Imagens das páginas

“ Your Lordship will doubtless recognize the following evidence given before a Committee of the House of Commons, 27th July, 1832 :

"Can your Lordship state to the Committee, what proportion of church-room has been provided by the State during the last ten years - I believe the churchroom provided by the State (in England) during the last ten years, is nearly 200,000 additional sittings.

"Is your Lordship aware, what proportion such increase of church-room bears to the increased popu. lation of the country ?-No, I cannot (say); it is very easily ascertained.

"It being perfectly clear, however, that the population has within the last ten years increased greatly more than 200,000, and to the entent probably of ten times that amount, the increase (of church-room) provided by the State bears a very inadequate pro portion to the parts of such people ?-The increase of accommodation provided by the Parliamentary grant, I conceive, did not sufficiently supply the wants of the existing population. I conceive, that little or no provision has been made for the wants of the popula. tion which has arisen since the last two censuses.'

"And wbat does this prove, my Lord! Let us return again to your Lordship's owo diocese, as presented by your Lordship's owo evidence :

"'flas your Lordship ever instituted a comparison between the gross population of your diocese, in connexion with the Established Church, and the amount of the space in the Established Churches ?-Yes. I could not, not having the document with me, state it correctly.

"'The question would be sufficiently answered by the present impression on your Lordship's memory, as to the proportion of the population, which could be accommodated by the present space ?--Nol a tenth, certainly, &c.

"Is it your Lordship's opinion, that the observance of the Lord's day is more, or less strict, now, than it was two or three generations ago?..... I fear, that with regard to the great mass of the lower orders, there has been a sad deterioration, very mainly owing to the increased facilities of iotemperance.

"The lowering of the price of gin took place only a few years ago ; does your Lordship date the demoralization of the lower classes ouly from that period ? -I date a most frightful increase from that period. Between the time I first look the church of Bishops. gate in London, and the time when I left it, the increase of intemperance was most frightful. I never saw, when I first came to London, a female coming out of a gin-shop ; but I have since repeatedly seen females with infants in their arms, to which they appeared to have been giving some part of their liquor! I almost think I have seen more women than men coming out of these shops!'

"" You see, my Lord, what may be proved hy in. sulated scraps of evidence. I might go on 'to fright the isle from its propriety;' but this, peradventure, is enough for my purpose. Bad as America is, she is growing better. I need say nothing of the comparative condition and prospects of England. Let her own authorities make the disclosure."--p. 15 to 18.

In recapitulating at the close of his pamphlet, Mr. Colton puts this coinparison still more forcibly :

“ But, my Lord," says he, “it is not enough, in the consideration of this subject, to look merely at the comparative number of ministers, actually at work, and to estimate the amount of their labours, and the degrees of their influence; but the pecnliar difficulties, under which America has laboured, as a new country, and with a population doubling every twenty-five years, are also to be taken into the account. And yet, with all these disadvantages to

struggle with, it would appear, not only, that she » far better supplied than England, in proportion to the population ; but her supply of ministers has pail 1 and still gains upon the increase of population, ILthat of England is going backwards, the Estabiss. ment alone being considered. Your Lordship's on evidence, as quoted in Section I., decides this ques tion :- I conceive, that little or no precision has been made for the wants of the population, which has arisen since the last two censuses.'

“ London and its adjacent boroughs contain 10+ places of Worship, belonging to the Establisbuntzi. with a population of 1,500,000. Your Lordship bas given in evidence, that not one-tenth' of the people are provided for. And how much less than one-tents New York has a population of 220,000, and cl churches-one church to 1,200 souls. Boston bas 50 churches to 60,000; and other large cities in America are equally well supplied ; many of them better.

There are in the United States, erelading the Roman Catholics and all other sects not commonly esteemed orthodox, 1.601,088 communicants at the Lord's table, by the latest authentic reports I hate been able to obtain, some of which are two or three years old, and done less than one year. There are also some orthodox denominations not reported. I have observed, that the annual increase of commnt. picants in American churches of late, taking into view the different sects, rauges from one-fourth to one-tenth of the gross amount ; and that tbe greates proportiovate increase is in the most numerous deac midations. Taking these facts into consideration. I have supposed the present number of comma nicants in the American orthodox churches can set be less than 1,800,000. In those denominations, com prehending the great bulk of these communicants, the terms of admission to the Lord's supper are a strict examination, as to personal piety, and a public profession of religioo. Generally, so far as I have been able to observe, the terms of admittance to this ordinance in America, are much more strict that in the corresponding denominations in Great Britaia. In the Church of England, if I do not mistake, ail are admined to this sacrament, who are of respect. able character. And yet it appears by a sufficient amount of evidence from a high quarter of the Church of England, that the number of communicants throughout the English Establishment, does not exceed 350,000. Taking the population of England at 10,000,000, there is about one communicant in the Church to every 34 of the gross population. Dedacting 800,000 for the Roman Catholics in America, and taking the remainder of the population at 12,000,000, the same as in England, the number of commur cants at the Lord's table will be more than one of every 7 individuals. I confess, that I am altogether surprised at this result; and yet I do not know bow to make it different.

“As to morals, it would appear by your Lordship's recorded evidence given before a Committee of the House of Commons, that intemperance and Sabbatbbreaking have increased most fearfully in the land, as well as in London ; and along with this, it may fairly be inferred, that there has been a correspooding deterioration of public morals. I perceive by a very fair calculation in a Temperance Tract, that the various annual costs of intemperance to the United Kingdom, are equal to the entire revenue of the emnpire for the time being.

lo America, within the last six years, there have been formed 6,000 Temperance Societies, embracing 1,000,000 of members ; 2,000 distilleries have ceased: 5.000 tradesmen have discontinued dealing in ardent spirits ; 700 vessels sail from American ports without it; 5,000 of the intemperate have been reclaimed: and the influence of the temperance reformation on the community for the improvement of morals, and in other beneficial respects, is obvious and vast. Firt thousand intemperate reformed! Dr. Benjamiu Rosh,

"• Bishop of London's evidence."


f Philadelphia, used to say, that, in all his experience sentiment or expression,) have either passed od observation, he never koew one drupkard reformd!"-p.57 to 59.

over entirely several passages in these two We hope we need not apologize for the treatises, or rendered them by any thing

but a literal translation, ength of these quotations. We plead their Fletcher waxes exceeding wroth, and, in

At this, Mr. rast importance. We are happy to hear that true spirit of servile idolatry which hat every member of the British legislature s provided with a copy of this pamphlet. of its worship, is indignant that John

can see nothing but perfection in the object We strongly urge its perusal on all our

Milton should not be suffered to be as eaders. It is by far the most efficient publication we have ever met with on the

obscene in English as in Latin. He comsubject. Its statements are almost all plains, accordingly, that the translation of founded on the incontrovertible testimony and idiomatic, to entitle it to the character

Robert Fellowes is not sufficiently close of public documents; and the personal of a perfect one; and to leave us in no statements and opinions which it contains, doubt as to the sentiments he himself come from a writer of vast information and

entertains with respect to the highly unimpeachable integrity.

finished composition in question, he informs us, in his preface, that the second Defence, although more sober, is not one

jot less powerful than the first, and that it Review.-Prose Works of John Milton, is certainly more entertaining.“ Macte

Edited by R. Fletcher. Westley and puer virtute!” If Mr. Fletcher can really Davis. London. 1834.

find entertainment from the perusal of such

a tissue of low scurrility and uncleanness, (Concluded from p. 90.)

we give him our disinterested advice, for Two notices, in successive numbers, having the sake of his own reputation, at least, 10 'been already devoted to the consideration keep his feelings of satisfaction from the of the above work, we are unwillingly ears of the public. We venture to procompelled, although much remains uncom- mise that he will lose nothing by their supmented upon, to pass towards a conclusion pression. of our necessarily limited and imperfect It is hardly necessary, especially since review. We have already endeavoured to the principles of the work are so well ascertain with what justice the praise of known, to go through the sophistry which pure and disinterested patriotism, as well distinguishes the Tetrachordon of Milton. as the Christian qualities of patience and The whole treatise is a proof how far his forbearance towards an opponent, are to be obedience to the Gospel institutes extended. ascribed to the author of the Paradise Lost. As long as it accords with his own feelWe now proceed to a far more serious ings, he can profess a respect to the word charge, and, without the slightest hesitation, of God reverential enough; but the instant assert, in opposition to Mr. Fletcher's eulo- his own perverse temper is met by its gium upon the moral purity of Milton's wholesome authority, he rises into as open thought and diction, that more palpable rebellion against scripture, as against law and undisguised obscenity is scarcely to on other occasions : “I say unto you, be found in any writer of the most pro- Whoso shall put away his wife, except it be fligate character, than has been at times for fornication, and shall marry another, enlisted by the above author, as a supple- committeth adultery; and whosoever marmentary aid to his caustic and implacable rieth her which is put away, doth commit spirit of controversial hatred. It was at adultery.” Such are the express words of first our intention to adduce passages in our Lord upon the subject of marriage; support of this assertion; but these, we are and a command more positively delivered, inclined to believe, will very readily be and less liable to misconstruction, is not dispensed with, since, even under the veil to be found within the whole compass of of a learned language, we consider them the inspired volume. We say nothing of too revolting to encounter the public eye. the pharisaic method of proceeding, sufAs a reasonably strong evidence, however, fered only because of the hardness of their that we utter nothing but the truth, we may hearts; nor of the evils which the whole observe, that the English translators of the community would suffer, from a change of second Defence and Answer to Alexander the holy ordinance of matrimony into a More, (men by no means likely, if we timid dependence, on the part of the wife, may judge by the general tenor of their upon the caprice or licentiousness of the style, to lose the point of a sentence by an husband. The express words of revelaover-scrupulous attention to its delicacy of tion render the whole matter so plain,


that nothing but the very Quixotism of Cap. 6.-" That the law had DO DOT casuistry, or madness of error, would ever right to this dispense than the cliristea dream of advancing any other doctrine hath, and rather not so much." upon a point unequivocally set at rest by Cap.-,-" That the matter of divorce the holiest authority. But Milton was not is not to be tried by law, but by one a man to be stopped by scriptural autho- science, as many other sios are." rity, when it opposed his wishes. He kicks The line of argument pursued may be against the pricks most vigorously; and easily imagined from the above extract, Mr. Fletcher follows, as in duty bound, like and with these, without following in deal a faithful 'squire and devoted commen- the casuistical subtleties in which Milka tator. “Honest Pleadings in behalf of has contrived to envelop the question, Domestic Liberty," is the title conferred by are compelled to close our notice. To the latter upon the treatises devoted to this deny that throughout the works we late disgraceful subject; a remark which, of been considering, there exist many passagen course, ought to ensure to Mr. Fletcher of great beauty, much sublimity of thought the especial thanks of that sex whom and harmony of language, would be a Milton's doctrine of arbitrary divorce more absurd as unjust. Whoever has an ear a immediately concerns. We subjoin the appreciate the most skilfully arranged comheads of several chapters on the doctrine position, and a taste which can derire and discipline of divorce, as well to shew pleasure from eloquence; sometimes éile how far in audacity Milton's violence bodying the deepest feeling in the most against the wife of his bosom could carry appropriate words; and, at others, tistez him, as to prove the justice of the title, to a loftiness and majesty which clam with which, in return for his presumption, relationship with the finest passages a sarcastic wit of his own time honoured the Paradise Lost, will find considerable him,—describing him, in his quaint lan- gratification in the perusal of the controguage, as

a noddy who wrote a book on versies in question. “But at what price wij wifing."

the pleasure be bought ? At the price Cap. 1.—“ That man is the occasion of having his feelings constantly wounded by his own miseries, in most of those evils the most violent attacks upon much which which he imputes to God's inflicting. The he has been accustomed to respect, and absurdity of our canonists in their decrees much which he has been taught deservedly concerning divorce."

to regard ;-at the price of being coaliCap. 2.-" The first reason of this law nually called upon, io express his disgust grounded on the prime reason of matri- at the violation of propriety, and outrages mony. That no covenant whatever obliges on decency, carried to an extent which, both against the main end, both of itself before proved by undoubted evidence, and of the parties covenanting."

would scarcely be deemed credible. We Cap. 6.-" The fourth reason of this say little of the injury which the reputation law, that God regards love and peace in of the poet himself 'must sustain, by his the family more than a compulsive per- being exhibited in the character of a peevish formance of marriage, which is more and factious partizan. Yet this, as we have broken by a grievous continuance than by before said,' is any thing but inconaa needful divorce."

derable : Cap. 11.—“ The seventh reason, that sometimes continuance in marriage may be evidently the shortening or endangering of All the visions of our youth, connected with lise to either party; both law and divinity the greatest epic minstrel of our own couconcluding, that life is to be preferred try, are at once swept away; we think no before marriage, the intended solace of longer of Milton, as of one of heroic cast life.”

and stature; living, indeed, among the Cap. 13.—“Marriage compared with haunts of common men, and at times conall other covenants and vows warrantably pelled to take a share in their intercourse, broken for the good of man. Marriage the

but when left to the natural bent of tis Papist's sacrament, and unfit marriage the genius, at once escaping from the trammels Protestant's idol."

of our inferior existence, and rising far Book 2. Cap. 1.-" The ordinance of

above sabbath and marriage compared: Hyper

Which men call earth, bole no unfrequent figure in the Gospel. Excess cured by contrary excess. Christ to mingle with the scenes and agents pelo neither did nor could abrogate the law of taining to a far nobler theatre of beinz divorce, but only reprieve the abuse thereof. Together with this delusion, departs also

Rotta e l'alta colonna e'l verde lauro.

the smoke and stir of this dull ett



all that solemnity of character, naturally sions held almost universal sway, and in enough attracted, in imagination, to the a country in which a deeply seated poet whose professed object it was to feeling of revenge forms one of the most * vindicate the ways of God to man,” and striking features of the national character. whom we have been accustomed scarcely A hopeless exile from his native city, to regard so much in the light of a cha- towards which he seems perpetually to racter of modern times, as of one of those have turned with the feelings of a child olden worthies, who, in the finest palmy when separated from its parent, a wanderer days of metrical inspiration, blended the forced to depend upon the hospitality of highest qualities of the poet, with much of foreign courts for his subsistence, with the the venerable and mysterious character of memory of an early blighted love preying the seer.

upon his heart, and the terrible sentence Blind Thamyris and blind Mæonides,

which affixed death at the stake as Tiresias and Phineas, prophets old.

penalty for re - entering the walls of Some errors are certainly worth retaining; Florence, ringing in his ears,—it is not so and that which fixes the worth of others at much to be wondered at, however it may a higher standard than their intrinsic merits be blamed, that Dante should at times deserve, is perhaps to be considered among have yielded to the evil passion and fiery the number. At any rate, whatever may invective with which the Inferno, especially, be the value of essential truth, its discovery is replete. Yet, on no occasion does be is not always attended with pleasure; and a descend to the pettiness of insult, and low more striking instance of this, we could personal abuse, which pollute the pages of hardly select, than the display of the Milton. He does noi break through the writer of Paradise Lost in the guise of a barriers of domestic privacy, in his search sophistical and libellous pedant, perpe. for taunts wherewith to gall an antagonist ; tually quitting the grand question of neither is there a single word of vulgar interests of nations, for a point of gram. ridicule, however much there may be of matical accuracy, the hired gladiator of uncompromising hostility, in his work. an illiterate and insolent faction in public, Dignified in his enmity, and preserving, and at home the advocate of an arbitrary amidst all bis sullen indignation, at least power, which, if general, would make every that outward semblance of respect which domestic hearth, the abode of misery and the pride of man, fear, as often as his apprehension.

forbearance, exacts towards a fallen foe, he We cannot take our final leave of the walks among the creations of his feverish works before us, without remarking, as fancy, and the shades of bis doomed and probably many of our readers have already lamenting enemies, with a lordliness of done, the great similarity between the port, and melancholy sobriety of manner, spirit manifested throughout every produc- which elicit from us that degree of admition of Milton, directly or indirectly con- ration, which all but induces us to address nected with politics, and that which per- him in the words of the dramatic poet. vades the works of the great father of the

Thou hast a grim appearance,-but thy face Italian epic, of whose writings the English Shews a command in it: though thy tackle's torn, poet was a frequent and diligent student. “Nec me tam ipsæ Athena Atticæ cum It is needless, after the extracts we have juo pellucido Ilisso, nec illa vetus Roma already brought forward, to shew how suâ Tiberis ripâ rerinere valuerunt, quin et totally different, in the expression of the Arnum sæpe vestrum et Fesulanos illos same feeling, is the whole manner of colles invisere amem.

These words of Milton. As far as the latter rises above elegant commendation shew in which the author of the Divina Comedia, in the light Milton regarded the first fount of great essentials to a poet ; so far does he pure poetry opened to Europe, amidst the sink below him, in all which can ensure our darkness of the middle ages. It had been respect towards his character as a man. well for their writer, if he had not at the From that charge of inconsistency also, same time imbibed, and concentrated into against which Milton cannot be defended, double power, the intensity of scorn and the Ghibelline writer must be considered hatred which render the Divina Comedia entirely free. He did not, after professing a very Mara of perverted and forbidden republican principles, bow at the feet of a feelings. But much may be said in exte- lawless and fanatical homicide; he did not nuation of the Florentine, which can never condescend to flatter a brutal and impudent be pleaded in favour of his English imita- John Bradshaw; he did not run half wild

Let us remember, that the former at the praises of a crowned maniac like lived at a period when the darkest pas. Christina of Sweden. Perhaps it would

Thou seem'st a noble vessel.


Eve is

And bid each voice in chorus rise


not be altogether foreign to the question, to Review.-- The Rhetorical Speaker, and observe, as an additional test of the moral Poetical Class Book, 8c. By R. T. merit of the two writers, that, great as Linnington. Souter. London. 1833. Milton was in other respects, he must be A BOOK which, from the taste displayed in considered for short of Dante, in his concep- the selection of the contains, seens tion of perfect female excellence.

calculated to answer the intentions of the certainly, in many respects, a finely con- author. We notice it chiefly for the purceived and admirably delineated character; pose of extracting from it some stanza, but how much inferior to the sainted and which are attributed (we know not on what gentle Beatrice, refined from the last taint authority) to Lord Brougham. We have of earth, but still the subject of earthly long ceased to wonder at any evidence affections, hovering over her charge with which can be offered of the wonderful ver. heavenly compassion, and looking upon satility of his lordship's powers. At the his errors and wanderings :

same time, we should be unwilling to comCon quel sembiante

mit our opinion, as to the genuineness of Che madre fa sopra il figliaol' deliro.

the following lines, until we see the evidence Such a being, it seems to have been as

on which it resis :much beyond Milton's inclination 10 ima

ON THE BEING OF A GOD. gine, as probably, if imagined, it would have been beyond his skill to portray.

" There is a God" all nature cries:

A thousand tongues proclaim
A few words to Mr. Fletcher, at parting. His arın alınighty, inind all-wise,
He has undertaken a task as far beyond

To magnify his name. his years as his strength to sustain, and, Jabouring under a consciousness of his own Thy name, great Nature's sire divine, weakness, he is constantly endeavouring to

Assiduous we adore ;

Rejecting godheads at whose shrine lash himself into a strain of eloquence Benighted nations blood and wine which may form a fitting introduction to

In vain libations pour. works owing their existence to so celebrated

Yon countless worlds in boundless space, an author; the consequence is, that be

Myriads of miles each hour thinks no words of weight and calibre suf- Their mighty orbs as curious trace,

As the blue circle studs the face ficient to carry him through the commission,

Of that enamelled flower. somewhat injudiciously, as it appears to us,

But Thou, too, madest that floweret gay devolved upon him, and, in the true spirit

To glitter in the dawn; of an ambition determined to be contented The hand that tired the lamps of day, with nothing but the most turgid decla

The blazing comet launch'd away,

Painted the velvet lawn. mation, and the very fustian of discourse, he very naturally frustrates his own object,

“ As falls a sparrow to the ground, and « falls o' the other side.” That he

Obedient to thy will;".

By the same law those globes wheel round, has some degree of talent, we do not Each drawing each, yet all still found intend to deny; but that it has been ludi

In one eternal system bound

One order to fulnil. crously thrown away in the gasconading treatise before us, is a position at least We should be very happy to know equally tenable. Had he been contented that the excellent sentiments, expressed in with a temperate and unprejudiced intro. these lines, emanated from the exalted indiduction, in which the faulis as well as the vidual whose name they bear. Nor is it merits of his author were fairly stated, only for his own sake that we express this refraining from identifying himself with all wish, but also for the sake of religion. It the angry feelings afloat in 1649, as well as is one of the most glorious distinctions of from the most unqualified insults upon a Christianity, that it equally benefits and body of men, who, whatever may be their graces the character of individuals of every demerils, are so far from deserving the false grade in society and of every diversity of and libellous aspersions cast upon them in pursuit. If, indeed, the Christian religion the thirty-eighth page of his essay, as

could derive honour from any class of man. Mr. Fletcher is from meriting the commen- kind, it would be from those whose exalied dation due to an accurate and pleasing rank and station are perpetually opening writer-we might have finished the perusal before them avenues to secular pleasure, and of his preface with sentiments of respect for presenting temptations to entire devotion to John Milton himself, somewhat less slight the world; and, if its value could possibly than we are just now inclined to entertain. be enhanced, it would be by its association We certainly should have had a very dif- with that elevation and power which are ferent opinion of his editor.

adapted conspicuously to exhibit its influence, and widely to extend its blessings.

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