Imagens das páginas

s pupils, produces the deepest impression. Be- quently broken down strong minds, and les, he comes into closer contact with his pupils subdued the spirit of genius. The task of che understands their characters better-and can

the schoolmaster, nevertheless, can never lapt his exhortations to the peculiar turns of their

be executed but by a man of acute perlind. The preacher has only a general and disint acquaintance with most of his hearers, and is ception and extensive acquirements; and it révented by the ceremonial of fashion, and the

is on this account that it is so seldom adeution of maturer years, from obtaining a more quately performed. Our youthful student itimate inspection of their characters. Thus his saw, in the correct performance of this task, ppeals are neither so direct, nor so nicely adapted a moral and religious duty; and he pers those of the schoolmaster.

mitted himself to know no pleasure but that "Lastly, with respect to the development of mo

derived from the performance of a duty, al character, the advantage is all on the side of the

Unhappily for himself, in his moral and choolmaster. Does the outward conduct of men who have been taught caution by experience, and

pious devotion, he overlooked his want of mong whom the artificial forms of fashion have bodily strength. atroduced a universal hypocrisy, exhibit their cha

It is to be larnented that some friends, acter so truly as the simple and natural behaviour aware of the weakness of his frame and { children? Has the preacher such liberty of the activity of his mind, did not procure tointing out faults, constraining the conduct and

for him a situation congenial with his orming the habits, as the instructors of youth? As

wishes, and adapted to the very limited he teacher, by communicating just ideas, prevents

extent of his physical energies. He was prejudice, so by forming good habits he prevents ad ones.

left, however, to provide for himself. He **If it be said that few schoolmasters exercise

sought and obtained, unaided, a station, as his power, may it not likewise be said that few teacher in the Circus Place School, of prenchers exert theirs ? This is a theoretical ques- Edinburgh. But, an extract from a rion, and we must compare the powers possessed, letter to a friend will place this youth, not those which are actually employed.


whose actions were instructions that require teachers themselves, and the public in general, have

no comment, before the reader:been too long blind to the moral power of those instruments and opportunities which the schoolmaster “ Unless you have experienced the agitation and possesses. But juster notions are gaining ground- tension of mind connected with an application, on and we hope soon to see the time, when teachers the success of which some interest and much will use more energetically the advantages which honour depends, you will not be able to enter fully they possess, and when public opinion shall attach into my feelings during ten days, in which I was a to them that respect which is so essential to their candidate for a vacant situation in the Circus Place influence over the minds of their pupils." - School, I suppose you know the nature of this pp. 11 to 13.

school. It was instituted by a Committee, of which A young man of extensive attainments, Dr. Thomson was the main spring, in order to who entered upon the most laborious de- apply the principles of Mr. Wood's School to the

education of children in the higher ranks of life. partment in the whole circle of literary em

They wish to have a teacher to every forty scholars , ployments, merited, on account of this very and, on that account, they are not able to give large devotion to so arduous a task, the love, the salaries. The salary at present is £50 per annum. respect, and the protection of that society Over all the institution there is a head master, who which he was so desirous to serve. The teaches the highest class. It has prospered very province of teaching the rudiments of lan- much of late, and there are now nearly 300 chilguage and science is generally considered

dren, and eight teachers. I thought (as I intend to be particularly painful to young minds,

to pursue teaching as a profession,) that it might

be good for me to come into a little notoriety. I eager as they generally are to free their

accordingly applied ;-procured several certificates; Entellectual powers from the trammels of

and after teaching three days in the school, before scholastic discipline, and to take wide and several gentlemen, as a specimen (a pretty severe self-directed excursions in the now open ordeal,) I was unanimously chosen, and entered on plains of literature. To return back con- my new duties the very next day. The novelty of inually to the foundations of knowledge my situation, and the multiplicity of my avocations, with the youngest pupil,--to build again

(as I still retain most of my other teaching,) has

rendered me very hurried for the last fortnight."— and again the vaulted cellars, and to lay, with renewed care, the key-stone on the yet dark subterraneous arches, — to do this He taught publicly at the Circus Place repeatedly and continually, without rising School four hours, and privately instructed above the brink of the foundation, or cast. youths of the University eight hours a-day. Eng more than a cursory glance around on Besides this, he held “ regular examinaEhe prospect, which must, indeed, be wide tion of Scripture, and observance of social and beautiful to those permitted to ascend prayer, with some of his companions," and higher, and to look out from upper cham- his Sabbath evenings were frequently spent bers, — to do this is a toil that has fre- in “imparting religious instruction to the 2D, SERIES, NO. 40.-VOL. IV,

pp. 17.


184.-VOL. XVI.

ፂ z


ignorant poor, both in Edinburgh and in returning ravages of decay. He could teak the villages adjacent." With his friends he no more by oral instruction : still be could maintained an epistolary correspondence, think and write, and his pen was ines which, “ from its magnitude, must have santly employed. “Indeed, wasting restes added considerably to his labours.” He tion," observes his memorialist, “appers wrote papers for various religious periodic to cling to a thoughtful mind the more obcals, and “his writings,” says his biogra- stinately in consequence of bodily weatpher, “would fill many volumes." “ The ness, and the vigour of health seems indsmajority of his papers, however," continues pensably requisite to dismiss such reflecta Mr. King, “are unfinished,

An essay, or

at pleasure.” Thought indulged to exces, poem, or narrative, is commenced, and undoubtedly gives rise to diseases of the through a number of pages vigorously nerves and brain, which speedily commuconducted, but it suddenly closes amid nicate themselves to the whole physical glowing interest—a fit emblem of the la- constitution, and produce dyspepsia, cosmented writer, who terminated so abıuptly sumption, and even frenzy; they can' his promising career.” The fact is, that he counteracted only by introducing to tra wanted the firm restraint of a sensible and sufferer at an early period the lighter and respected friend. He was, no doubt, loved, more recreating studies of nature. It la gazed at, and admired, while his mind and been remarked, that students who tisk his body were suffered to run themselves to intensely, find much relief by recurringe waste.

stated hours every day to the perust ei Scarcely had this amiable and persever- poetry, or works on botany and natural tis ing scholar and teacher reached the thresh- tory, in the open air. The scholar who hold of manhood, than his constitution, can resolve to be an horticulturist tors which had never been strong, began to give hours in the twenty-four, will not be likely manifest tokens of premature decay: A to die of decline. general debility, accompanied with spitting A sea voyage had been recommended, of blood, was the precursor of a rapid de- and it is probable that, had the advice been cline. Under this calamity he was obliged taken at an earlier stage of bis disorder

, it to relinquish his engagement in the Circus might have been beneficial. It was st! Place School. For a short time he tried regarded as a remedial measure by his the effect of the milder air of Rothsay; and friends and his medical attendant. A ship, in September, 1831, sailed from Greenock commanded by a cousin of his own, 53, by a steam-yacht for Dublin. Thence he at this period, about to sail from Liverpool crossed over to Liverpool, and, on his to Maranham, and he embraced the ofer return to Edinburgh, had so far recovered of a passage. His parting with his mother his health as to be able to resume his had in it all the more than philosophie teaching But the insidious disease, that firmness of pious confidence. His journey had seized upon his frame, would not quit to Liverpool was performed with less body its hold; and though he still sirove against fatigue than was expected, and he en. it for the regular performance of his ardu. barked : ous duties, the daily wasting away of his flesh and strength compelled him to resign

“For some days his health seemed to improres

sea, and he flattered himself that he was getta his appointments. This was not a condi

decidedly better. tion in which to form, with much confi- frequently into conversation with the sailors,

During this period be entered dence, a new plan of useful exertion.

so endered himself to them by his gentle mannet! A proposal, however, had been made by and salutary counsels, that all took a deep interest Dr. M'Arthur of Dublin, who was about to

in his case, and rivalled each other in promoting marry Mr. Carmichael's sister, for the resi

When Sabbath came, he asked the dence of him and the family in the Irish

captain whether they were to have any public wat capital; and there was a promise of advan- ship on that day. The captain replied that it was

wristal tages in this removal, which made it parti

Mr. Carmichael answered to the effect that be 134 cularly desirable. Dr. M'Arthur had been not able to conduct the worship himself, and he appointed by the government commis- would rather that others observed it from the sioners for education in Ireland, to super- own sense of its va'ue, than from his solicitatian intend the teachers that were training for His earthly course, however, was now drawing fu the national schools, and he wished to re

his comfort.

a close. He sustained injury by bathing in cold linquish, in favour of his intended brother

sea-water. Very hot sultry weather ensued, which in-law, the management of the seminary he

greatly aggravated the hectic fever already prestige then conducted. But it was too late : the

All hopes of his recovery were por

cut off, but a degree of delirium, occasioned by health of this martyr to study revived at fever and weakness, soon rendered him insensible intervals, only to mark more strongly the to his situation, and led him to talk lightly and

on his frame.


coherently. At intervals his consciousness to our oars, do what we can, perhaps we may thus urned-and then he welcomed death with this arrive at a part of the ocean where a breeze is blowgle reserve-often repeated and with growing ing, but which, if we had waited where we were, Lotion—that he mourned for his afflicted mother. might never have reached us. Let us just begin,mis latter grief seemed to be secured of its power, we will catch an afflatus on the way : at least, if

he should reach that country where God wipes there be any inspiration going, we will get it when ray all tears from the eyes. After sinking rapidly in motion as well as when at rest.--To a certain

some days, he at last expired, without apparent degree, I think it is useful, to digest a subject well uggle, on the 24th of March, at one P. M. about in our thoughts before writing on it. But this cau0 miles from Maranham.

tion may be carried much too far. However con“The sultriness of the weather made it impossi- fused our ideas may be, we never can be the worse e to preserve the body till they should reach land. for endeavouring to express them, and we will pro

was, therefore, deposited in a strong, though bably be the better for it. There seems to me to ainly constructed coffin, and, after the service of be a clearness of understanding arising from the e church of England had been read over it by the very act of composition, which can be derived from amen, was committed to the deep."-pp. 48, 49. no other source. The introduction, or small part The literary remains of this young man,

at the beginning of an essay or sermon, will be

much better for being well thought over, and comelected by Mr. King for publication in

pletely sketched out in the mind before we write it: his small volume, are not numerous, and but we must commit this to paper before we atre more distinguished for unassuming tempt to think over and sketch out the next part iety, affectionate feelings, and plain good with the same minuteness and accuracy; because ense, than for any display of genius or

the load of the first part on the memory will cerxtraordinary talent. They are entirely in tainly act as a clog on the clear conception of the

second. I could not, indeed, begin one part of a Drose, although it is stated that Mr. Car

subject without having an idea of the whole-but nichael composed several pieces in verse.

that idea should be quite general; and we should His mind and habit of thought, indeed, do

not attempt to reduce more than one distinct comnot appear to us to have been highly gifted partment of it to particulars at a time; and let that with poetic sensibility : it is ardent only in part be developed fully before applying the mind levotion, and his devotion is too sincere at all to the evolution of another. I do not think and too pure to need the veil and orna. an exceedingly exact style is good for a minister :

his audience require to have the ideas dwelling on ments of poetic drapery. These Remains

their minds for a little : and, as it would be rather consist of " Letters to a Young Philoso

unfashionable to stop at the end of every philosopher;" and various Remarks, Essays, and

phically expressed sentence, to give time for ruminMiscellaneous Pieces, concluding with a ation, the best substitute is perhaps to spread the selection from bis “ Epistolary Corre- idea out by words which are of little other use spondence.” The letters of young persons than to fill a little more paper and occupy a little of either sex, provided they possess mental more time. You will be thinking that I am leavsincerity, and have not been schooled into ing the paths of philosophy for those of sophistry;

but I do think there is some truth in what I have the pedantic affectation of writing what is

written. Will you please to send me upon my so erroneously termed “a good letter,' are

remarks a jubeo or a veto ? always their best literary productions.

“ I am, indeed, very sorry that I have so exceedThose of this unfortunate student were

ingly little time, else I could with pleasure spend manifestly the unrestrained effusions of his hours in communicating my thoughts to you in this thoughts, as those thoughts rose from the easy way; but you have no conception of the neversentiments of the moment. They are the ending calls that I have upon my time. I was productions of a sensible and cultivated much delighted with your description of the old mind; the following is the first of the

minister. There is truly something inexpressibly selection :

interesting in a soul, which is come, as it were,

within sight of the heavenly city, and already hears To Mr. M-B

the distant hum of angelic songs, and inhales a Edinburgh, Jan. 12, 1828. passing breath of the atmosphere of Paradise. "My dear Friend,

How must the soul be elevated, and glorified, and "Immediately on the receipt of your letter, I solemnized, by the certain prospect of a speedy inwrote considerable part of an answer, which I troduction to the golden streets of the New Jeru. intended to finish on the first opportunity. But salem ? The poet says of an aged Christian, such an opportunity never, till this moment, hav

*His soul expands as he draws near the grave, ing occurred, and the whole of what I had written

Like Phæbus setting o'er the western wave.' being about self, I did not think it worth the sending. I shall not now put off my time, of which I Like him, too, he sets only to rise again on an endI have so little, with apologies, which perhaps after less day. A few days ago, when looking 'round on all would be unfavourably received. I highly ap- the bleakness which follows in the train of winter, prove of your plan of forcing yourself to compose a I reflected how dismally such a change of the little every day. It is an endless thing waiting for seasons would be contemplated by one who had an afflatus, or even endeavouring to work yourself entered the world during the warmth and brightinto one. It is like the sailors whistling for wind, ness of summer, and knew not that the mild atmoas foolish and as fruitless. The best way is to take sphere, and the beauteous vegetation, would be

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restored at their appointed seasons. And O, how monstrous assertions, (not in the origial

) much more dismal was the prospect to those who

and always fatigued with the ruggedres de saw the loveliest forms and the finest dispositions

his style. Though, to use the pengerti descending into the worse than wintry dreariness of the grave, and knew not that mortal man would, language of Gibbon, "every work, bez : like the trees and the flowers, bloom again in new

bishop, suffers by translation," we do no and superior beauties! O blessed gospel, which recollect one, which has suffered so mad, bringest life and immortality to light, how can I

from plaisters and amputations, as Calming bask beneath thy rays with so little delight and so Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans little gratitude . - I must draw to a close. There is We are at a loss to discover co absolutely nothing new within my sphere of obser- principles the translator has proceeded; vation. Though I used to read six newspapers

does not appear to us to have had any weekly, I now do not read one, I have so little time.

cise notions of the nature and object d I am, and have fbeen, exceedingly sorry that I had not written you, but really I could not. I am not

translation : there is no limit to the license quite so busy since the new year. By the bye, I which he takes, whether in omission des heartily wish you all the compliments of the season, insertion; and in page 432, we find full si and remain, (along with my mother, who desires to lines inserted with as little scruple, and a be remembered to you,)

little pretence, as in p. 121, we find fou “Yours truly,

omitted. In page 4 of the Dedication, # “J. S. CARMICHAEL. find the sentence, “he is surpassed scarcely “P.S.–Though I have not much time for writ. by any of the present day, and is to be ing letters, I have plenty of time for reading them : and when you shall favour me with an epistle, compared with but few,” paraphrased thas

, (which I hope will be soon) I will both read it with

attainments which give him a decided attention and pleasure, and will (answer it as soon superiority over the greatest part of las as I can.

“J. S. C.

contemporaries, place him on an eminendi, The volume concludes with a few letters where few can come in competition zu of Mrs. M'Arthur, the sister of the lamented him." Does all this add force to the real subject of this memoir. She died at the sense? We discover here, as well as i early age of seventeen years and a half. other passages which we have examined,

too many of those loose, we were going to

say, slang phrases, which are too often REVIEW.—Commentary on the Epistle to

introduced to fill up the gaps of an exter the Romans. By John Calvin. To pore discourse, and which certainly oozhat which is prefixed his Life, by Theo

never to find their way into the sober per. dore Beza. Translated by Francis

manence of print. The last sentence but Sibson, A.B. Trin. Coll. Dublin. Seeley,

one in the Dedication, is not only not the Fleet Street. London. 1834.

sense of the original, but it is nonsense


In the Dedication, also, we have emulatie It is late in the day to offer a single re- translated imitation, p. 5; we read of " : mark on the extraordinary endowments, man—and their successors,” &c, page ; intellectual or literary, of the author of the in page 143 we read of them handi", Institutes; and it would be preposterous, “he denominates them sacrilegious hands, within such limits as ours, to enter upon the which violated the deity of Venus.” Calvin discussion of his theological system. In the

says, had violated," but this is a trivial following article, therefore, we purpose con- variation in Mr. Sibson's eyes ; be exhibits fining our notice exclusively to the work throughout a most republican indifference before us, considered as a translation. It was ingeniously remarked by the cele- dicative are treated alike, while present and

to tenses and moods; subjunctive and in brated Lucilius,* that he should like to have past are commingled and intermingled in for his readers, neither the most learned nor glorious confusion. In page 120, we find the most unlearned, since the latter would « maliciousness inficting injury on its not understand him at all, and the former neighbours.” In page 533, we are told would understand, probably, more than that “the sense signifies," '&c. In pare himself. What class of readers Mr. Sibson 432, to which we have already referred looked forward to, or desired, we are utterly the property of dilatability is called for unable to divine. The ignorant could not surprisingly; " quò divinitus missum sit," need his assistance, while those of moderate for the express

purpose of dispelling the comprehend him, the learned would not is translated sent by a divine commissie talents and attainments would find them- clouds of superstition, and breaking asande selves constantly bewildered in his wordiness the bonds of ignorance, error, and rice and common-place, occasionally startled by Who would believe that all this rigmarole

was the translation, or rather expansion, o four short words? In page 380,

• Cic. de Orat. ii. 6.

We art


truck by the following passage :-“ the a want of acquaintance with the language, aind, immediately in the height of its pre- which ought to have deterred the translator amptuous rashness, plunges into the abyss from undertaking so arduous and responsif the greatest difficulties." We are not ble a task. Such rambling translation, ware under what figure of speech this which Mr. S. may have flattered himself ingular combination of ideas should be was merely inelegant, cannot be promisculassed; but whatever elegance it may ously indulged in without a likelihood of vossess, the translator has all the merit. detriment to the author's reputation. We Calvin is quite innocent of it; and contents have heard of those who have been satisfied kimself with “ suá temeritate” and “in with giving the general sense of the original; rrofundum mare.” Whence Mr. Sibson's but we would suggest, in passing, that the

greatest difficulties ?" In page 370, in- general sense is any thing but the author's tead of the simple version, “although they sense. It is not sufficient to know that loco, were unbelievers," we have “ though they or locud, or locat, or some word like it, oere sunk in all the darkness of unbeliefmeans place; or that doctrine has something Did Mr. S. entertain a latent idea of making to do with learning or teaching, uncertain 1 fine passage for Calvin ? The sinking which. and the darkness, it is evident, are per- Some remarks on the Commentary are ectly gratuitous ; Calvin could have in. subjoined to the work-in which much is serted them himself, if he had wished. In said, but little to the point; they are meagre page 143, Mr. Sibson draws, or rather hints and unsatisfactory. We are not told what at, a distinction between “heathens and version of the New Testament Calvin used poets,”. (Calvin says, “ethnicos quoque and referred to; and without knowing this, poetas,"

," " the heathen poets also ;) from half the criticisms in the book are unintelliwhich, and a note on page 627, about clas- gible. (More than half the criticisms in sical learning, we conclude that the writer the original are omitted in the translation : was not aware of the existence of poets they might have been given advantageously among the heathens, such as one Homer, in notes.) In the observations on the 8th one Virgil, &c. We cannot understand verse of the 2d chapter, Calvin states that why Deus is always, or generally at least, he has followed Erasmus's version in every rendered by some such phrase as, " the other case, but that in that particular inLord,the King of glory," " the Lord stance he had departed from bis rule. Mr. of glory," " the Father of lights,. &c. Sibson, on the contrary, appears always Why this improvising, if we are to have to have followed the English authorised the English of Calvin's Latin?

version, without regarding the interpretaIn a work of promiscuous literature, such tions of his author. If we were to enumeliberties as we have noticed, in enlarging, rate one tithe of the errors we bave decompressing, and even altering, would be tected, we should trespass unduly on the less injurious to the author; but in a work patience of our readers. We have not exof theology, and especially of doctrinal amined one page in which many blunders theology, like the present, they cannot be have not occurred. We are puzzled to asadmitted without liability to considerable certain, in which of the numerous dialects danger. A carelessness and undigested of Great Britain Mr. S. writes : what mean looseness of style will almost invariably such barbarisms as these—“ the alone disweaken the force of the original, or magnify pensation,” p. 137—“ Nor is it of importa cursory observation into undue import- ance what such a God their imagination ance: in effect, it opens the door to inac- conceives,” &c. ? “The Mufti of Geneva," curacy of every kind. Inaccuracy, how- as Calvin is facetiously denominated by ever, glaring as it is in every page of the South, would not have written in this inacbook, is the least unpardonable of Mr. curate, slip-slop, manner. His Latin is Sibson's faults. His errors are frequently correct, and for the most part classical ; his serious, and apt most grievously to mislead. French is good, and, for his age, elegant. One example out of many, that we have Mr. Sibson was not, perhaps, aware, that collected, will suffice; in page 534, Calvin the proverb, “not a hair but casts a shade," is respresented as saying, “ we must, there- is pre-eminently applicable to translation, fore, consider what questions each is able and that, when he proposed to make fidelity to receive, and suit our doctrines to their his chief object, he was attempting the most capacities." Doctrina, in Latin, means, arduous and thankless branch of literary not doctrine but instruction ; " we must labour, and that in the most difficult style. suit our instructions to their several capa. To be faithful, in every sense of the term, cities.” The word used by Calvin for a translation should contain all the meaning, doctrine, is dogma. This blunder betrays and nothing but the meaning, of the author,

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