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have found that it was vain, as it was confirm the varied and distinctive features wicked, to attempt to open what God has of national character, have their specife shut, and to shut what he has opened; and operation on this particular branch of # have returned, at last, to that mode of learn- A gloomy climate is found more favourable ing future events which alone is intended to it than a sky of perpetual sunshine ; for man, namely, by turning their back mountainons country is notoriously auspicioa upon them, and attentively observing their to its growth, and in general, the more sublime shadows upon the surface of the past. features of external nature are more free

Whence then has superstition its birth? quently found associated with it, than the We believe, that the mere principle of more beautiful. In confirmation of the curiosity is inadequate to account for its tendency of one or other of the abovg prevalence; that it would not have survived causes to foster this cast of national chaso many disappointments and failures. We

racter, we may mention the Highlanders of think it must be traced to those times, in Scotland, the Welsh, the English generally, which the affairs of mankind required more in a considerable degree, and especially the near and distinct manifestations of that power by which they are administered, Among the latter people, indeed, superthan have since been necessary; and in stition and mysticism seem to be most which some powers of prediction were per. rooted and characteristic. They seem to mitted to some, both of the servants and have maintained an unrelaxed hold on the the enemies of God. Ever since that time, national mind from a very early period. the superstition which was the indirect Even the delineations of Tacitus, which are effect of this state of things, has been kept about as ancient as the christian æra, exhialive among all nations by means of astro- bit just those traits which we should judge, logy, imposture, and priestcraft; and down from its adult appearance, must have chato the present day, we imagine that most racterized its infancy; and, among these men entertain those subjects which have analogies, that which respects the particula to do with the supernatural, with a latent tendency now under consideration is not wish to find some truth on the side of the least remarkable. superstition—in short, that credulity is far But prominent as we have always re. more generally distinctive of the human garded this feature of the German chamind than scepticism.

racter, we were not prepared for such an This, however, is by no means equally exhibition of it as is offered in the volume true of all the families of mankind. On now before us. It is the production, as it the contrary, some of the chief varieties in would appear, of a learned gentleman, who national character, are dependent upon the styles himself, “ late Professor of the Unidifferent degrees in which this credulity versities of Heidelberg and Marbury, and prevails. In nations distinguished for private Aulic-counsellor to the Grand Duke activity and gaiety of mind, who are less of Baden.” The design of the book may be given to speculation and contemplation, learned from the following passage in the and whose studies' chiefly have respect to translator's preface. the physical sciences, it is perhaps least prevalent. The French may be cited, in " There will be doubtless many, into whose bo illustration of this remark. On the other

this work may fall, who will be ready to inggih

"What does it concern me, whether I believe E hand, those nations among whom the ima

appearances from the invisible world, or not? af te gination has more sway, who love to make what benefit can society derive from the publicauda

of such a work? incursions in their poetry into the regions of

" To this, it is briefly replied, that its object 29, fiction, and to ramble in their meditations

first of all, to overthrow the system of Material:se along the limits which enclose our territory and consequent Infidelity, which is so alarminęty of ascertainable truth, and on the borders prevalent; secondly, to place undeniable supertateral of the unknown and the mysterious; among

phenomena upon their proper basis, which, stb.

juncture is peculiarly needful; thirdly, to cad 1 those nations or classes of men who are clear and evident light upon the state of the soul much given to the study of human nature, after death, respecting which, such great and dup and more particularly of mental philosophy gerous mistakes are made, and such wilful ignorades

prevails; and, lastly, by such a variety of sole 1.". and psychology, there is not only a dispo- considerations, to promote personal boliness in the sition to entertain those subjects which heart and life. The work has therefore reference respect the supernatural, but generally a more or less, to every individual, and the Transla:cr tendency to credulity and superstition.

feels persuaded, that an impartial perasal of 18

pages, will convince the reader of its importance & Nor would we affirm that these effects are

utility."- Preface, pp. v., vi. only produced by the mental habitudes and studies which have been mentioned. This is, it must be confessed, rather an 9 || the causes which go to constitute and imposing commencement. We will air

a

eavour to give the reader some notion of communicated many observations to me with his own ne degree in which he has fulfilled these pro

lips. To these must be added another credible

witness, Doctor Gmelin, of lleilborn : this very əssions. Like most other defenders of super. learned, and any thing else than fantastic or enthutition, his first object is to identify it with siastic individnal, has given to the public his very eligion; and, by way of clearing the striking experiments in several volumes. The late

Doctor Wienbolt had also collected his highly round, he wisely employs the first part of interesting animal-magnetic practice of twenty years, ris book in the refutation of materialism, into several volumes, of which he bad published one which is certainly rather a formidable foe or two of the first, when he was overtaken by death.

Scherf, the celebrated physician to the Prince of o his theory.) He then begins to develop

Detmold, subsequently completed the publication of is own views, in terms which we will

this work. Besides these, I have met with many profesquote for the edification of the reader, sional, and non-professional men, in my various jourjegging him to excuse a slight want of

neys, for whose incorruptible integrity, penetration,

and strong attachment to the truth, I can vouch, from perspicuity in the first sentence.

whom I have learned things still more mysterious,

and such as are in the highest degree remarkable, but " As soon as the system of materialism is proved

which are not of a nature to be made public. o be false, and only of value in the visible world,

“ To avoid all unnecessary prolixity, I will only veiog totally incompatible with the world of spirits,

here adduce such results of animal magnetism, as are vecause the former is only founded on time and

certain, and beyond a doubt; but if this be pot suffi. pace, but the latter by no means : so the reciprocal

cient for the reader, let him attentively peruse the >peration of two things, which are remote from each

works above mentioned, and he will assuredly be conOther as to time and space, is likewise impossible in

vinced. But before I proceed further, I must give the material world, but in the spiritual world, not

all my readers a serious caution : Animal Magnetism only possible, but natural.

is a very dangerous thing. When an intelligent " To forebode something, signifies the apprehen.

physician employs it for the care of certain diseases, sion of something remote, either in time or space, 80

there is no objection to it; but as soon as it is applied that the individual is more or less obscurely con

to discover mysteries, to which we are not directed scious of it. When I say I forebode something, I

in this life, the individual commits the sin of sorcery in fer from reasonable grounds, that some particular

-an insult to the majesty of heaven. thing will occur, or that it is taking place at a “ When a person of either sex is gently stroked, distance; by the words, I have a foreboding or pre

according to certain rules, by another person of seotiment of something, I express the feeling of the

either sex, over his clothes, (for it is not necessary to influence of some being unknown to me, that designs undress,) and when this is frequently repeated, many to inform me of something that has taken place at a

fall into what is called the magnetic sleep, (sompamdistance, or something future, that is approaching. bulism ;) some earlier, others later, and many not at But in order to shed light upon this obscure subject,

all. In this state, all the senses are at rest ; no noise, let us examine human nature a little more closely.

no sudden entrance of light, no violent shaking, can " The idea of human nature, that had previously awake them, and the body is as it were dead, with the generally prevailed, consisted in this : man was

exception of those motions which are necessary to regarded as & being constituted of body and soul;

vitality. The inner man enters into a more elevated, the body was considered as a very artificially orga- and very agreeable state, which gradually increases, nized machine, which was set in motion and opera- the more frequently magnetizing, or stroking, accordtion by the soul. This idea is also quite correct,

ing to certain rules, is repeated. The exaltation of according to the laws of the material world, and the

the inner man rises in many persons to such a height, mechanical system which prevails in it; we cannot,

that they come into connexion with the invisible and we ought not, to regard our bodies in any other

world, and they very frequently reveal hidden mys. light.

teries, and also remarkable things, which are taking “The soul was denominated spirit; of which how

place at a distance, or will shortly happen. ever nothing further was known, than that its opera

The following circumstance is very striking, and, tion was felt: and this is also perfectly correct, for

in fact, astonishing. During this magnetic sleep, the its substance does not belong to the material, but

individual has not the smallest perception of the to the spiritual world, and cannot therefore be felt

visible world ; he only sees the person who magby us in our present state ; but how these extremely

netizes him, and who stands in rapport with him, not different substances, spirit and body, could recipro

however with the visual organs, for they are either cally act upon each other, no one knew, Eluci.

convulsively closed, or, if open, the pupils are as dations were hazarded, but contradictions opposed

much dilated as in a complete gutta serena. I have themselves ; faith was exercised, and reason taken

myself held a lighted candle immediately before the captive; and this was the surest way under those eyes of a person in this state, but the pupils continged circumstances; but now the path is opened out to

extended and immoveable, he perceived nothing us, so that at least we are come much nearer the

whatever of the light; but the individual sees the trnth.

person who magnetizes him, from the region of the " The science of Animal Magnetism, which had

pit of the heart, in a luminous azure radiance, that occasionally manifested itself from the earliest ages,

surrounds the whole body like a glory. With many, and was brought into a system by Messmer, between

the exaltation of the inner man rises so high, that the years 1770 and 1780, but which, at the very

they read, most distinctly, the thoughts and ideas ontset, met with the most profound contempt, in

which pass in the mind of their magnetizer. consequence of the most extravagant charlatanry,

I have said that these persons, in their elevated and the most shockiog abuse which was made of it,

state, are unconscious of any thing in the visible was now investigated by very able, impartial, and

world, except their magnetizer; but as soon as the candid naturalista-by men who really canoot be

latter places them in rapport with another person, by charged with the weakness of enthusiasm,

means of certain graspings of the hand, they immedi" Those who are the best known to me are, the

ately see this other person, in like manner, not with late counsellor of state, Bockmann, here in Carlsruhe, the eyes, but from the region of the pit of the heart; and my peter-to-be-forgotten friend, Doctor Wien. and in the same way, they perceive also, distinctly holt, sargeon, of Bremen, who is likewise now no and correctly, what that person thioks and imagines Bockmann was also my warm friend, and

At the time. In this state, the somnambulist has a 2D. SERIES, NO. 40.-VOL IV.

2 B

184.-VOL. XVI.

more,

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most lively recollection of his whole life ; all the integrity and prudence, and so was at the en faculties of his soul are in a state of elevation, but about fifty years of age. This man had been bett as soon as he awakes again, he is totally unconscious up in his youth at a college in Paris, sbere Cup of it."-pp. 41 to 46.

Villiers, the father of the Duke of Baekiagham, 1 And so he goes on.

also educated, with whom he formed a stat

But without quot- friendship, but had never spoken with him eiset ta ing further upon this topic, we must period. reveal to the reader some important con

As this keeper of the robes was lying on his head clusions at wbich our learned Doctor ar

at Windsor, in perfect health, seven months benne

the murder of the Duke, there appeared to ti, 1 rives by a chain of equally rational and midnight, a man of venerable aspect, xbo dres side conclusive reasoning. These are, first,

the curtains of his bed, and asked him, wbilet loteca that men's souls are blue ! that they con

at him stedfastly, if he did not know him? Atb. sist of what our translator renders“ a phy.

be made no reply, being half dead through is

But on being asked the second time, whether bei sical atmosphere,” which surrounds the not remember ever to have seen him ? the receita body, investing its whole surface, to what of George Villiers, from the similarity of dress and thickness the Doctor does not inform us;

features, occurred to him; he therefore said be that this intellectual gas serves blind men

him for George Villiers. The apparition replied the

he was in the right, and begged of him to de la as an organ of touch, by the assistance of the favour, to go to his son the Duke of Backingia which they can feel near objects without in his name, and tell him, that he mest eseri be coming into contact with them; that in

self to make himself popular, or at least to meet

embittered minds of the people, otherwise be sade this atmosphere the process of magnetizing not be suffered to live long." After these words to is performed; and that persons in mag- apparition vanished, and the good man, whether bo netic sleep have a full view of the phe

was fully awake or not awake, slept qazila 2 nomenon round the person near them ;-and

morning. this in the nineteenth century from a learned

"On awaking, he regarded the apparitia si

dream, and paid no particular attentioa to ! A Doctor and Professor !

night or two afterwards, the same person appent The principle which the Doctor lays

again, in the very same place, and at the same her. down respecting the possibility of men

with rather a more serious aspect than the is

time, and asked him if he had executed the comes tal intercourse independently of bodily sion he had given him. As the apparition knew tay presence, of course clears the way for his well that he had not done so, it reproached his very theory of presentiments, which he fortifies severely, and added, that it had expected grese by an indiscriminate narration of instances,

compliance from him; and that if he could set fra most of them resting on the testimony of

its request, he should have no rest, but that it would

follow him every where. individuals, (though these are all persons

"The terrified keeper of the robes promised ob of unquestionable veracity,) and some of

dience; but in the morning he was still irreseiate. which are pre-eminently absurd.

and knew not what to do. He could not bring With

self to regard this second apparition, which ta respect to apparitions of departed spirits, so clear and obvious, as a dream, and set, on the he brings forward some equally ridiculous other hand, the high rank of the Duke, the dificily narratives, in philosophizing upon which

of obtaining admission to his presence, and, abera

all, the consideration how he should make the be would certainly lead his readers to Duke believe the thing, seemed to bim to dese attribute to him, at least, that mental the execution of his errand, and to render it ipps ubiquity for which he pleads; for he writes

sible, of all that takes place after death with as

“He was for some days op determined what be

should do; at length he took the resolution to be much confidence as if he had travelled and inactive in the matter as before. But a third and resided successively in heaven--hell—and more dreadful vision than the two former dos purgatory. His descriptions are indeed

ceeded; the apparition reproached him in a biter sometimes quite topographical.

tone, with not fulfilling his pro nise. The leemed

the robes confessed that he had delayed the sectoThe principles which the Doctor teaches plishment of that which had been imposed upon his on these subjects are so exclusively founded

on account of the difficulty of approaching the Deko on assumption, and so perfectly absurd, gain admission to him; and even if he found be

as he knew no one through whom he could hope to that we will not fatigue the reader by to obtain an andience, yet the Dake woald De belang

that he had received such a commission, he soul are too much like the common-place ghost stories, which every body knows and laughs being prompted to it by designing people who

citing
them. The instances

, most of them, look upon himaces insane, or su ppose that certain

to deceive him, either from personal malice, or fra at, to be worthy of any attention. There

manner, his ruin would be i Bevitable. Bet the is, however, an account of an apparition

apparition continned firm to its purpose, and will that preceded the death of the Duke of

with its desire. It also added, that admittance to Buckingham, which, as a piece of English his son was easy. and that those who are not history given by Lord Clarendon in his speak with him, need not wait long. In order, lor. History of the Rebellion, may not be un

ever, that he might gain credence, it would sa interesting. It is as follows :

him two or three circumstances, but of which be

must mention pothing to any “ Amongst the officers of the wardrobe at Windsor,

Duke himself, who, upon hearing it, would give

credit to the rest of his story also; was a man who was uviversally esteemed for his The man now believed himself under the tape

one, except to the

ty of obeying this third demand of the apparitiou, different criterion in forming his decision ; od therefore set off the next morning for London ;

for od as he was intimately acquainted with Sir Ralph

we are disposed to think that the reeman, the master of requests, who had married larger the circulation of the volume before near relative of the Duke's, he waited upon him, us, the greater will be the number of od besought him to assist him with his influence obtain an audience, having matters of importance

persons who resolve never to read another communicate to the Duke, which demanded great

of the same kind, rivacy, and some time and patience. “Sir Ralph knew the prudence and modesty of the aap, and concluded from what he had heard only in eneral expressions, that something extraordinary was he cause of his journey. Ile therefore promised com

Review.- The Sacred Classics, Vol. II. liance, and that he should speak with the Duke on Edited by the Rev. R. Cattermole, B.D. be subject. He seized the first opportunity to men- and the Rev. H. Stebbing, M. d. Anion to the Duke the good character of the man, and is wish for an audience, and communicated to him

tiquitates Apostolica ; or, the Lives, very thing he knew of the matter. The Duke gave Acts, and Martyrdom of the Holy um for answer, that he was going early the following Apostles of our Saviour, 8c. Vol. I. lay, with the king, to the chase, and that his horses

By William Cave, D. D. Chaplain in rould wait for him at Lambeth Bridge, where he inended to land, at five in the morning; and if the pan

Ordinary to Charles II, Hatchard & would attend him there, he might converse with him

Son. London. 1834. my long as was necessary.

"Sir Ralph did not fail to conduct the keeper of the We are much gratified to witness the rerobes, at the hour appointed, to the place, and intro- vival of such a book as this. It is one duce him to the Duke on his landing from the vessel. The Duke received him very courteously, took him

which is calculated to illustrate the Sacred aside, and spoke with him nearly a full hour. There Record, at the same time that it adds a new was no one at the place, but Sir Ralph and the Duke's interest to its perusal. By availing himself servants; but all of them stood at such a distance, that it was impossible for them to hear any thing of the

of the comparatively brief notices of what conversation, although they saw that the Duke spoke

may be called the biography of the apostles frequently with much emotion. Sir Ralph Freeman, contained in the scriptures, and combining who had his eyes constantly fixed upon the Duke, ob- these with the more minute accounts supserved this still better than the rest: and the keeper of

plied by the fathers of the Christian church the robes told him, on their return to London, that when the Duke heard the particular incidents, which

and other historians, the author has combe revealed to him, in order to make the rest of his piled a full and most interesting memoir of communication credible, he changed colour, and af- ihe lives of Peter and Paul, which fill the firmed, that no one but the devil could have dis

first volume of his work which is now before closed this to him ; because none but he (the Duke) and another person knew of it, of whom he was con- us. Perhaps the main advantage of such a vinced that she had told it to no one.

work is its continuousness, by which it "The Duke continued the chase, it was however ob.

affords a more complete view of the history served that he frequently left the company, and appeared sunk in deep thought, and took Do part in the

of these extraordinary men than can be obpleasure. He left the chase the same forenoon, alighted tained from the Inspired Records, or from at Whitehall, and repaired to his mother's apartments, any other single source. The Holy Spirit, with whom he was closeted for two or three hours.

who dictated the Bible, contemplated far Their loud conversation was heard into the adjoining apartments; and when he came ont, much disturbance, other purposes than those which regard the mingled with anger, was visible in his countenance, biography of the first teachers of Christianity; which had never before been observed after convers.

at the same time the incidental notices of ing with his mother, for whom he always testified the

the events of their lives stamps upon their greatest respect. The Countes3 was found in tears after the departure of her son, and plunged into the history a kind of sanctity, which invests any derpest grief. So much is known and ascertained, further information respecting them with a that she did not seem surprised when she received

peculiar interest. More particularly the the news of the assassioation of the Duke, which

delineations of the character of these infollowed some months afterwards, It would therefore appear, that she had previously foreseen it, and that spired men, as derivable from various her son had informed her of what the keeper of the authentic accounts of their lives, must be robes had discovered to him ; nor did she manifest that

read with an intense eagerness almost equal grief in the sequel, which she must necessarily have felt at the loss of such a beloved son."--pp. 288 to 23.

to that which would be awakened by a new

revelation. From the notes of the translator we should These interesting subjects are fully treated suppose that he goes the whole length of bis of in the volume before us, and on this ac. author's theory. Of this theory he tells us in count we rejoice to see it again brought his preface that he has recently found some before the notice of the Christian world. striking confirmations, in a foreign publi- Nor is it material to the credit of the work cation, of recent date, which he proposes to that the author in some instances narrates give to the public, in case the present some parts which rest upon merely legendvolume should be favourably received. ary evidence. In all such cases he candidly We should recommend him to adopt a acknowledges the source from which he

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derives them, and offers them to the reader sons of better quality, and more ingenus to be taken at their legitimate value. One education : and from this instrument of his of the most interesting portions of the his- execution the custom, no doubt, first wise

, tory is that which refers to the last days and that in all pictures and images of this aperit

, death of the “ Apostle of the Gentiles," and

he is constantly represented with a sword in this we will extract as a specimen of the

his right hand. Tradition reports (justed work:

herein by the suffrage of many of the faiten that when he was beheaded, a liquer et

like milk than blood flowed from his icon To what other parts of the world St. and spirted upon the clothes of his erecPaul preached the gospel, we find no certain tioner; and had I list or leisure for sent footsteps in antiquity, nor any further men- things, I might entertain the reader wat tion of him till his return to Rome, which

little glosses that are made upon it. * probably was about the eighth or ninth year Chrysostom adds, that it became a means d of Nero's reign. Here he met with Peter, converting his executioner, and many more, bu and was, together with him, thrown into the faith; and that the apostle suffered in the prison; no doubt in the general persecution sixty-eighth year of his age. Some questina raised against the Christians, under the pre- there is, whether he suffered at the same time tence that they had fired the city. Besides with Peter ; many of the ancients positively the general, we may reasonably suppose there affirm, that both suffered on the same day el were particular causes of his imprisonment. year; others, though allowing the same day, Some of the ancients make him engaged with

tell us that St. Paul suffered not till the fear Peter in procuring the fall of Simon Magus, after; nay, some interpose the distance e and that that derived the emperor's fury and

several years.

A manuscript writer rage upon him. St. Chrysostom gives us this lives and travels of Peter and Paul, brengtas account; that, having converted one of Nero's amongst other venerable monuments of andconcubines, a woman of whom he was in- quity out of Greece, will have Paul to have finitely fond, and reduced her to a life of suffered no less than five years after Petzi

, great strictness and chastity, so that now she which he justifies by the authority of no la wholly refused to comply with his wanton than Justin Martyr and Irenæus. But what and impure embraces, the emperor stormed credit is to be given to this nameless aula, thereat, calling the apostle a villain and im- I see not; and therefore lay no weight upon postor, a wretched perverter and debaucher it, nor think it fit to be put into the balance of others, giving order that he should be cast with the testimonies of the ancients. Ca. into prison, and, when he still persisted in tainly, if he suffered not at the very saire persuading the lady to continue her chaste time with Peter, it could not be long after, and pious resolutions, commanding him to be not above a year at most. The best is, which put to death.

of them soever started first, they both can “ How long he remained in prison is not

at last to the same end of the race; to those certainly known : at last his execution was palms and crowns which are reserved for u! resolved on ; what his preparatory treatment good men in heaven, but most eminently far was, whether scourged as malefactors were the martyrs of the Christian faith. wont to be in order to their death, we find “ He was buried in the Via Ostiensis

, not. As a Roman citizen, by the Valerian about two miles from Rome, over whose and the Porcian law he was exempted from grave, about the year 318, Constantine the it ; though, by the law of the twelve tables, Great, at the instance of pope Sylvester, baik notorious malefactors, condemned by the cen- a stately church, within a farm which Lucina, turiate assemblies, were first to be scourged, a noble Christian matron of Rome, had loa, and then put to death; and Baronius tells us, before settled upon that church. He adored that in the church of St. Mary, beyond the it with a hundred of the best marble columns

, bridge of Rome, the pillars are yet extant, to

and beautified it with the most exquisite which both Peter and Paul are said to have workmanship; the many rich gifts and etc been bound and scourged. As he was led to

dowments which he bestowed upon it

, being execution, he is said to have converted three particularly set down in the life of Sylvester

. of the soldiers that were sent to conduct and This church, as too narrow and little for the guard him, who within a few days after, by honour of so great an apostle, Valentinian, ce the emperor's command, became martyrs for rather Theodosius the emperor, (the one bu the faith. Being come to the place, which finishing what the other began, by a reçripe was the Aquæ Salviæ, three miles from Rome, after some solemn preparation, he cheerfully caused to be taken down, and a larger and

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directed to Sallustius, prefect of the city, gave his neck to the fatal stroke. As a more noble church to be built in the room of Roman he might not be put upon the cross, it : further beautified (as appears from a too infamous a death for any but the worst of ancient inscription) by placidia the emperen slaves and malefactors, and therefore was be- at the persuasion of Leo, bishop of Rone. headed ; accounted a more noble kind of. What other additions of wealth, honour, er death, not among the Romans only, but stateliness, it has received since, concerns not among other nations, as being fitter for per- me to inquire."-pp. 290 to

294.

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