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Captain Ross and the Bear. It was igual when Capt. James Ross went upon a recounoitering or exploring expedition into the interior of the country, to leave his uncle, the senior Captain, at head-quarters, with a small party of five or six men, generally the least capable to bear fatigue. Upon one of those occasions, whilst the Captain was in bed, his hut, vr cabin, well lined with tarpaulins and canvass, and his roof agajo covered with deep snow, having a small entrance with the view of excluding as much as possible the cold, and two or three loop holes for the occasional admission of air, that the Captain discovered an unusual pressure and noise of footsteps immediately above the spot where he lay. Thinking it might be one of the men who had thus unwarrantably disturbed his slumber, he called out to know who was there; but receiving no answer, and the annoyance rather increasing, he got up, and, peeping through a loophole to discover who it was, he beheld an enormous bear, snutting about to find out the entrance to the hul, which he was then approaching, and po doubt in a few minutes more would have reached his prey. The Captain, however, had presence of mind to seize a loaded musket which was al band, and levelled it at the monster as he was tearing open the door. The ball took effect; and, although he did not kill it, so severely wounded the animal that he immediately made off. He, however, shortly returaed, deliberately walked across a plank into the vessel, seized a young tame bear which lay on the deck, devoured one-half of it, and was ágain making off, licking his chops, when he was pursued and shot. Being one of the largest of many they met with in those in hospitable regions, the skio has been brought home as a curiosity.
Estent of the Russian Empire.-In no age, nor in any record of by-gone nations, is a parallel to be found for the almost boundless extent of the Russian dominions, as they exist in the present day. This colossus of power forms a connected whole, which is dislocated by no seas, and intersected by the possession of po intervening sovereignty. There is not any part of it which lies at all disjointed from this congruous mass, save that which lies in America, and is severed from it by a narrow strait. This portion, after all, does not amount to a fifteenth part of the Muscovite territory, which of itself is larger than Europe and Australia put together. It stretches over three quarters of the world; occupying the larger portion of the north of Europe, the whole of the north of Asia, and part of the north-west of America. connexion of the latter with Russia in Asia is maintained by a chain of islands, which run from the Peninsula of Kamtschatka in Asia to the Peninsula of Alashka in America. The Russian empire comprebends nearly two hundred and fifty degrees of longitude--consequently pearly two thirds of the circumference of the whole globe ; and about forty degrees of latitude-for it extends from Pyzdry, the last station on its Polish frontier, to Queen Charlotte's Sound in America. When it is 12 o'clock at mid. night at its westernmost point, it is 16 minutes past 12 o'clock at noon at its easternmost. It com. prises a seventh part of the habitable earth, and a hve-and-twentieth part of its superficial extent, land and water. It is 75 times larger than Prussia, 70 times larger than Great Britain and Ireland 68 times larger than Italy; 61 times larger than Sweden; 37 times larger than France, and 31 times larger than Austria. The climate of this immense sovereigoty is as varied as its component parts: here we have the heats which ripen the grape, the almond, the fig, and olive, the pomegranate and orange in the open air ; and there, the excessive frigidity which reduces mercury to the state of hardness in which it may be hammered ; at one extremity the bear housed amid eternal ice, and at the other the camel passing over a hot bed of arid sand : spring, blooming along the Caucasus, whilst life and vegetation are entomhed along the frozen strand of the Vistula and Neva. Yet in all his greatness, the autocrat scarcely counts twice as many lieges as the king of England ; and is lord of scarcely as many cities and market-towns as the single Emperor of Austria.
Hannah More's Works, Vol. IV. containing towards forming the Character of a Princes.
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TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF ABBEVILLE, IN FRANCE.
(With an Engraving.) The two French provinces of Normandy and Brittany, but more especially Normandy, have long received every kind of illustration from the learning ind industry of the antiquary, aided by the skill of the engraver. Almost very village and hamlet has been visited in turn by the Cotmans, Turners, ind Dibdins, who have made the English reader acquainted with almost every remaining relic of the olden time. It is matter of regret that little In this way has yet been done for the ancient province of Picardy. Yet 0 Englishmen it possesses much interest : there is scarcely a town, or spot of ground, which has not been the scene of some interesting historical event. Yet, notwithstanding the number of our travellers who daily pass through the province, on their route from Calais to Paris, few are found willing to loiter even for the shortest period on the road. It is true, that Picardy possesses but few such splendid ecclesiastical edifices as are to be found in Normandy; and would probably require even more than the bibliographical sagacity of a Dr. Dibdin, to discover, amongst the best of its libraries, any thing in the shape of an editio princeps; and from the general want of bold landscape, there is not much to attract the picturesque traveller : but surely, with something akin to the feelings with which most of our continental tourists visit the plains of Waterloo, they might turn aside to view the village of Crecy, celebrated for the victory of Edward III. and bis renowned son the Black Prince, in 1346 ; or, to the small town of Ardres, where the meeting between Henry VIII. and Francis I. took place, and, from the magnificence there displayed, derived its name of the Champ du Drap d'Or; or the little town of St. Valery, situated at the mouth of the Somme, from whence William of Normandy sailed to the conquest of England. Agincourt is also but a short distance out of the province.
Various Roman antiquities have at different times been discovered here—there are also circles, and other monuments of the kind which we call Druidical.
In the modern division of France into departments, Picardy forms part of the two departments of the Pas de Calais, and the Somme. It is a most fruitful province, producing corn and hemp, with much pasturage, but totally destitute of the vine, and with but little woodland.' Its chief city is Amiens, an episcopal see, whose cathedral is a fine specimen of Gothic architecture ; and the other principal towns are Abbeville,-Boulogne-Calais,
Ham (in whose castle are immured the ministers of Charles X.) Montreuil-Peronne-Montdidier, &c. 2D. SERIES, NO, 40.-Vol. IV.
184.- VOL. XVI.
The general aspect of the country, from Calais to Paris, is its opennes. and the scarcity of towns, villages, and inhabitants : single cottages 22 rarely seen.
Abbeville is situated on the river Somme, which divides itself here, & about four leagues from its mouth, into various branches, passing throup and around the town. It derives its name from `Abbavilla, or Abbatsvilla, being the country residence of the Abbots of Centula, or St. Riquer, at about two leagues distance; a castle was afterwards built upon the site. and a priory dependent on the abbey; but Hugues Capet being desirog of fortifying it, took it from the community of St. Riquier, of whom ! had been the secular abbot, and gave it to his son-in-law, Hugues; whox son, Enguerrand, after killing in battle the Count of Boulogne, married is widow, and assumed the title of Count of Ponthieu, which remained u his descendants. From this period the town continued to increase importance. Its principal churches are St. Wulfran, St. George, an St. Paul, only two of which were spared by the frenzy of the revolution.
In 1205, the relics of St. Wulfran, Bishop of Sens, were removed hithea, the abbey of St. Vandrille in Normandy.
Abbeville is in the diocese of Amiens. Its houses are generally built ei brick, many of them of wood; but there are several fine old building especially the fine gothic church of St. Wulfran, its western fronts decorated with colossal statues, and its gothic towers are striking features in any view of the city.
The tide rises here six feet: vessels at 150 tons burden can reach the tota; from which commercial advantage, it derives much of its importance. Iv population, according to Sanson, amounted, in 1636, to as many as from 35 to 40,000 inhabitants : it now, however, contains not more than 20,000.
But a few years before the bursting forth of the revolution, this city #2 the scene of one of those deeds of bigotry and fanaticism, which were o fearfully visited upon the clergy in after years, and which brought dom the odium of the French nation on the whole body of the priesthood.
The Chevalier La Barre, whose age was under twenty, in company with other young men, as imprudent as himself, returning to their homes late a: night, offered some indignity to an old wooden image of the Virgin, which stood on the bridge. He was said to have wounded it on the shoulder, when in a state of intoxication. Although the wound in the image was slight, the Virgin was supposed to be mortally offended; many prayers and processions were made to expiate the offence, but nothing, it was supposed could avert the vengeance of Heaven, but the death of the Chevalier La Barre. A criminal process was carried on, and a sentence obtained against him. He was condemned to have his right hand amputated, his tongue torn from its roots, and then to be beheaded : the more barbarous parts of his sentence were remitted, in consideration of his family; but the remaining part, to the eternal disgrace of those professing the christian religion, was enforced, and the unhappy youth was beheaded. Another of the delinquents, who was of noble family, was so fortunate as to escape, and join the army of Frederic of Prussia. He was, however, outlawed, and his estates confiscated. This young man happened to be interested in the friendship of Voltaire, who had considerable influence with Frederic: and his case formed the subject of many of those entertaining letters which passed between the soldier and the philosopher. The result of the interference of the latter was the pardon, and subsequent restoration and promotion, of the delinquent.
South Carolina for example,) education is
prohibited by law, and a free person of r is certainly not a little to the credit of colour cannot enter the territory Slaveiis country, that all those great measures, evidence is wholly inadmissible, except hich have already been adopted for the against each other. Trial by jury, even in <tinction of the Slave-trade," for the ame- capital cases, is denied : and, as the necesoration of the condition of slaves, and sary consequence of such a system, the pally for their emancipation, have ema- most barbarous usage is the rule, and kindated from British justice and humanity. ness the rare exception. Cruelty, starvahis is the more satisfactory when we con- tion, separation of families, and all the der that the maintenance of slavery, enor- crimes in that black catalogue of oppresnous as is the guilt which it involves, does sion, with which we are at length familiar, otshew So
an instance of prevail, with this peculiar and monstrous nconsistency and insensibility in us as in aggravation, that the slave cannot be made he Americans. Slavery exists at a distance free ! Such is the well - founded jealousy rom the observation of the English go- entertained of the very first step towards ernment. Its atrocities do not strike our emancipation, that even the reluctant and jotice, or offend our sensibilities, and conscientious slave-possessor, is restrained even the recital of them does not affect us by law from divesting himself of his ini. jo powerfully as it might, because we feel quitous property. i necessary, in some instance, to allow for The condition of the free people of coexaggeration, owing to excited feeling and lour in America, whose number exceeds party spirit. The antiquity of the system, 300,000, is only in a slight degree adand its having long received the sanction of vanced. Their acquired privileges are but our legislature, naturally occasions some scanty and unsubstantial ; their degradation degree of tardiness in bringing it to the test is intolerable ; their gradual banishment of a strict and impartial examination, from the States is generally considered a None of these mitigating circumstances can maxim of national policy. It is scarcely be pleaded, to palliate the guilt and incon- necessary to add, that the internal slavesistency of American slavery. Its horrors trade is carried on with all its most disare exhibited within their borders, and gusting and loathsome incidents—husbands before their eyes. Their legislature cannot and wives, mothers and children, are pubsurely plead partial information or conflict- licly exposed to auction, and handled and ing evidence. Their institutions have been examined like cattle, and then separated formed by and for themselves, and none of for ever with as little compunction as sheep them have been imposed by the 'wisdom of or oxen in our markets. their ancestors,' or received in a consolidated Charleston, says Mr. Stuart, has long and inseparable mass of mingled good and been celebrated for the severity of its laws evil. Above all, their enthusiasm for political against the blacks, and the mildness of its and civil liberty; and their loud professions punishments towards the whites for malupon this point, have arrested the notice, treating them. Until lately, there were and raised the expectations, of all other about seventy-one crimes for which slaves states. The first and great article of their were capitally punished, and for which the constitution affirms, in the most compre- highest punishment for whites was imprihensive terms, the doctrine universal sonment in the penitentiary. equality. And yet, in the face of all this, The publication of these facts has at slavery obtains in America, not only to a length excited the attention of some portion greater extent, but also in a more revolting of the Christian public in this country, form, than even in our own colonies. They are resting from their protracted
It is but recently that the British public labours for the extirpation of slavery in have been brought acquainted with 'the true our own colonies. They have achieved a character of American slavery. In some triumph, in many respects most satisfactory recent publications, however, the horrible and glorious. And now they are giving a details of the system have been made still further proof of the genuineness of their known, and more particularly in Stuart's benevolence, by extending it to the miseries Three Years in North America, a work of other nations. A Society is now about of acknowledged accuracy and high respect to commence its operations, which contemability. It appears that slavery in the plates no less glorious an object than uniUnited States is confined to the districts
It is exceedbelow thirty-six degrees of north latitude; ingly desirable that the public should be but the number of slaves below this limit, aware of the nature and extent of that evil exceeds two millions. In some places, (as against which this Society proposes to
direct its energies : we, therefore, think newly imported, but merely sent from that the following statements, contained in distant State to be sold in another. a published Letter from the pen of the “The inhumanity and horror connect Rev. Thomas Roberts, of Bristol, are suffi- with this dreadful traffic surpass descriptn. ciently important to deserve a place here : It is carried on in vessels unregulated ester
by size or burthen, and in which san “The following account of the importation scenes are constantly produced, that, if of Slaves into Rio Janeiro at these succeed- scribed, many persons would hesitate to ing periods is correct :- In the year 1820, believe the statement. The shrieks, the 15,020 slaves — 1821, 24,134 — 1822, lamentations, the groans, the blows, be 27,963—1823, 27,349—1824, 29,503,- stripes, the diseases, the suffocations, and 1825, 26,254 — 1826, 33,999 — 1827, the wholesale murders perpetrated in the 29,789—1828, 43,555,—and from Jan. slave-ships are not generally known, æ I 1st, 1829, to March 25th of the same year, am inclined to hope that European a period of only three months, 13,459 vernments might be induced to roll away slaves were imported, making, in the short this reproach from the nations orer whid period of nine years and a quarter, the tre. they preside. mendous number of 264,025, and conse- This barbarous trade has been the means quently in the last year and quarter of the of placing at this time not less than five ahove periods, upward of fifty - seven millions of human beings in the most a thousand.
ject, wretched, and cruel bondage. There “ This dreadful traffic is not in the least are not less than two millions of slaves a diminished at the present time. Very the Southern States of America ; an eque recently his Majesty's cruiser, the Nimble, number exists in the Brazils; and, althoog captured three large schooners, each con- I am unable to state the exact census in the taining upwards of 300 negroes, and after- islands and territories of foreign European wards totally destroyed iwo others of a Sovereigns, yet, as the large island of Cuba, similar description, whose cargoes had just together with Martinique, Guadaloupe
, been previously landed. The slave dealers Curacoa, St. Eustathius, St. Bartholomes, at Cuba have offered a large reward to any St. Croix, St. Thomas, Porto Rico, and the one who will assassinate the commander of district called Surinam, on the continent of the Nimble, and they are fitting out vessels, South America, are all cultivated by slares some of them mounting 20 guns each, tó there cannot be less in these places that resist the cruisers employed to destroy the another million, and to which slave.ships slave trade. His Majesty's Ship Isis has are constantly conveying and adding their just captured a large vessel, with a cargo of cargoes. 700 slaves, bound to the Mauritius. The "The existence of the Foreign Slave Trade failure of the late commercial expedition with its effects inflicts deep injury at this from Liverpool to Africa has arisen in a time on our own colonial possessions
, bet considerable degree from the zeal with will unquestionably be still more comme which the slave trade is carried on by the cially destructive when slavery in the Bir nations of the interior with European tish dominions is actually abolished. It dealers. Its profits are so great as to ren- will then be impossible for our colonists to der the inhabitants of Africa indifferent to compete with either the Brazilian planter, the productions of their own soil as articles or with him of the Southern States of Ameof commerce. The nations in the interior rica, whose whole cultivation is the result of are constantly at war with each other for extensive and still increasing slavery
. The the sake of obtaining captives for the slave effect of this system has been to increase trade, and so totally does this engross their the importation of foreign sugars by 370,34 attention, that the gentlemen, recently form- cwt., the amount of which in the year ing the commercial expedition to Africa, 1828 was only 136,999 cwt., whilst in affirm that it was impossible to draw the 1831, it increased 507,547 cwt. If this attention of the natives to any kind of trade inhuman traffic is allowed to proceed, but to that in human beings.
shipping interest must likewise be seri
: “ The slave trade is deemed illegal in ously injured. The extending North America ; it is nevertheless carried the Brazils, and its increasing commerce by on to an immense extent in the Southern the means of slavery, will soon induce the States. The law is evaded by vessels of inhabitants of that fertile territory to become small size skulking up creeks to land their the carriers as well as the cultivators of their cargoes in the interior, and then, driving own produce. their victims to
great distance from the “The importance of protecting landing-place, and professing that they are not colonies when cultivated by free labour,