | laire de Franche-Comté,' p. 34 (1897), among the name of Vautrollier was one and the same many seemly and unseemly simpleton stories, person:

the following passage occurs :“ Thomas Vantrollier was a scholar and printer “Here is another anecdote which is told of the from Paris or Roan, came into England about the inhabitants of Auteuil and other places. A mole. beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign and first com- without respect for the anointed of the Lord, had menced business in Blackfriars. On June 19, 1574, laid waste the cure's garden. There did pot remain he received a ratent or licence from the queen to to the poor priest even a leek to put in his not are print the New Testament, which he often inserted | feu! Great commotion in the village at the narra.

tion of these misdeeds. The devoted parishioners days, but when Mr. Pearce was correcting the proof. were on the watch for the mole at sunrise, and pos- sheets for me in the outer lobby of the House of sessed themselves of it. But by what torment | Commons the division bell rang, and it escaped his punish its crimes? An ordinary death was too easy. attention.” The municipal council, after having deliberated a

Jas. R. MANNERS. long time to decide whether it should be crushed,

48, Queen Square, Glasgow. burnt, or flayed, concluded, in order to make a memorable example, that it should be buried alive.” |

Sir PEREGRINE MAITLAND (9th S. v. 375). — Several of the tales chronicled by M. The East India Company's despatch of 20 Feb., Beauquier_are also current in the British 1833, dealing with European participation in islands. Jests of this type are common native ceremonies, remained for some years throughout Europe, and probably they may I practically inoperative. Madras took the be found in Asia and Africa. The riddles and lead in remonstrating. A memorial was forfacetiæ of Scotland and England can be warded through Bishop Corrie in 1836. From traced in almost identical form as far south it we hear that civil and military servants of as Sicily. During the Middle Ages and the Company had to attend “heathen and earlier, merchants, pilgrims, or other wan- Mahomedan” religious festivals-were, indeed, derers, who could help to while away the called on, in some cases, to present offerings long hours of a winter's evening, must have and do homage to the native deities ; that the been welcome guests. Hence, perhaps, the services of the pagodas (“impure and dewide dispersal of certain jokes and folk-tales. grading ") were under the supervision of the It is possible, too, that prisoners of war found principal European officers, who exercised their condition alleviated if they were able authority in the smallest details ; and that to render their own outlandish legends and jests into the home-speech of their captors.

“British officers, with the troops of the Govern

ment, are also now employed in firing salutes and Is not there a tradition of some man of the in otherwise rendering homage to Mahomedan and sword who was clever enough to save himself idolatrous ceremonies, even on the Sabbath day; from death by propounding a riddle which and Christians are thus not unfrequently compelled his enemies could not answer ?

by the authority of Government to desecrate their

it own most sacred institutions, and to take part in may be said that fish will suffocate in water

unholy and degrading superstitions.” if so placed that the fluid cannot act properly

| The memorial was not well received, and on the gills ; at least, so I am informed by a

the Government letter of 22 Feb., 1837, pracstudent of natural history. P. W. G. M.

tically approved of the delay in carrying out

the despatch of 1833. On this letter Sir “ ATLANTIC GREYHOUND" (9th S. v. 397). Peregrine Maitland resigned, and was sucThe following cutting from the Glasgow Mail ceeded (December, 1838) by Sir Jasper Nicolls. of 28 May gives the answer to A. C. W.'s

No doubt the employment of the Government query :

troops to honour native ceremonies was his “When was the Guion liner the Alaska christened

| main reason for withdrawing from the post "The greyhound of the Atlantic'! Not at its first

of Commander-in-Chief. He was lieutenantvoyage, says Mr. Thomas Dykes, an old press hand. general at the time. The ‘Dictionary of In a letter to us he recalls the fact that in 1882 the National Biography' makes no allusion to three great shipbuilding yards-Barrow, Dalmuir, the cause of Maitland's retirement from the and Fairfield-had each on hand a new steamer

Company's service-a serious omission. He that was to beat the record, at that time held by the Arizona. He was commissioned by Mr. Gordon

was Governor of South Africa from 18 March, Bennett to write an article on the subject, and, as | 1844, to 27 Jan., 1847. Mr. George McCall an old 'coursing' correspondent, was called upon Theal ( History of South Africa,' chap. xlii.) to name the winner. He interviewed men best says that he “resigned ” his Madras appointqualified to give an opinion, amongst others Mr. )

$ Mr: I ment “rather than show respect to an G. L. Watson, who plumped for the Fairfield boat as “likely to prove the greyhound of the Atlantic.' |

idolatrous custom believed by the East India The Alaska, therefore, was named the 'greyhound Company to be necessary to secure the loyalty of the Atlantic' before she was launched. More of the natives.” It may be mentioned that a over, her best performances, and those in which different state of things had already been set she earned her title, were long after she had lon foot a few months before Maitland's de'ground' her engines, and not on her first voyage. I may take the present opportunity, adds Mr.

parture. A good account of the matter will Dykes, of correcting an error which has been often

be found in Kaye's ‘Christianity in India.' repeated, and which I made in an article contri

GEORGE MARSHALL. buted to the Fortnightly Review some fifteen years Sefton Park, Liverpool. ago. I stated that Sir (then plain) William Pearce declared the voyage would soon be done in four and a Sir Peregrine Maitland, Commander-inhalf days. This should really have read five and a half Chief at Madras (1836-8), was certainly not

cashiered for refusing to conform to idola

smoke a pipe, spit, and practise some other distrous practices; for he held high military com

gusting vulgarities, which last enjoyments he

indulged in without ceremony, and almost without mands after the above dates. It is certain,

cessation. He seldom spoke, because he had however-though nothing is said on the sub nothing to say; while a lifeless eye betrayed the ject in the 'Dictionary of National Biography'vacancy of his mind...... Another young boor on —that it was on his strong remonstrance

horseback......was passing by, but, seeing us, that salutes were discontinued in India in an

approached and dismounted; saluted us with

| Dag!' and gave his hand to each of us in turn, in honour of Mahomet and Krishna I notice a la cold and unmeaning manner, by merely touching reversal of this policy in Egypt, by the way, palms. One might have expected he would have where every year, on the Khedive sending a had a long chat with his brother boor; but he, at new carpet to Mecca to be laid on the tomb that time, not thinking of anything to say, they of the Prophet, the streets are all lined hy

stood insensibly looking at each other for about

five minutes, without exchanging a single word. British troops, and troops commanded by The stranger-whom no one seemed to know-then British officers.

F. repeated his ‘Dag!' which we all in like manner

returned, mounted his horse, and proceeded on his CAPE TOWN IN 1844 (9th S. j. 489 ; ii. 96, way.” 196).- Burchell's 'Southern Africa, including I can personally testify that the summer the Cape of Good Hope and its Colonies,' before last, in company with Mr. Julius was published in two volumes. The first- Weil, M.P. for Mafeking, and the Rev. W. H. the one I possess-contains sixty engravings Weekes, its present rector, I visited the and a map. Ten of these are large coloured homes of Boers in the Marico Valley (Western plates, the others vignettes, all engraved | Transvaal), who were of an equally low type from the original drawings made by the with those described above. author_early in the century. 'A View of

HARRY HEMS. Cape Town, Table Bay, and Tygerberg,'| Fair Park, Exeter. “engraved after the original drawing made by W. J. Burchell, Esq., 26 December, 1810,"| 'PUNCH' WEEKLY DINNER (9th S. v. 397).is of exceptional interest. The actual plate Whatever their custom later, when I was a measures 1 ft. 9 in. by 11 in., and is most boy the publishers and contributors usedrealistically coloured, the rare atmosphere of in the summer season at all events-to hold Cape Town (when no fog is on) being most their Saturday dinner at the best inn in one happily represented. Upon the right hand or other of the London suburbs. I remember of the plate is a long waggon drawn by eight their coming to the “ King's Head,” Harrow, light-coloured oxen. This vehicle is not a in 1846. Thackeray I “knew at home," as bit like the waggons now in general use boys say. I went up to him at once, and, at throughout South Africa, but in outline his desire, showed them all over the place. and general proportion reminds one of the In the churchyard repairs were being made “ prairie schooners" which some of us to his famous great-grandfather's grave, “at reinember as common years ago in the the expense of a gentleman in London whose western parts of North America, and which name I don't know," said old Winkley the were also drawn by ox teams. The vignettes sexton. I turned to look at Thackeray, but include a view of the neighbourhood of Cape he was absorbed in gazing at the steeple. I Town as seen when approaching it from the was introduced by him to Douglas Jerrold, sea, the Jutty or landing - place, the Castle Leech, and other choice spirits — a creta Gate, and a part of Strand Street, geen notanda dies indeed, especially as Thackeray, looking southward from the Lutheran the unfailing tipper of schoolboys, slipped a church. The following description of Boers sovereign into my hand at parting. of the period may be worth repeating. When

D. F. C. near what the author calls “Misfortune River” he writes :

“I'LL HANG MY HARP ON A WILLOW TREE "

(9th S. v. 375, 484).-C. has got hold of the “We had scarcely released the oxen from the yoke, when we were visited by a boor, lying here

wrong end of the stick. The rumour was with his flocks. We accompanied him to a miser

that a very exalted personage fell desperately able hut close by, to purchase some sheep. His in love with Lord Elphinstone, and that he only food was mutton, without bread, or any kind was sent to Madras to be out of the way. of vegetables......Our visitor's place in the scale of civilization would be nearly at the bottom, if even it should not be below zero ; his mental powers “As BUSY AS THROP'S WIFE” (9th S. v. 414). appeared to have lowered themselves down to a —“As throng as Throp's wife" is certainly the level with those cattle who were the only concern i of his thoughts. He seemed to possess a mere

correct form ; the alliteration alone is almost animal existence : he could eat meat, drink a dram, sufficient proof of this. In South Notts (where “throng "=busy is very common) explanations of the manner in which these MSS. there is a variant, “As busy as Beck's wife."' have been used by printers and editors. Still less

can we deal with the manner in which vowels are C. C. B.

to be synizesized, syncopated, apocopated, and so " COARSIE” (9th S. v. 457).-Examples of the forth. Each suggestion furnishes matter for dis. · use of this word will be found in N. & Q.,' cussion under 'Shakespeariana,' and the attempt

to show the manner in which our authors arrive at 3rd S. xii. 390, 516 ; 4th S. i. 62, 160; vi. 370,

what they hold to be the right text would be unjust 485. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.. to then and wearisome to our readers. While

admiring the energy and ingenuity displayed, we AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (9th S. v.

are dissatisfied with the results. We are not con397).

tent with the arrangement of the lines in ‘Othello' Like our shadows,

which gives us Our wishes lengthen as our sun declines.

Malignant and a turban'd Turk beat a
Young, ‘Night Thoughts,' Night V. 11. 661-2.

Venetian and traduc'd the state; I took
E. YARDLEY.

| By th’throat the circ'cised dog, and sniote him, thus ! Stanza xl. of Shelley's ' Adonais' contains the and other far more fantastic readings. passage inquired about by MR. PAGE. ARGINE.

The system of line-shifting which is recommended and illustrated is carefully to be avoided. While

Mr. Van Dam fails in many cases to convince us, Miscellaneous.

there is much in his book which must warmly be

commended to the reader. Those interested in the NOTES ON BOOKS, &o.

critical study of texts cannot afford to neglect a William Shakespeare: Prosody and Text. By

book that is full of observation and suggestion. B. A. P. Van Dam. With the Assistance of C. Stoffel. (Williams & Norgate.)

Pausanias and other Greek Sketches. By J. G. This is a work of conspicuous erudition and pro

Frazer, D.C.L. (Macmillan & Co.) found conviction. In a close study of English

The masterly translation of Pausanias by Dr. rhythms the writers have found a means of obtain

Frazer, dear to scholars, redeems England from the ing a better editing and a more adequate apprecia

charge of neglect of a writer whose description of tion of the works of Shakespeare and the Elizabethan

Greece is a treasure-house practically inexhaustible. poets. There is a great deal of truth in what they

The one English translation previously existing, by have to say. As Whately was fond, however, of

Thomas Taylor, the Platonist, is uncritical and pointing out, the world wants truths, full truths,

untrustworthy, and the portions of the itinerary and not an amalgam in which truth has a con

used by Sir Uvedale Price and others are insigniti. siderable share. The mention of the subject sends

cant. What Dr. Frazer did for scholars he now us back to Edwin Guest's History of English

does for the general reader by reprinting as a Rhythms,' a work formerly in more regard than

separate and handy work the introduction to his now it is, and one with which our authors are not

version of Pausanias, with descriptions from his always in accord. Curiously enough, the very first

commentary on the Itinerary of Greece, and an passage in this on which we lit consisted of a

account of Pericles contributed to the ninth edition strange mistake. Guest gives in his fashion a line

of the ‘Encyclopædia Britannica.' To the average and a half from 'Comus' with his system of nota.

reader who comes across it, this work will pro

bably constitute an introduction to the author tion:

whose description of Greece was first printed in Jael wh 1 : with hos | pita | ble guile

July, 1516, in a scarce and beautiful, but lamentably Smote Sisera sleeping.

inaccurate folio of the Alduses. The authority of Every student of Milton should know that the first Pausanias has been assailed, and he has been line runs

charged with slavish dependence upon Polemo, and Jael who with inhospitable guile.

with describing a state of affairs which in his time The "wh” for who is corrected in the “Errata," no longer existed. From these and similar accusabut the serious omission of in is not noted.

tions he is defended by his latest and best bioThere are, especially at the outset, many things in grapher and editor, who proves that his statements Mr. Van Dam's work with which the student is are in the main borne out by the evidence of coins, compelled to agree. Mr. Van Dam holds that all and, indeed, vindicates his accuracy, it may almost Shakespearian editors have been ignorant of be said, throughout. Dr. Frazer has, moreover, nearly every rule of prosody. He finds that followed piously in the wake of the traveller of modern editions the well-known Globe is whose work may be regarded as the first surviving among the worst, being “illogical, eclectic, guide-book, and shows the present condition of bungling.” Unlike most of his predecessors, he is spots at the mere mention of which the pulses of opinion that if the mistakes and discrepancies in quicken - Marathon, Hymettus, Nauplia, the the old texts can be satisfactorily accounted for

Ladon, Hippocrene, the plain of Chæronea, Delphi, on grounds perfectly compatible with the assump

Acheron, and a score other spots. One may trace tion that these texts were printed from the the influence of the study of Pausanias upon the author's own writings,” no reasonable person “will labours of Dr. Frazer in comparative mythology. persist in denying that the plays were actually

| We hear how, in the course of his Italian wanderprinted from the genuine manuscripts," and we ings, Pausanias, beside the sylvan lake of Aricia, have consequently “no right to infer, as has met probably the grim priest pacing sword in frequently been done, that Shakespeare did not hand, the warder of the Golden Bough:concern himself about his fame as an author.” W

The priest who slew the slayer, cannot follow the writer or writers through their

And shall himself be slain,

e

Pausanias arrived in “the nick of time.” The that her book will prove eminently attractive to plunder of Greece by Rome had begun, and the a class of readers, and will introduce to many a decline of Greece had set in. It was the time, curious and interesting individuality, and perhaps, however, of Lucian, the most modern and advanced also, a little studied epoch. in thought of the early Greeks, and of the Antonines. Hadrian had enriched Greece, and Herodes Storyology. By Benjamin Taylor. (Stock.) Atticus, besides giving the ungrateful Athenalls MR. TAYLOR's not too happily named work-should the magnificent theatre of Regilla and numerous i it not be storiology! -- gives a readable and other treasures, had extended his munificence to

popular account of folk-lore. In talking of those Corinth, the Peloponnese, and Breotia. Concerning

who claim to have been up to the moon, Mr. Taylor Pansanias. more noticeable for the intorniation he mentions only Lucian and M. Jules Verne Surely conveys than for style-in which, indeed, he is

Cyrano de Bergerac is sufficiently in evidence just notably deficient-it may be said, as was said of a

How to merit mention. In his 'Etats et Einpires much earlier and intinitely greater traveller, I de la Lune' he describes the means by which he Herodotus, that he is almost always trustworthy ascended or was exhaled to the moon, as well as when giving the results of his own observation, and

uits of his own observation, and what he saw when he arrived there. We meet only or chietly misleading when he takes informa- with some curious slips : "the learned author of tion at secondhand. We will not deal with the ‘Pseudodosia Epidemica'” for Pseudodoxia Epi. defence undertaken at many points, and notably

demica,' " John Andrey" for John Audrey, &c. In with that concerning the Enneacrunus fountain in

its unpretentious way the book merits recognition. Athens, which Pausanias apparently supposes to have been on a wrong site. There is, indeed, no call for detailed criticism of Dr. Frazer's work. The Quebec Diocesan Gazette for March contains Our purpose is only to bring before public attention an appreciative obituary notice of Dr. Aspinwall a book which will be read with pleasure by those | Howe, and records the great services he rendered interested in Greek mythology and antiquities, and to the McGill University at Montreal, as well as one which must add to the enjoynient of the best his work as Rector of the High School during forty. equipped traveller in Greece. Pausanias' con- | three years. Dr. Howe was an old friend of stitutes one of the “ Eversley Series.”

N. & Q.,' and has bequeathed his beautifully

bound copy to the High School, the condition Studies in John the Scot (Erigena). By Alice being that the work be regularly subscribed for Gardner. (Frowde.)

in future. Dr. Howe died on 13 February at the Miss GARDNER has contributed an admirable mono- age of eighty-five. graph on that mysterious personage John the Scot, otherwise John the Irishman. Readers of ‘N. & Q.' may be supposed to be much above the average in erudition. We doubt, however, if very many even

Notices to Correspondents. among these know much more concerning this Neo

We must call special attention to the followinig Platonist mystic than they know concerning the

notices : real author of the works attributed to “Dionysius Areopagitica," which he translated for

On all communications must be written the name Charles the Bald. The little that can be said con

and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub. cerning the man is principally negative. He was lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. not the man he is held to have been; was not, in | WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. fact, “the other fellow." He was a little, merry | To secure insertion of communications corre. man, whose companionship Charles prized, but spondents must observe the following rules. Let neither his mirthfulness nor the smaliness of his each note, query, or reply be written on a separate stature preserved him from enemies or suspicion slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and of heresy. That by calling him a Scot an

such address as he wishes to appear. When answerIrishman was intended is, of course, known to

ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous all who are aware that Scotland at this time

entries in the paper, contributors are requested to had no such culture as existed in Ireland.

put in parentheses, immediately after the exact The root of the name “ Erigena," moreover,

heading, the series, volume, and page or pages to is found in Erin. Curiously enough he was which they refer. Correspondents who repeat apparently not an ecclesiastic. "Nullis eccle- queries are requested to head the second comsiasticæ dignitatis gradibus insignituin,” says Pru: munication “ Duplicate.” dentius. The mass of myth that has surrounded him has been carefully sifted by Miss Gardner,

SCRUTATOR.-The feathery forms of frost are due whose chief object in writing the book has been to a particular formation of crystals. Consult a to show the relation of the philosophy of Scotus to

the philosophy of Scotus to scientitic manual. the thought of his times. Tnere is much that still CORRIGENDA.-P. 471, col. 1, 1. 18, for “Charles I." repays attention in the mystical significance which read Charles V.; p. 486, col. 1, l. 19 from bottom. John the Scot assigned to Christian doctrine. for "lime” read carbonate of lime. Scotus, his biographer maintains, was not naturally controversial. He succeeded, however, in

NOTICE. becoming engaged in some heated arguments con- Editorial Communications should be addressed to cerning his niystical interpretation of predestination “The Editor of ‘Notes and Queries'"-Advertise. the sacraments, &c., taking part in what our author ments and Business Letters to “The Publisher" calls “ a dull, interminable war of words, waged at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane. E.C. with a perverted faith, an unjustified hope, and! We beg leave to state that we decline to return a conspicuous absence of charity.” We cannot communications which, for any reason, we do not follow Miss Gardner in her task. We can only say print; and to this rule we can make no exception.

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