Imagens das páginas

and should be written with the same degree or long-forgotten manuscripts, and top of freedom and elegance, as the orignal it- them to the public in an elegant and z self. So to reproduce the ideas of the tractive form, associated with those wit author, free alike from diminution and ex- important facts which they illustrate and aggeration, so to enter into his spirit and confirm, or with some ingenious and talk argument as never to overstep, never to fall able deductions, requires no small dem short of the extent of his expressions, and of learning and research in the author, at the same time to preserve equal chaste- while it supersedes, in the case of the ness and elegance of style, is the work of a reader, the necessity for similar labours

, scholar, and a scholar alone. He must presenting him with their fruits and reset never be tempted, or, if he is, he must re- All this credit, and more, is due to the sist the temptation, to interpolate what he author of the Curiosities of Literature. He may deem an elegance and an improve- further claims our admiration for the bezdy ment; while, on the other hand, he must and lightness of his style, and for thai not skulk over a difficulty by omission or evident bonhommie which makes the paraphrase A precise and minutely inti- reader at once in good temper with tas mate knowledge of both languages, and of author and himself. We are exceeding the capacities and power of every word glad to see these volumes republished n employed, as well as great accuracy and a a more generally accessible form and comprevious acquaintance with the tenour of pass, and we sincerely hope that they wd the book, these are the prerequisites of a secure the patronage of the public, L translator, not one of which appears to be recommending them by an extract or in, possessed by the editor of the work before we know not wbither to turn. Every page us. The English is slovenly and incorrect; is interesting, new, and elegant. We gore, the meaning is garbled and misrepresented ; without selecting, the following :and the performance is in every respect unscholarlike in the extreme. Mr. Sibson's

"CICERO'S PUNS. labours, however, will afford a beacon to fu- "'I SHOULD,' says Menage, ‘have received a ture translators; from him they will, at least, pleasure to have conversed with Cicero, had I Sved learn how they ought not to translate.

in his time. He must have been a man very a able in conversation, since even Cæsar caretus collected his bon mots. Cicero has boasted er the

great actions he has done for his country, because Review.-Curiosities of Literature, by

there is no vanity in exulting in the performes

of our duties; but he has not boasted that he 13 J. D’Israeli, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A.

the most eloquent orator of his age, though he der Ninth Edition. In Six Volumes. Vol. I.

tainly was; because nothing is more disgusting 8 II. Moron, London, 1834.

than to exult in our intellectual powers.' In that most ingenious piece of epigram

" Whatever were the bon mots of Cicero, of which matic prose, Colton's preface to his Lacon,

few have come down to us, it is certain that Crete we read of a man who wrote a book “de

was an inveterate punster; and he seems to box omnibus rebus et quibusdam aliis." This

been more ready with them than with reparters

He said to a senator, who was the son of a tails must, one should suppose, have suggested

* Rem acu tetigisli." You have touched it sharphy: to the learned author the plan of the acu means sharpness as well as the point of “ Curiosities of Literature.” In proof of needle. To the son of a cook, 'Ego quoque las this, let one run his eye over the table of jure sarebo.' The ancients pronounced car 250 contents of the volume before us, which, quoque like co-ke, which alludes to the Latin carat by the way, is by no means its least in- cook, besides the ambiguity of jure, which applies teresting part. “Solomon and Sheba

to broth or law-jus. A Sicilian suspected of being hell - waxwork — modern Platonism—the

a Jew, attempted to get the cause of Verres into his

own hands; Cicero, who knew that he was a cieshistory of gloves”!! This little quotation

ture of the great culprit, opposed him, observing conveys some idea of the variety which

“What has a Jew to do with swine's flesh - The this antiquarian melange offers to the Romans called a boar pig Verres. reader.

a respectable authority for forensic puns; horever, The class of literature to which the to have degraded his adversaries by such petty gal work before us must be assigned, is cer. sonalities, only proves that Cicero's taste vas na tainly far from the highest; at the same

exquisite,"-Vol. I. pp. 101, 102. time, though it may not require for its

“GROTIUS. prosecution the most eminent intellectual gifts, it is one which must be confessed to

“ The life of Grotius shews the singular felicity

of a man of letters and a statesman; and bos: be equally useful and entertaining. To

student can pass his leisure hours in the closest cull with taste the most valuable facts

imprisonment. The gate of the prisou has soarewhich lie lost in the rubbish of dusty folios timcs been the porch of fame.

regret to afir Grotius, studious from his infancy, had also re- statue being of such perfect beauty, he found himired from Nature the faculty of genius; and was self at a loss to display bis powers of criticism, tunate as to find in his father a tutor who had only by lavishing his praise. But only to praise med his early taste and liis inoral feelings. The miglit appear as if there had been an obtuseunger Grotius, in imitation of Horace, has cele- ness in the keenness of his criticism. He tremated his gratitude in verse.

bled to find a fault, but a fault must be found. ** One of the most interesting circumstances in At length he ventured to mutter something cone life of this great man, which strongly marks his cerning the nose; it might, he thought, be somenius and fortitude, is displayed in the manner in thing more Grecian. Angelo differed from his hich he employed his time during his imprison. grace, but said he would attempt to gratify his ent.

Other men, condemned to exile and cap- taste. He took up his chisel, and concealed some vity, if they survive, despair; the man of letters marble-dust in his hand; feigning to re-touch the ay reckon those days as the sweetest of his life. part, he adroitly let fall some of the dust he held ** When a prisoner at the Hague, he laboured on concealed. The cardinal observing it as it fell, Latin essay on the means of terminating religious transported at the idea of his critical acumen, exisputes, which occasion so many infelicities in the

claimed—Ah, Angelo ! you have now given an ate, in the church, and in families; when he was

inimitable grace!' arried to Louvenstein, he resumed his law studies,

When Pope was first introduced to read his hich other employments had interrupted. He

Iliad to Lord Halifax, the noble critic did not venave a portion of his time to moral philosophy ;

ture to be dissatisfied with so perfect a composihich engaged him to translate the maxims of the

tion ; but, like the cardinal, this passage, and that ncient poets collected by Stobæus, and the frag

word, this turn, and that expression, formed the dents of Menander and Philemon.

broken cant of his criticisms. The honest poet Every Sunday was devoted to the scriptures, and was stung with vexation : for, in general, the parts o his Commentaries on the New Testament. In at which his lordship hesitated were those with

which he was most satisfied. As he returned home he course of the work he fell ill; but as soon as he ecovered his health he composed his treatise, in

with Sir Samuel Garth, he revealed to him the Dutch verse, on the Truth of the Christian Reli- anxiety of his mind. “Oh," replied Garth, laughçion. Sacred and profane authors occupied him

ing, "you are not so well acquainted with his ulternately. His only mode of refreshing his mind lordship as myself; he must criticise. At your

next visit read to him those very passages as they was to pass from one work to another. He seut to Vossius his observations on the tragedies of Seneca.

now stand; tell him that you have recollected his He wrote several other works; particularly a little

criticisms; and I'll warrant you of his approbation

of them. This is what I have done a hundred Catechism in verse, for his daughter Cornelia ;

times myself.' and collected materials to form his Apology. Add

Pope made use of this stratagem; to these various labours an extensive correspon

it took, like the marble-dust of Angelo; and my dence he held with the learned ; and his letters

lord, like the cardinal, exclaimed Dear were often so many treatises. There is a printed

they are now inimitable.'"-Vol. I. pp. 189—192. collection amounting to two thousand. Grotius had notes ready for every classical author of antiquity, whenever they prepared a new edition ;

Review.- The History of Switzerland, an account of his plans and his performances might

from its Earliest Origin to the Present furnish a volume of themselves ; yet he never Time; a popular Description and faithpublished in haste, and was fond of revising them ; ful Picture of the gradual Rise and we must recollect, notwithstanding such uninter- Progress of the French Nation. From rupted literary avocations, his hours were fre

the German By Heinrich Zschokke. quently devoted to the public functions of

London. Effingham Wilson. 1834. ambassador. “I only reserve for my studies the time which other ministers give to their pleasures,

This volume, with but few pretensions to to conversations often useless, and to visits some- the highest kind of literary excellence, is still times unnecessary;" such is the language of this

an instructive and entertaining history. As great man! Although he produced thus abund

a translation, it appears to be well managed ; antly, his confinement was not more than two

and, as a history, at once comprehensive and years. We may well exclaim here, that the mind of Grotius had never been imprisoned.

complete. It appears to be especially “I have seen this great student censured for adapted to the young, who, in the perusal neglecting his official duties, but it would be neces

of its contents, will acquaint themselves sary, to decide on this accusation, to know the cha

with the annals of an independent, brave, racter of his accuser."—Vol. I. pp. 191, 192. and interesting people. Nor is their history

"NOBLEMEN TURNED CRITICS. destitute of those romantic events which "I offer to the contemplation of those unfortu- invite and detain the interest of after times. nate mortals who are necessitated to undergo the The story of William Tell may be cited criticismns of lords, this pair of anecdotes

as one of those with which most readers Soderini, the Gonfalouiére of Florence, having

are more or less acquainted, and the narhad a statue made by the great Michel Angelo. when it was finished came to inspect it; and hay

rative of which is given with great siming for some time sagaciously considered it, poring

plicity and beauty in the volume before us. now on the face, then on the arms, the knees, the

The history closes with the fielvetic diet form of the leg, and at length on the foot itself; the of the 27th of May, 1815, which acknow


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ledged and guaranteed the inviolability and by the union of the whole, be invincible, as long a neutrality of Switzerland, in every future every member of the confederation fears less ts

encounter another Grandson, Murton, and Prastent, continental war. In concluding, the author

than the artifice and gold of a patrician Zoppo, ed. glances at the future prospects of this

a bishop Schinner. Ths enemy before whom a interesting country, in one or two para

Swiss heart should tremble comes neither from graphs, which may be offered as a fair Germany nor France. The most formidable advere specimen of the style and spirit of the sary of our freedom and independence-if he again work

appear-will spring from the midst of ourselre.

But he must be made to bear a mark that all mag "Such are the events of the past, in which, as in

know him. It is that man who prefers the credit a mirror, we behold the secrets of the future. It

of his own canton to the lasting glory of the whole was neither the arrow of Tell, nor the poniard of

confederation ?-his own private and transient in Camogask, which severed the bonds of Swiss servi

terests to those of the whole cominunity. It is tude. The independence of the confederation was

who fears the sword worn by a free people, but so achieved neither by the battle of St. Jacob, nor by

the flattering words and presents of kings and their that of the Malserhaide; a struggle of 500 years

ambassadors :-he who openly declares-let silem only could secure freedom at home and establish

be enjoined to the journals, and mystery to the independence abroad.—The men who assembled in

teachers of youth: place your money out to interest, the Grutli, and under the maple of Truns, only gave

and do not sqander it away on armies and military the signal for the sacred contest. When the luxu

establishments; close the council chamber, and la rious pride of the other cantons had corrupted the

not the people hear our proceedings : by this means simplicity of Uri, the confederates no longer blushed

shall we become lords and masters, and the people to fill the places of the expelled governors and their

our slaves. It is he who sows distrust between the deputies, nor to prefer having subjects and bonds

Catholics and Protestants, who raises prohibitary men to associating with free fellow-citizens. At

barriers between one canton and another, and who Stans, where the venerable Von der Flue appeared

seeks to restore that enervating selfishness, that before them, they mutually swore to guarantee to

family ambition, that pride of pedigree, and all those each other a perpetual dominion over their subjects ;

warring corruptions which overwhelmed the ancient and when Toggenburg entreated the acceptance of

confederation in blood, in defiance of Neuenegg and its ransom, they despised the honourable proposal.

Rothenthurn. One great lesson, however, we have They were willing to accord liberties, but not liberty,

learnt: it is, that right and justice are far more to their subjects. Hence the virtue, intelligence,

powerful than force; that the happiness of ead and increasing wealth of the people appeared at

individual family is only safe under the law of length more formidable to them than open defiance

liberty; and that the liberty of the whole sporings and revolt. But what the hand of contemptible

only from the independence of the confederation selfishness had bound, was destined to be by itself

But this independence rests not on papers with im again dissolved. The world saw with astonishment

perial and royal assurances—its foundation is de that that which had rendered the Swiss powerful

iron-our swords; the genuine Swiss nobility must and renowned—their unanimity and indissoluble

spring from the churches and schools of the people, league-was now despised and betrayed by them

The true wealth of the state must consist in the selves. The cantons, forgetful of their ancient

prosperity of every family. The great arsenal of affection, hostilely strove against each other, and

the confederation must be the armories of its citicourted the favour of foreign states, The cham

zens; the transactions of the parliaments and popupions of liberty became enslaved for the gold chains

lar assemblies must resound in the ears of the of princes: the frugal sons of the Alps sold on un

whole nation. By these means will a noble public known plains the blood of the people for hire, and

spirit scatter, like a celestial fire, the rubbish or their own voices in the senate for sordid presents.

civic and cantonal egotism. It was neither the The manly spirit of the ancient statesman degene

arrow of Tell, nor the poniard of Camogask, that rated into the timidity of an oligarchy, which con

severed the bonds of Swiss servitude. The inde verts the affairs of the nation into secrets of state.

pendence of the confederation was achieved neither At the moment, however, when the governments

by the battle of St. Jacob, nor by that of the Malser: had almost wholly alienated themselves from the

haide. The men who assembled at Grutli, and nation, the people severed from them. No empire

under the maple of Truns, gave the signal only for ever owed its fall to the virtues of its citizens :-the

the sacred contest. Confederates ! we combat for it ancient league, frequently infringed, sank to utter

still. Our descendants will combat for it over out dissolution.

graves. Be wary,

lest ye fall into temptation. Let " That God, however, who had upheld their

your trust be in God :---your watch word, All the fathers, watched also with unceasing compassion

confederates for one, and each for all !"--pp. 992 over the children. And as a fruitful rain gushes

to 395. from the stormy thunder-cloud, so from this tempest of the political horizon arose the freedom of the These are noble sentiments; and such as, whole Swiss nation. Over a surface of about 4500 with all the unsuitableness of the Swiss forin square miles, between lake Leman and the lake of

of government to the circumstances of most Constance, there now exists (a thing before unheard of) a population of two million, composing twenty

nations, owe their origin to that political contwo commonwealths, all enjoying freedom and in

dition, and could scarcely have been genedependence. It is true that, compared to the power

rated except in a republic. We conclude of other states, the strongest of these republics is

with a cordial recommendation of the volume feeble and insignificant. Still will the least of them, we have thus introduced to our readers.

“ At first I felt such an attachment to EVIEW.— The Life, Character, and Li

astronomy, that I resolved to confine my terary Labours of Samuel Drew, A.M.

views to the study of that science; but I soon By his Eldest Son. London. Longman. found myself too defective in arithmetic to 1834.

make any proficiency. Modern history was his is, in all respects, a highly interesting my next object; but I quickly discovered plume. It records the instructive history

that more books and time were necessary fa man of acute and powerful intellect, of than I could either purchase or spare, and on

this account history was abandoned. In the reat diligence, and of sterling and excel

region of metaphysics I saw neither of the int piety. It is written by his son, and

above impediments. It nevertheless appeared xhibits all the excellencies and all the

to be a thorny path, but I determined to vults (and they are of that pardonable enter, and accordingly began to tread it.' haracter which “lean to virtue's side") “ Referring to this period of his life, in which usually mark productions of that conversation with a gentleman with whom ind.

We warmly sympathize with the he was particularly intimate, when asked biographer in those feelings of affectionate whether he had not studied astronomy in his espect which betray themselves throughout time, Mr. Drew remarked, “I once had a lis work; and, for our own part, we think

very great desire for it, for I thought it suithat the minutely circumstantial manner in

able to the genius of my mind, and I think

so still: but then which some private matters, illustrative of Mr. Drew's character, are detailed, adds

'Chill penury repressed the noble rage, not a little to the interest of the book, In

And froze the genial current of the soul.' perusing it, we dwell and converse with Dangers and difficulties I did not fear, while the venerable deceased, and thus realize

I could bring the powers of my mind to bear the true effects of a good biography, by

upon them, and force myself a passage. To becoming intimately acquainted with its

metaphysics I then applied myself, and be

came what the world and my good friend subject. If we must take an exception

Dr. Clarke call A METAPHYSICIAN.' against it, we would say that, in our opinion, some of the correspondence might And a metaphysician (to his honour be be advantageously omitted, especially such it spoken) he indeed became; and such a as is of a private and confidential character. one, as, though destitute of the forms and We think that a writer may justly claim so subtleties of the schools, dived more deeply far a property in what he writes, as to than most metaphysicians have been able make it a breach of confidence to publish to do into the depths of those subjects even letters which were intended but for which lie at the boundary of our theoloone reader.

gical knowledge. It would be beside our purpose to pre

We recommend this volume to our sent the reader with an analysis of a me- readers as giving a fair delineation of a moir which is necessarily made up of a

whose character," to use the words great number of minutiæ : Mr. Drew's life of Dr. Gregory, "exhibited an extraordin. contained but few great events, on which ary union of the finest intellectual and the biographer can expatiate; it was, in a

moral attributes of our nature, and whose great measure, a literary life. The key to name, talents, and labours will be long his whole history may be given in a single held in high veneration." paragraph, from the pen of Mr. Drew, which occurs in the ninth section of the volume before us

REVIEW.- The Nun. Sceley and BurnBy unremitting industry," he says, “I

side, and Seeley and Sons. London. at length surmounted such obstacles as were

1833. of a pecuniary nature: this enabled me to

Tue tyranny of the Church of Rome is procure assistance in my labours, and afforded me the common relaxation which passing away more rapidly perhaps than others enjoyed. This was the only leisure

many of the other moral and superstitious at which I aimed. In this situation, I felt tyrannies, which originated during the ages an internal vigour prompting me to exertion, of darkness in that blind prostration of inbut I was unable to determine what direc- tellect, insisted upon, by the artful and tion I should take. The sciences lay before interested few, as the religious obedience of me. I discovered charms in each, but was the multitude to the Deity. One of the unable to embrace them all, and hesitated in strongest rools of the papal power was that making a selection. I had learned that

which struck its intertangled fibres through One science only will one genius fit,

the connexions of domestic life, and drew So vast is art, so narrow buman wit.' its nourishment from the corruption of the 20. SERIES, NO. 40.- VOL. IV,

2 A

184.-VOL. XVI.


best of human affections. The sacrifice of doubt of the author having been, as is in. the whole of human life from the days of deed intimated, the nun she is delineating. youth, with all its interesting duties, its She states herself to have been educaled animating pursuits, and its anticipated plea. in the strictest principles of the Roman sures, at the altar of priestly sanctity, and Catholic faith, and was left an orphan at the demand of priestly authority, was short time previous to the French revolut the triumph of despotic brutality over tion. She was born at Turin; her fortune abject and infatuated ignorance. We now, was respectable, and entirely in her own in our emancipated state, look back with power. The early death of a beloved sister blended indignation and pity, at the detes- acted so powerfully upon ber mind table bigotry which could thus devote strongly to incline her to become a nun. human nature as an offering to ecclesiasti. Although brought up strictly, she had red cal power, and we are astonished that man. ceived more intellectual improvement than kind, for so many ages, yielded itself to Piedmontese ladies, in general, at that this unnatural and unprincipled subjugation. period; and having a relative and school Even yet that subjugation is far from being fellow married at St. Siffren, she accepted wholly terminated The papal authority on the death of her sister, an invitation to assuming to itself upon earth rights apper- that small town, in which stood a convent, taining to the Deity alone, would still re- of Notre Dame de Misericorde, of the order model and pervert the nature of man, and of St. Augustin, make the free being to whom the Creator gave an intellect capable of comprehend- and high renown for sanctity, of which the

" A convent of very old establishment, ing his word and his works, a trembling superior was an abbess, and, at the time ! slave, crouching before the avaricious and speak of, an individual of the noble family of ambitious power of priestcraft. Instructed Lascaris, supposed to be descended from the now from scripture and from general know. Emperors of the East. Behind this convent ledge, the human mind scorns the efforts of was a very large garden, which was the more a superannuated superstition. The human beautiful, as it encroached upon the hill which soul, fortified by the gospel, knows that its

rose immediately behind the house, and in way to its God is not through a labyrinth of consequence was divested of that stiffness darksome cells, in which the instincts

which must always be found in a pleasureand passions, instead of being directed, ground situated on a perfect level. This under the guidance of divine grace, to their garden was surrounded by exceedingly high

walls, and moreover was shaded by a line of duties and to the just ends for which the Creator implanted them in our nature, were

very tall cedar-trees planted within the wall:

yet was it commanded from the hill behind, either annihilated, or rendered the instru- though at so great a distance as by no means ments of constant torture.

to incommode those who took the air, even In the volume before us, we have a most in the most exposed part of the garden. This interesting description of the manners of spot of ground had also another advantage, a nunnery. The consequences of that ty

which was this, that a litle stream of clear ranny which the papacy exercised during

water from the hills passed through it, a low so many ages over domestic connexions grated arch being provided in the wall for its and affections, when it tore the heart of the

entrance, and another, on the other side, for

its exit. young and lovely, on the very first movement of its warmest and most delightful appearance of this establishment, and having

“I was exceedingly captivated with the sentiments, from life ; and, in the violated

made up my mind to obtain admission therein, game of the Creator and the Saviour, united

if possible, I got my friend, Madame Verani, it, in bonds, to a death, in which there was

to speak to Father Joachim, the confessor of no rest, are here most admirably displayed. the household, who presently intimated that The narrative, which constitutes the outline Madame la Superieure would see me at an of the work is probably in some respects hour appointed, on a certain day in the folfictitious, but there is reason to suppose lowing week; in consequence of which, my that it is founded on fact. It is extremely

friend and myself repaired to the house at simple, and has none of those studied

the time fixed. Being arrived on the terrace situations by which the mere novelist en

under the walls of the convent, we walked deavours to ensure effect. The merit of the slowly forwards, and there was a decided work consists in affording a distinct view of impression of awe on the minds of both what could scarcely be imagined by any person who had not been conversant with

“So many of the ancient religious edifices the scenes and situations described in it; subsequently affected many of the continental

were destroyed during the revolutions which and so completely graphic are these de- countries, that we now seldom see a monastic scriptions, that we can scarcely entertain a society invested with all those circumstances

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