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This splendid passage will not, we think, the agitator, she might yet enjoy, peace and be found anywhere exceeded in the com- prosperity. positions of Lord Byron : and deeply shall Portugal is yet far from being tranwe regret to find the writer-whoever he quillized : the iwo brothers continue their may prove to be-laying aside a lyre that unnatural warfare with various success, but has sounded so nobly.

the sword of power remains with Dom But we must snarl in our vocation, as Pedro, who steadily, progresses in his critics, before concluding — and inquire efforts to subjugate that country. Dom whether such lines as these can possibly be Miguel is still besieged in Santarem, in read in metre :

which city great mortality prevails, and to “Fulfilment of vows made in childish years."—p. 10.

which one of his sisters has fallen a sacrifice. And by an ambition brought to deadly fault."—p. 23. In the mean time, Dom Pedro has pushed

forward a force on the road from Lisbon to Or, whether the following,

Oporto, which has taken Leira and some “ As plays a silent lightning in the sky,"—p. 10.

minor towns, and which bids fair to open can possibly be correct ? Are lightnings the communication by land between these ever otherwise than silent? But such as two important cities, and to clear the interthese are atoms of dust on a diamond ! mediate coast of the Miguelites. There

appears a prospect of assembling the Cortes at Lishon, but no time has yet been fixed

for the opening of that assembly. EUROPE IN THE WINTER OF 1833-34.

Spain, in the midst of distractions, is GREAT BRITAIN, a nation of extensive driven to the necessity of changing its meamaritime commerce, has been plunged into sures and convoking the Cortes, and, on the deep embarrassments by the violent hurri- eve of bankruptcy in its finances, seems at canes and long-continued south-westerly a loss to know from what quarter to look winds, which have prevailed doring the for assistance. Fierce battles have taken past season : great has been the loss of place in the northern provinces, between shipping, and melancholy the loss of lives, detachments of the Queen's troops and along her coasts, and far and wide upon bodies of insurgent Carlists, some of which the trackless deep. These inscrutable pro- have continued for two and even three vidences of God call loudly upon the days, wherein numbers fell on both sides, nation at large to humble itself beneath yet no decisive results have followed ; His mighty hand, at whose command are both, therefore, seem as ready to fight again, the elements, and who hath all power both as during the first onset. Thus do distracin heaven and in earth. Much of the tions perpetuate themselves, and the horpolitical excitement of the last year has rors of war, once begun, afflict a whole subsided, and the manufactories are nearly, nation. if not all, in full work. An evident im- Switzerland, situate between France and provement has taken place, and hope Italy, has again been made the thoroughfare dwells with complacency upon future of those bands of turbulent exiles, who prosperity.

disdain quiet, and range from country to The abolition of slavery, enacted by the country under the pretence of liberty, in three estates of Britain, has been received quest of rule, and it is to be feared, like in the West India and other colonies with other marauders, in quest of plunder. How, a cordiality beyond expectation, and is lamentable are the consequences of these progressively coming into operation. We lawless irruptions into the abodes of peace! congratulate the world on this death-blow Savoy and Switzerland have suffered to slavery, which, struck home by the severely. British senate, bids fair ultimately to issue Italy is yet perturbed, and its various in the tyrant's dissolution.

armed force, frequently in action with The Pilgrim's tax, that diabolic partici- insurgents, barely suffices to put down one pation of Britons for sordid purposes in the insurrection ere another arises. Savoy was horribly obscene idolatry of the East, is by recently surprised by bands of Piedmontese, an order of government now no more. German, and Polish exiles, who invaded it Let there be joy on its exit; and may its in detachments of fives, until these amounted presence never pollute nor its ghost haunt to many hundreds : when this force was these regions any more for ever.

concentrated, it became formidable, and Ireland is more tranquil than heretofore, was with difficulty defeated and dispersed. and improvements are in bud : may they In Greece, the Turkish domination has bring forth fruit to perfection! Could she some time ago ceased; the last garrison, be delivered from the pestilential breath of namely, the troops which occupied the Acropolis of Athens, evacuated that fortress “As the rain cometh down, and the store in the spring of last year, and King Otho from heaven, and returneth not the is now in full possession of that city, which but watereth the earth, and maketh it bestel b is become the capital of Greece. The forth and bud, that it may give seed oita country is divided into ten provinces, and the sower, and bread to the cater; committees on religion, on education, on shall my word be that goeth forth out jurisprudence, &c. are tranquillizing and my mouth : it shall not return unto renovating that long-distracted community. void ; but it shall accomplish that what Education, both of children and adults, is I please, and it shall prosper in the thing in progress upon an ex ded scale, and whereto I sent it, saith the Lord.” the happiest results are anticipated.

Austria, occupied in the affairs of the Turkey is divided—so divided, that the East, seems to have averted the evils whid sword of power bangs upon a single hair hung upon her frontier, by restoning te the quantum of assistance each of the now adjoining principalities to somewhat of the two great powers can obtain from the great ancient state; if, indeed, this is actually to powers of Europe against the other, whether be the case. Ever watching over Italy and in peace or war. The Grand Sultan and Germany, we find this great leading pora Mehemet Ali, independent each of each, determined that no innovations shall be as to politics, interests, government, &c., made upon the constitution of the German are yet both dependent upon the leading states ; but that, under her supremacy, Christian states; and this dependence, well all things shall continue in statu quo. known to themselves, is a galling curb Italy also, the same watchful superintendo upon the arrogance of the Moslems. The ence pervades all the states. Mahometan no longer dictates to the world. Prussia, ever intent on gain, profits by “ The Christian dog.” is become a lion, her custom-house regulations, to the great yea, a lion in his very streets, majestic and annoyance and even injury of her neigtawful, and the rampant trampling of the bours, as well as distant states ; whose Koran quails before the Cross. The vic- sources, in the course of transit through her tories of Navarino, of the Balkan, of Ad- territories, is subjected to exactions and rionople, of Algiers, of Greece, &c. have delays which materially affect the mer. overwhelmed the assumptions of Mahome- chants concerned therein : and as the tertan potence. He descends to reason, and ritories of Prussia are scaltered through a dares no longer cry,

“ Obedience to the great portion of Germany, it is difficult to Koran, or death." In Constantinople and avoid falling in with some part of them, in Cairo the Bible is now endured ; and in whatever direction you travel. in many of the provinces, even in the Poland has recently received yet another East, education progresses. The sun has chain, the three great powers who hold it thus arisen, and its radiance obscures the in bondage having decreed, that no fugcrescent; time will complete the rest; the tive from any one of the partitions shall word has gone forth from God, and it find an asylum in the other, but that each will come to pass. “He shall come to shall deliver up all delinquents without his end, and none shall help him.” distinction. How many links in the chain

The principalities having been the sub- of slavery are necessary to chain effectually ject of discussion among the leading powers. freeborn men ! It is rumoured that they are to be relieved Sweden, Norway, aud Denmark hare at from the pressure of the Russian troops, length adopted the plans of the British and and that, as heretofore, hospodars are to Foreign Bible Society, and are giving be immediately elected. The ancient cus. copies of the Sacred Scriptures plentifully tom was for the Porte to choose these to the people. Peace is their policy, and governors out of the noble Greek families, aloof from the agitators of the rest of principally of the Fanau, among whom Europe, they are left at liberty to pursue ihese viceroyalties were the highest posts their object, and improve their several of honour. Who are now to elect, and countries. from what families the hospodars are to Saxony, amidst commercial privation be elected, is a subject for conjecture. from the regulations of Prussia, maintains

In Russia the bible is making progress; her integrity and enjoys peace. it is already printed and distributed therein Germany, the birth-place of faction, is in ten languages, and we trust it will have kept down by the strong hand of power

, free course.

Hope dwells upon this in- and, amidst her hordes of agitalors, enjors teresting movement amidst northern lethargy much more of tranquillity than politicians and darkness. Light is light wherever have prognosticated would fall to her share scattered, and life hangs upon its rays. during this age of revolution. Much good is

ogled with great evils throughout this hete- Books, newspapers, pamphlets, magaeneous community, and the good prevails. zines, and even tracts, are issued from the Holland and Belgium, like two pouting arsenals of political agitation, fraught equally ldren of the same family, each with his with learning, eloquence, and daring. Talent ger across his lips, stand looking upon of the first quality, and energies of the high

ground, rather than towards each other, est order, call forth and launch these misptionless, instead of cordially embracing, siles into the field of battle, and unflinching d casting past injuries to the winds. perseverance reiterates assault to assault, o such neighbours, whose lands and unfearingly upon the nations. These agihose waters are so interlaced each with tators write for, declaim to, and excite ch, that neither can move scarcely a step the masses of mankind. The world is their ithout interfering with the other, ought field, and their aim is to conquer even to ng ago to have emerged their quarrels in the ends of the earth, and in succession imeir mutual interests, and become friends. print their dogmas, in indelible characters,

France is French, even to this day, upon the nations, even to the end of time. able to huge perturbations on ordinary To these, warriors against thrones, hosts of ccasions, notwithstanding all her improve- infidel scorners, ever and anon ally themlents. A recent duel, wherein one of selves; and while the kings of the earth are le combatants sell, ended in a public their ostensible mark, their real attack ineral, during which the whole armed force is directed against the King of heaven. f Paris scarcely sufficed to keep the “Strike, but hide the hand," is their motto; eace! Marseilles has been distracted by and Jesus, the Redeemer of mankind, who lands of liberalists, who paraded the streets, is full of grace and truth, is the Being these ind burnt in effigy Louis Philippe; upon detest. Dark, insidious, and vengeful are hese the military fired, and several were their movements, and thousands of unsuskilled and wounded. In Lyons more than pecting victims fall beneath their sting. eighteen thousand workmen have struck, Books, pamphlets, magazines, and tracts, apon somewhat similar principles to the quite equal in learning to the profane, and trades' unions in England, and it would last, not least, the volume of revelation, require an army to quell their violence. without note or comment, in whole or in A new tariff of customs has been presented parts, are the missiles in the wide-fought to the chamber of deputies, for their ap- field of the missionary armies of the faith. proval; in this the duties on iron are The cross is their ensign; and Jews, Pagans, reduced, and the duty on coals remains as Papists, Greciaus, Mahometans, and unreheretofore, but the consumption of steamers generated Protestants, are alike the objects are to be exempled.

of their attacks, as well as the hordes of The potent factions of Europe are, under infidels who, under all these dames, wage the name of reformation, intent on revolution. war against God, and against his revealed There are, however, numbers of master- will, without cessation. Slaughter is not the spirits, who, notwithstanding the rush of the aim of these missionary armies, for to all daring throng, yet hold fast with a firmness they offer life, life for evermore. worthy of the cause they advocate, and in The impression made upon the present the meekness of wisdom, the genuine prin- generation by these scientific champions of ciples of reformation. While ihe first strike error and of truth, is highly interesting to the boldly at the throne, and by political agila- mind of contemplation. Full half a century tion aim at power and dominion for them- has passed over my mind, during which a selves, the latter “ seek the peace of the city wide and uninterrupted field of observation wherein they dwell, and pray unto the Lord has shed its beams around me in the richest for it; for in the peace thereof they have variety; and the past, amidst all that has peace." The kingdom of the political agi- passed away of the manners and customs tator is upon earth, and for this he contends; of mankind, like a dream, has vanished, to but the kingdom of the true reformer is in appear no more; while the present, fraught heaven : and while the one aims, by pulling with portentous realities, is beheld with awe. down others, to raise himself up to dominion No man can now be neuter ;“ Light is come and splendour, the other labours to raise up into the world;" it shines around, and none every man to a participation with himself of but the wilfully blind remain in darkness. the grace of God, during his pilgrimage upon With the apostle, we would say, “ The night earth, and to the fulness of glory at his right is far spent, the day is at hand: let us,

These diverse warriors of therefore, cast off the works of darkness, and the latter days have taken the field, and in let us put on the armour of light.” potent bands are each eagerly contending

Wm. COLDWELL. for his favourite dominion.

King Square, Feb. 22d, 1834.

hand for ever.



candlelight, clothing, and lodging for the Mr. EDITOR,

selves and their families. It will be onda SIR, -The following very important and stood at once, that wherever the potato interesting statement, respecting the pre- crop happens to fall short, these began sent condition of the poor of Kilkenny, was

are reduced to sad straits; they are the drawn up by a very intelligent gentleman, literally starving. In the advanced season who is intimately acquainted with the of the year, too, when the farmer begins a country, and the manners of the people, doubt whether his stock will hold out ini and has a strong claim to be admitted into

a fresh crop comes in, they are but scarti your pages.

P. B. W. supplied, and they are reduced to great dit

ficulty. They are then obliged to estable T'he pauper population of Kilkenny; its

a petty traffic,—they take with them in proportion to the other inhabitants; the manner of life, the food, clothing, and tobacco, needles, thread, &c. and, as cat

the country the value of a few pence, 1 lodging of the paupers, &c.

is a rare commodity with the wives and The population of Kilkenny is calculated daughters of the peasantry, they succeed in at 25,000 souls, and it is no exaggeration procuring something over the usual supply to state, that 5,000 of this number are pau. by barter. pers; beings who, when they rise in the Besides the professed mendicants, tee morning, cannot say, where they shall pro. are others whom I may truly class as per cure the day's sustenance. They are, lite- pers in as great a degree, and who canrally speaking, mendicants living on alms: tinue to exist by methods often curious and some few of this description reside in the characteristic. obscure lanes branching from the principal There are many who purchase from the streets, but the great bulk take up their servants in the citizens' houses, the coal. dwellings in the large suburb of straw- ashes raked from the fire as useless ; this thatch'd hovels, that disfigure the entrances they diligently sift and work, and retail to the city on every side. As mendicants, their neighbours, the beggars, as fuel; it is they may be divided into two classes ;— well kneaded with clay, and formed into street-beggars, and those who travel through balls, which, with proper management, i the country seeking relief. The latter are ignite, and forms almost the exclusie the greater number. The street-beggars go firing of the poor. Many go forth thefrom door to door, with unwearying, but selves, and employ their children to gather wearisome pertinacity, craving from every the scattered straw about the market-place, shop-keeper, and from every person seen which they sell for manure. purchasing in a shop. The most clamorous Many, again, scrape the roads, and with amongst them are squalid women with great labour, accumulate dung-heaps next droves of ragged children; both parents and their doors, which shut out the pure ar

, offspring disgusting to the eye unaccus. and substitute a poisonous atmosphere

. tomed to the foulness of abject poverty; Others set up hotels of a very miserable but very many of them are old 'decrepit character, indeed : for a house (a horel ! creatures, of 'both sexes, in a state of should say) containing two rooms, each wretchedness too visible to be doubted. ten feet by six, they pay a weekly rent of The other class of beggars travel through two shillings ; each corner of each aparithe contiguous country, from ten to eighteen ment, they re-let at fourpence : which pro miles in the day, craving potatoes at the duces a profit rent on Saturday of 8d. farmers' houses; and droves of them may on this, on the product of the dung-heap

, be seen, as the evening closes, wending to and on the sale of the pig, always the most the town, each carrying from five to eight comfortably lodged of the family,) all pro. stone weight. These potato- beggars, as ducing annually six pounds, live or St they are technically called, cannot proceed persons must be fed 'and clothed. As to in their quest more than three days in the the food of the beggars and other paupers, week ; it is too wearisome a journey to be it is invariably potatoes throughout the performed daily. On their return home, year ; perhaps a little sour milk may they lay by as much of their collected added, or a salt herring as a relish for the stores as will feed the numerous mouths in whole family; or, again, that which is facetheir hovels; the residue they carry to the tiously styled a blind herring, as salt dis market, to be purchased by others as poor solved in water, to give their roots (potatoes as themselves; who, although they may a flavour. Their clothing is universally a have employment, must buy their only food filthy collection of rags, scarcely covening in small quantities. The result of this sale their persons.

Their lodging is wretched gives the only means of providing fuel, in the extreme ; in a room twelve feet by



ight, I have reckoned not less than ten supported — by whom? The street-beggars eds. These are formed of damp litter, do not rap at the closed hall-doors of the nd spread out on the damp, mud foor; private houses—wherein the people of best ne rags worn during the day, forming the circumstances dwell; they are not seen ed-clothes ; there was scarcely a path. crowding around the dwellings of the ray between their beds. At uprise each wealthy; they are supported by the strugvretched creature crawled forth, the moist gling shopkeepers, by every one who, from traw was coiled up into bundles around his pursuits in life, must keep his door he wall, and the floor left vacant for the

open ; many of those just raised above purposes of the day. There may be, in their own debasing wretchedness. Who are ach cabin so inhabited, three men, per- they that support the clan called potato naps more, with wives and children,-the beggars ? are they the men of fortune ? are wives the beggars of potatoes,—these men they the persons enjoying the luxuries of call themselves labourers. At harvest time life? No, the closed gate, and the watchhey will get, perhaps, three weeks' employful porter in the gate-lodge, deny access to -in the potato-digging season, as much the filthy mendicant; the beggars are never more,- in the potato-planting time, as much seen strolling up a country gentleman's more; nine weeks of employment through. avenue. They go from one farmer's house out the year. At other times they are gene. to another; and so long as the potatoes are rally lounging about, idle, dejected, de. abundant, they are never sent away emptysponding; uot idle from choice, but of handed. A beggar is never refused assistnecessity. I have had occasion from time ance by a farmer's wise ; and it is to be 10 time to have somewhat to do, requiring noted, that under the roof of a great many the employment of labourers; and on such of these tillers of the land, a dish of animal occasions the petitions for work, the be- food is not dressed twice in the year; the seechings, the entreaties to be employed, potato is the only sustenance. I have were incessant. Deputations of weeping stated the value of the potatoes given in wives and children were sent to me; per- this way at £2,282, at the least, paid by sons who might have influence were en. the tillers of the soil of a circumscribed gaged in their behalf; the favour to be per- circuit around the town, to the poor of mitted to earn a few shillings, was as ar- Kilkenny, by people often as wretched as dently sought after, as if some prospect of those they feed. The Divine law says the treasure was before them. I have hitherto poor must be maintained ; the Divine law spoken only of paupers living on chance. says, too, that each man must contribute The greater proportion of the suburban for this purpose according to his means.-population are scarcely, I might say, in no This is not done,- the burden rests on respect better ; the food, the clothing, the those who can least afford it; and the legislodging, not a whit superior ; the only dif- lature should interpose to deduct from the ference is this, they are not obliged to crave abundance of the wealthy, when they will alms; the uncertainty of employment, and not obey the great mandate, — "10 feed smallness of the wages, not enabling them their brethren." to enjoy any comfort.—There may be one or two important conclusions drawn from the foregoing statements. It cannot be denied that where such a mass of misery exists, there must also be the greatest incen.

Rara Avis.- It is said, that in observing the late live to crime; yet, at the period when the solar eclipse with powerful glasses, Sir James South,

and Mr. Gwilt, at the distance of three miles apart, cholera prevailed to a frightful extent, at observed in the field of their respective instruments the quarter sessions of the peace, there

the apparition of a large bird, and nearly at the same was but one boy of fourteen to be tried for voured to be explained by the flight of an eagle at an

immense heighi in our terrestrial atmosphere ; but petty larceny. I have spoken of the great the story reminds us of the the elephant in the moon, number begging potatoes around the coun.

which turned out to be a mouse in the telescope. try contiguous to Kilkenny; there cannot

Numerical Figures.The numerical figures we now be less than one hundred so employed employ began to be made use of in Europe, for the daily. If I say that each collects five stone,

firsi time in 1940, in the Alphonsean tables, made by

order of Alphonso, son of Ferdinand, king of Castile, I do not over-rate the quantity; this gives singer, ooke Synagogue of Toledo, and Aben Ragel

, the daily produce, five hundred stone; an Arabian, The Arabs took them from the Indians annually, one thousand one hundred and

in 900. The other eastern pations received them

through the means of the Spaniards, in a short time fifty tons; value, two thousand two hundred after their invasions. The first Greek who made use

of them was Plenudes, in a work dedicated to and eighty-two pounds,—this is a moderate Michael Paleologus, in 1970; 80 that the Greeks bad calculation, and under the mark. The them not from the Arabs, but the Latins. These

ciphers were first used in Paris in 1957, and became great number of paupers at Kilkenny are generally adopted in England about the year 1450.


instant of time. This curious circumstance is endea

Lit. Gaz,

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