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nverts. The Scythian, the Gaul, the the whites, their veneration is great. Of all arthian, Medes, Elamites, and dwellers in subjects, they are the easiest for missionaries [esopotamia, were also among the num- to deal with. In this department of their r. The extremes of refinement and phi- labours, perhaps less ability is requisite sophy, to the opposites of ignorance and than in any other. Literature and science trbarism, were laid under contribution to would be wholly thrown away upon such a e cross. The word ran and was glorified. mission; and were not the missionary

only simplicity and ignorance had been obliged to hold frequent intercourse with e objects of their pity and zeal, the high- intelligent and well-informed white people, inded sages of the day might have looked a man of the plainest abilities would, perown with contempt upon their labours: haps, be the most effective in the West ut they were useful to all varieties of man. Indies or Africa. he soft Ephesian, the rugged sons of Since the abolition of slavery, the interlacedon and Thrace; the elegant Corin- course of missionaries with the negroes will ujan, the curious Athenian, and the be viewed with less jealousy than formerly. ardy inhabitants of Thessaly, were all Better protected by the law, he need be mong their auditors; for the triumphs of less circumspect of giving offence to their le gospel were in every place; and what former white proprietors. The 'secrets of ne apostolic missions did for these diverse the prison-house' will not be so closely lasses, the history of the church, and the kept, as formerly. The angry persecuting Acts of the Apostles are authentic vouchers. passions of the whites will be held under

The present subjects of missions are less restraint. Magistrates will be more guarded varied, but full as interesting : among these in their conduct upon the bench; and goone occupy a more singular position than vernors, under the eye of a watchful minishe negroes, both African and creole. try and reforming parliament, will

After extended opportunities for obser- longer dare to connive at cruelty and opration, I am not disposed to approach to pression. How the negroes in our West either of the extremes of their panegyrists, India islands will behave, when they have or their enemies ; of those who depreciate obtained their entire liberty, it is impossible their intellect, or of those who overrate it. to predict with confidence. For myself I That there are different shades of intellect have no fear upon the subject; the love of among them, I will readily admit. That revenge forms no part of their character. the general par of negro intellect is of a low Only let the interim be well improved by order, is a truth too obvious to be concealed. the colonial legislatures; let missionaries I have conversed with several thousands of and schoolmasters have free access to negroes placed under widely different cir- them, and they will be well prepared for cumstances : some living in my own house their prospective liberty. The intercourse as domestic servants; some born in Ame. of judicious pastors to such plastic materica ; some natives of Africa, and others of rials, will produce the happiest results; and the islands; but have never observed any in- the West India islands, instead of being dications of brighter intellect than might be dens of cruelty and oppression, will, we expected in so degraded a social condition. may hope, become the happiest and love. They possess much simplicity, cheerfulness, liest spots upon earth ; the negroes, under and credulity ; care and anxiety seem to the benign influence of liberty will emerge sit but lightly upon them; gratitude, affec- into a state of intelligence; and those tion, and fidelity are the distinguishing fea- islands which, from the variety and protures of their hearts. Of religion, they fuseness of their productions, seem to have know nothing; perhaps, of all people, been designed as the abodes of happiness, the Africans have least of system in their will, for the first time, enjoy those social worship; there is, therefore, little for the blessings which follow in the train of civil Christian missionary to pull down or undo. and religious liberty. They reason little, owing to the littleness Perhaps in none of our colonies has reliof their knowledge; and seldom get beyond gion flourished as it has in Upper Canada, first principles, even in their religious course. and it may not, therefore, be unprofitable They possess a peculiar flexibility of mind, to take a cursory view of the state of society and great hilarity, till goaded by ill usage there; as we may thus conclude as to what is to sullenness. Generous to a fault, they that social condition which is most favourwill give their mite to any object that may able to the advancement of religion. This be pressed on their notice ; "kind to each wide region of lakes and forests has invited other, and remarkably polite, they may be to its green retreats great numbers of Engsaid to exhibit the ludicrous combination lish, Scotch, Irish, and even natives of the of the Frenchman and the savage.

For United States. Its cheap land, and free instiliutions, alike offer a favourable field in some other of our colonies, but, on the en for emigration, and promise a secure asy- trary, every facility is given to the spread lum. Uniting that stability which they religious luition. Religion seems to have derive from their connexion with England, found a 'lodge' in this vast wilderies." and their consequent sympathy with social where she cannot be invaded. Nou be institutions which ages have consolidated, dares to interfere with her worship, a u with that love of liberty, and spirit of enter- persecute her ministers. There is beren prise which they gain from contact with power which can put down a mission, the adolescent vigour of their republican imprison a missionary. Truth is free as er, neighbours, they exhibit the materials of a and, under the canopy of spreading fores most desirable, if not of a perfect poli- the services of the Sabbath are heard ameer tical system. There is, however, an im- the lofty pines, and make " the wilderness i portant respect in which they have not im- blossom as the rose." No spy here witches bibed the avaricious spirit of their mother the Christian teacher, catches his works country, nor imitated the still more mon- and reports them with malignant perverss strous inconsistency and guilt of their Aine- to a venal and tyrannical magistracy; but rican neighbours. The leprosy of slavery in their log-built chapels the settlers of the has never smitten and polluted their bor. surrounding plantation can unite in Cost ders with its cleaving curse ;' their reve. tian worship, none daring to make thes nues have not been swollen with the price afraid.' How delightful must these inda of blood,' nor their hearts petrified, and tions appear to every benevolent mind, the their moral sensibilities blunted and de. views in this fine district the probable et stroyed, by witnessing the daily operation of some mighty empire, which in future of a system of legalized rapine and murder. times may rise over the ruins of the prezBut the spirit of rational and christian free- lent dynasties of the present age! We dom among the Canadians does not rest may we not hope for, from this early rece. here. It leads a full and legitimate nition of the great principles to which extension of the principle of religious have alluded ? May we not conbdesty liberty, and of the righis of conscience. believe that around these majestic lates Here there is no such thing as toleration, and rivers the triumphs of the cross shall for none have the power to tolerate. Here every where extend themselves, and that no one religious community can lord it even the red man of the forest shall then over any other ; either by assuming a poli- worship the Great Spirit' through the med tical superiority, or by compelling pecu- ation of his Son ? niary support. That a dissenter should be The Indian is the monarch of these compelled, in addition to the voluntary forests, grave, thoughtful, taciturn, stres support which he cheerfully yields to his in intellect, hardy in body, dignified as own minister, to maintain a hierarchy lofty in his bearing, free and independent which he conscientiously believes to be in his thoughts, as the wild and solut unscriptural in its constitution and mis- winds that sweep over his rast lake chievous in its working, would, by these He rarely descends into playful please :unsophisticated people, be deemed an tries. Though inured to the toils of butt anomaly and an injustice. Here, therefore, ing and war, he is no slave. Destitute di no rector extends his flesh-hook from his the Bible and the living teacher, he is no metropolitan mansion, to some far distant idolater. Superstition and the light village, in order to drag away his tithe from nature have taught him to see God in some dissenter, whom he never saw, and clouds, and hear him in the wind :' he has who never saw him. Here, when any con- none of the pliancy and timidity of the gregation indulge their architectural taste negro; he never forgets his patriarchal diş in surmounting their place of worship nity; his features seldom relax into a sini, with a dome, a steeple, or a minaret, they or his language into frivolity. The bastar are so simple as to pay for it themselves of his temporary wigwam, he keeps his wie Indeed, so far are they from the refinements and children under absolute subjection. of a more advanced state of society, that with no truckling to his superior in power

, they have not got beyond the most ele- (the white man, he only obeys from mentary notions, such as, that Christians, necessity. Too proud to submit io serale like other folks, should abstain from appro- labour, he has few of the comforts of life

; priating what is not their own, and that he despises effeminacy, and would rather God would hold them guilty for picking endure" hardness and privation, than pera their neighbours' pockets, even to enrich His chase luxuries he does not need, by mea ministers, or to beautify His house. compliance with the customs of white met.

Above all, no barrier is here opposed, as If he worship the Great Spirit, there are no

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«ternal signs of that worship. What is the were a pope or cardinal, he spoke not er recise nature of his religion, none can tell. cathedra, and then his opinion is not to be le seems to have no creed but his con- implicitly received. Proteus himself never cience, no temple but that of nature, adopted greater variety of shape, than does o altar but his mountains, no law but his this method of argumentation, to save the rill. He spends his life in the gloomy infallibility thus rudely brought in contrast randeur of the forest, and dies amidst the with stubborn facts.

To obviate every zore impervious shades of ignorance and thing of this sort, in reference to the popish espair. These are the men whose con- doctrine of the offices and merit of the ersion, if effectuated by human instrumen- blessed Virgin, it is proper to state that the ality, requires all the enthusiastic energy of citations are taken from a work entitled, n Elliot or a Brainerd. Whence are we “ Le Glorie di Maria, Opera del. ven. o look for this Spirit? and yet without it, servo di Dio Alfonso de' Liguori, veshis interesting race will form the barrier, covo di Santagata de' Goti, e Fondatore beyond which the march of christianization della Congreg. del SS. Redentore, utile s forbidden to proceed. Poor in property, per leggere, e predicare, 8c. Roma, 1797. luped and oppressed by dishonest traders, Nella Stamperia dell'Ospizio Apostolico, Iriven back into the wilderness to make presso Dumaso Petrelli. Con licenzu de' way for white settlers, they cherish a rooted Superiore.” wversion to those nations which form the When we recollect the severity of the depositaries of Christian truth. After hav. Roman church against heresy, and the ing violated every treaty we have made index of prohibited books, on the one with them, how are we so to gain their con- hand, and that this work is written by a fidence, as to be allowed to approach them, dignitary of that church; is recommended and offer them the blessings of Christianity? to be used for private reading and public Unquestionably we must look to Upper preaching, and is printed at the pope's Canada as the immediate agent, and rely own printing-office, by license of the proupon Great Britain to patronize and second per authority, no exception can be taken to their efforts. The Upper Canada Wesleyan its affording a fair account of what the Conference, under the patronage of the members of the only true church are taught great body at home, have commenced their to believe as the gospel of Christ. peaceful and benevolent aggressions upon

The work begins with prayers to the this neglected race. The Canadian and Virgin, that this treatise may be blessed 10 the British government must second their the use of the reader ; the following is a endeavours. Only let the government of specimen : this country pursue a course as opposite as “We look unto thee, O Queen of Mercy; possible to the foul and atrocious policy return, that we may behold thee distributwhich disgraces the United States, and, with ing benefits, bestowing cures, infusing all its difficulties, the case is far from strength. Display to us the face of thy hopeless.

mercies, and we shall be saved. Thou J. MARSDEN. ruler of all things, thou holiest of the

holy, our strength and refuge, the ornament of the world, the glory of heaven, acknowledge us who love thee; hear us, for

the Son, honours thee, and denies thee It is a general charge brought against Pro. nothing. Make haste, delay not, O Lady, testants by their opponents, that they falsify assist thy sinful servant that calls upon the writings of Roman Catholic authors; thee, and deliver him from the hand of his and ascribe to them and their church, doc- enemy. Who shall not sigh after thee? trines and principles which they do not We pant with love and grief. Why shall own. If

, in reply, they urge the publica. we not pant after thee, thou comfort of the tions of popes, and of the papal church, miserable, refuge of the exiles, and delivertestified in the most authentic historians,— ance of the prisoners. We cannot doubt, and the authority of eminent writers, for doc- but if thou beholdest our miseries, thy trines hostile to the peace of society, and the mercy will constrain thee to aid us. general tenor of the revealed word of God, O Our Lady, our advocate, commend us the answer is, these actions proceeded from to thy Son. O blessed one, grant, through them in their secular capacity; in which the grace which thou hast merited, that he they are fallible as other men :-and, how. who through thy means has condescended ever eminent the writers referred to might to become a partaker of weakness and be, it was only their own private opinion misery, may, through thy intercession, make that they supported; and if the individual us partakers of happiness and glory. Live 20. SERIES, NO. 40,- VOL. IV.

184.- VOL. XVI.

THE VIRGIN MARY.

Y

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for ever, Jesus our love, and Mary our hath given all judgment to the son, un hope.” Then follows Supplica dell' Au- every office of mercy hath he bestowed an tore a Gesu ed a Maria :-a prayer to the mother : to which the psalmist telesa Jesus and Mary, followed by an Introduc- when he says "God hath anointed thee wth tion, commencing, “ Lettor mio caro, the oil of gladness.' fratello in Maria:—“My dear Reader, St. Gregory says of her : ‘Thou possess brother in Mary;" and containing the fol- est almighty strength, that the multitude d lowing quotation :-" The praise of Mary sinners may prevail with thy compassin. is an unfailing fountain, which the more it Nothing can resist thy power; for the C is extended is so much the more filled ; ator esteems thy glory as his own. Shes and the more it is filled is so much the represented as saying: more enlarged : and from Riccardo di St. heaven, I am the mother of mercy, I a Lorenzo, to honour Mary is to treasure up the joy of the righteous, and the NET eternal life. Those who honour her in this sinners unto God. No one is so much world, she will honour in that which is to under a curse, as, while life remains, to te

Those who display my glory, shall destitute of my compassion ; for, for have eternal life (speaking in her own per- sake, he shall be less powerfully tempted son.) Rejoice, O my soul, and be glad in devils than he otherwise would be. There her, who hath prepared many good things can be no doubt, that the soul of Mary at: for those who praise her.

ingly gave up her son for the salvation di Capitolo I. 'In support of her title to the the human race, that the mother might n name of queen, are the following passages : all things be conformed to the Father and “If he is called king who was born of the Son. She is the mother of all beletes; Virgin, the mother that bore him may pro- for when Jesus said to Joho, Ecce malo perly and truly be pronounced a queen tua,-Behold thy mother,—the word eu and lady. But this virgin, by the same spoken to him as a disciple, and not as a acknowledgment, has merited the pre-emi. apostle only; and we are all disciples nency of the globe, the government of the John is a particular, disciple a commer, world, the sceptre of the kingdom over all name; to shew that Mary is given to be creatures. Neither can the mother be the mother of all. It was in this point of separated from the government of the son. view that David, beholding her in prophecy

, The flesh of Mary and Christ is one. I said, “Preserve the son of thy handmail

' judge the glory of the son to be not simply How happy shall it be for us to be under common to him and the mother, but rather the protection of such a Mary? Who shal to be the same. Being constituted a queen, dare to snatch us from her breast? Whi she by right possesses the whole kingdom of temptation or trouble shall be able to ofer: of the son. So many creatures serve the come us, while we trust in the protection of glorious Virgin as serve the Trinity; for all the mother of God, and of us? Anseln creatures, whether angels or men, together says, “O blessed trust, О safe refuge, the with all things in heaven and in earth, are mother of God is my mother. With what subject to the glorious Virgin, because all confidence, therefore, ought we to hope, for things are subject to the divine government. as much as salvation springs from the wil The kingdom of God consists in power of a good brother, and affectionate mother! and mercy; whilst the power remains with Saint John says, "God so loved the world God, the part of mercy is in a great mea- that he gave his only begotten son;' to sure assigned to the reigning mother

. When which Saint Bonaventura adds, Mary so she conceived the son of God in her womb, loved us, that she gave her only begotten and afterwards brought him forth, she ob- son; and beside her, no creature bears tained the half part of the kingdom of God, such love to us, as to give to us, and make that she might be the queen of mercy, as an offering for us, her only begotten son, Christ is the king of justice. The prophet whom she loved beyond herself. It was says, “O God, give thy judgment to the she whom Saint John saw clothed with the king; and thy justice to the king's son ;' sun,

,-as it was said, there was a wonder on which a comment is made, that affords in heaven, a woman clothed with the sun. no bad specimen of what is to be expected A common prayer is, 'O Lord, bestow on from those who claim the sole and infallible me that for which the most holy Virgza right to interpret scripture. - 'O Lord, prays on my behalf. thou hast given justice to thy son, and hast prays for greater things than we are able 10 given thy mercy to the king's mother.' pray for. The following expressions O God, give thy judgment to the king, and applied to her : ' I love them that love me. thy mercy to his mother. On this account •In finding the Virgin Mary, every good is Ernest, bishop of Prague, says, “The Father found. For she loves them that love her,

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ad serves them who serve her. O my Mary, thou refulgent star; and that he eloved saviour Jesus, O my dear mother receives those into his favour who have lary; bestow, therefore, on my supplicat- provoked him to anger. We know no ig soul, not on account of my deserving, other refuge but thee; thou art our only ut for your own deserving, give to him hope; thou alone art our protectress, to our love.' She says of herself, I am a whom we all look. In dangers, in straits, nother to all sinners seeking to amend their in doubts think of Mary, call on Mary.

Saint Gregory, (Lib. iv. Ep. 47.) Let her not depart from thy mouth, or from riting to the princess Matilda, says: thy heart. Following her thou shalt not Put an end to the sinful inclination, and wander, supplicating her thou shalt not

faithfully promise-you shall find Mary despair: if she uphold thee, thou shalt not nore ready to love you than your mother fall; if she protect, thou shalt not fear; with n earth. Cursed of God is he who makes her for a leader thou shalt not be worn out, is mother angry. If the merits of the under her favour thou shalt succeed ; do upplicant do not avail to his being heard, this, and thou shalt live.' Saint Vincenzo till the merits of the mother will effectually Forreri says, “The blessed Virgin receives ntercede. Saint Bernard says, "Because the souls of the dying.' On a review of le proves unworthy, to whom the gift what he has written thus far, it would seem vould have been given, it is delivered to that the author became alarmed lest the Mary, by whom thou shalt receive whatso- enemies of holy church should take ver thou possessest. A reason of the pre- occasion to raise accusations against her; valent intercession of the Virgin for a sin- to rebut, therefore, the charges which hereal believer, is given : 'O happy Mary, tics might bring, he introduces some quib. thou mother of the guilty, thou mother of bles from Saint Tommaso l' Angelico ;' the judge ; whilst thou art the mother of and concludes that God has made her either parly, suffer not discord to continue what she is : and post Deum sola spes between thy sons.' Saint Bridget was nostra ; "after God,' she is our only favoured with revelations from the blessed hope ; and in answer to the question, virgin herself, among which is the follow- 'Why is it, that, without the assent of ing : (Rev. 1. c. 23.) How much soever Mary, the mystery of the incarnation was a man sins, I am prepared to receive him not accomplished ? because God willed immediately as he repents; nor do I so that she should be the origin of all good.' much regard the greatness of his sin, as the Somewhat further on, the author recovers sincerity with which he turns away from it; himself, and observes,— My sole hope is I do not disdain to anoint and heal his Jesus, and after Jesus the Virgin Mary : wounds, for I am called, as I really am, the and God made two great lights; the greater mother of mercy.'

light is Christ, who is over the righteous ; The title of the second chapter is :- the lesser light is Mary, who is over sin* Maria e la nostra vita, perch'ella ci ners.' A further instance of allegorizing is ottiene il perdono de' Peccati.' The fol- given in the “ark,” which held the manna, lowing quotations will shew the evangelical Christ, in the Virgin's womb; and her doctrines it contains : Hear,' (I repeat the power in this respect is shewn by Moses, very words of Saint Bonaventura,) hear when he said, when the ark was lifted ye, who long for the kingdom of God; up, Arise, O Lord, and let thy enemies be honour the Virgin Mary; and ye shall find scattered.' The efficacy of this is well life and everlasting salvation.' Donzella attested : "We have often seen and heard,' says: 'I entertain no doubt but that all says Anselm, "many men who in their the favours (indulgencies) in the old tes- troubles have called to mind the name of tament, are given by God, solely through Mary, and immediately every evil has the reverence and love of this young vir- vanished. Jesus says concerning his gin.' Bernardino Da Busto, in Sermon v. mother, No one comes unto me, unless de Nat. Mar. says : O sinner, do not my mother has drawn him by her prayers. despair, although thou hast been guilty of God says, when we seek to him for favour, the most aggravated sins; but confidently go to Mary;' which Saint Bernard conhave recourse to this most glorious Lady. firms, by saying, "He hath decreed to Thou shalt find her hands filled with bestow nothing but through Mary. As a unbounded mercy; for she has a greater stone, when the earth beneath it is withdesire to do thee good, and to dispense drawn, falls into the pit: so when the unto thee grace, than thou hast to receive assistance of Mary is withheld, man falls them. Again, But they rejoice in know- into sin, and thence into hell. When thou, ing that the Lord himself is appeased O Lady, prayest, all are assisted and pray; through thy humility and purity of life, O when thou art silent, no one is assisted, no

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