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not be withheld; yet a short season of expectation, and the blessing of increased amply reward the labourer's anxiety and care. I see the abodes of misery and Free sought out by the ministers of consolation ; the offspring of the poor, once left uppen to the dominion of their own fierce and evil passions, growing up beneath the sound o the gospel of peace; and, lastly, the bonds of Christian fellowship beginning to be hi and acknowledged by those who should never have allowed themselves to differ. Sest all this will not prove ineffectual and vain! For my own part, if I were allowed to e the first-fruits of that harvest for which prayer has so long been exercised, and expeca tion undoubtingly entertained, methinks I could pass from earth almost in the si described by the Epicurean poet,-a contented and satisfied guest, not because I had drained the chalice filled with the pleasures of life to the dregs, and found a sex draught depied, but as taught from my own experience, by peace and anxiety, bye and sorrow, by the comforts as well as by the anxieties of a sufficiently varied and to tracted career, that every dispensation of severe trial or unhoped-for deliverance wa has attended my condition of existence here, has been mercifully meant to qualify a prepare me for one far better and more permanent hereafter.


Yea, all that it inherits, shall dissolte,

And, like the baseless fabric of a rito, States and nations have been compared,

Leave not a rack behind. with reference to their rise, greatness, de- We are not, however, to conclude the cline, and fall, to the individuals of whom because Egypt and Assyria, Gresce at they are composed. Infancy, youth, man- Rome are no more, there is an absolut hood, old age, and death have their resem- term in the destinies of nations which they blances, it is thought, in kingdoms and em- cannot outlast. On the contrary, we het pires, where man exists only as a compo- many reasons to believe, that, as the de: nent part or rather particle. It does not, tion of a people is connected, under ishowever, follow from any logical deduction portant circumstances, with sacred et easily imagined, that because men grow moral causes, there must be great difeold, states must therefore grow old, or that ences in what may be termed the constiempires must expire for no other reason tutional health and tendency to longerit

, than that the transitory beings who consti- in different states; and that some ma, tute them are daily and hourly dying. consequently, approximate to that disse Nations have, undoubtedly, from small and intellectual vigour, which is als beginnings, attained eminence, and have wholly without the principle of decay. then declined and become extinct; and In the nations that have declined and these stages of their existence have not fallen in ancient times, and in those in inaptly been paralleled with corresponding which we may now perceive symptoms of stages in human life; but the similitude decline, there may always be observed a may be correct, and yet very erroneous if distinction of interests between those who converted into an argument. The natural exercise the powers of government, and life of man is dependent upon natural those who are governed, -between serate causes, while the duration of an empire or and the people-between sorereigns, si its fall is generally to be traced to causes subjects—between the rich, and the poor. purely moral and political. The former It is also worthy of remark, that, where the belong to the material world—a world of government and the governed have been decay and mutation; the latter to the intel- most assimilated in their interests and their lectual world, where deterioration and dis- rights, there have been most stability and solution are the consequences of error and general prosperity. Unhappily, evil, and where change ought to be un

of none in which such an assimilation of known, except in the gradations of increas- rights and interests has ever been brosztat ing excellence.

to any degree of perfection, or in which it Empires have fallen, it is true, and per

has not been more or less counteracted by haps not one of those now in existence, the selfishness of individuals or of combi -even that of Britain, which stretches nations and factions, who have sought and eastward and westward, and incessantly established their own particular interests beholds the light of the sun reflected from the expense of the people its colonies or its provinces, may not be acquired, by talents or intrigue, a found, except as a name, upon the earth, sway. at that fatal day, when the globe itself,

In the despotisms of Egypt and Asia, there seems always to have been ?

We knor

over whom they

2 paramount

jTtion of the priesthood, and a party say this to detract in the smallest degree Jout the throne, who shared among them from the sublime imaginings of Mr. Bulwer e wealth of the people, and the only respecting the nature of man when enpint in which the enslaved populace par. lightened by knowledge, and purified by cipated in the proud interests of their religion : on the contrary, I am certain that ilers, was that of the most abject depend- sone well-meaning Calvinists impede, in ice : their subsistence was the precarious no slight degree, the progress of civilizaages of their obedience, and the chain of tion, by the terms in which they speak of :rvitude extended from the throne to the the fall and the depravity of the human umblest tiller of the soil. There have not ' soul. Man, it is manifest, is capable of high een wanting writers, however, who have intellectual attainments and great moral exontended that the gradation of dependence cellence; and he is permitted by his Creator sund in a pure despotism, is the perfection to proceed with hope in the acquirement of f political constitutions, and that under an science, in the enlargement of his virtuous bsolute monarch there is a more complete sentiments, and in his acquaintance, through onsolidation of the interests of the com- the Almighty word, with the Almighty himgunity, than under any other form of self. We may look forward, then, with overoment. Such writers argue thus, that the highest expectation, but we must look vere mankind completely enlightened, with forward also with humility; sensible, from espect to the mutual dependence of their history, and from the prospect around us, eal interests, - were those real interests what infirmity, what ignorance, what selfish correctly understood, — did the spirit of viciousness has frequently blinded and enChristianity prevail among us as it ought slaved us !

o do,-then might a people entrust them- That dependence which gives strength selves to the dominion of a single ruler, and duration to nations, must not be that

und leave their happiness entirely to the which has hitherto been observable in descare of him, and of such counsellors as he potisms: it must be mutual. This was might choose to select. A distinguished partly the case in the republics of Greece, liberal author of the present day, in his but a want of political organization, and a interesting work upon England, has not mixture of slavery with liberty, rendered hesitated to startle the friends freedom, the stability of those republics less perfect who are among his principal admirers, than even ihat of the despotisms over which with the intimation, that civilized men, as they triumphed. They were small, yet they find knowledge diffused among them, their deeds were mighty, and they carried and with knowledge virtuous and religious the arts to an astonishing height of excelsentiments, will gradually cease from the lence. This resulted from the assimilation of political factions and contentions, and volun- rights which existed among the citizens, and tarily relinquish the anxieties and the sus- enabled them to act upon any public occapicions imp 1 ied in the very idea of a sion with unity. But this assimilation of representative defence against the wrongs rights (I speak of Athens, in particular,) and errors of the executive power, and was not attended with an assimilation of entrust themselves with confidence to the interests, and, consequently, it did not setutelage of a virtuous monarchy. Yes- cure a constant harmony of action ; for, under the dominion of that being who instigated by selfishness, their very equality preached the doctrine of universal benevo- of political claims encouraged their compelence, and who, personifying in himself the tition for wealth, distinction, and power, human race, taught us that obedience to and their liberty continually degenerated the Divine will is perfect freedom, the into licentiousness and turbulence. There truths of Christianity will be our only was scarcely any established diversity of statutes, and Christ himself our only sove- rank among the free-born citizens; but reign; but, on the earth, and amid its wealth, power, and splendid rather than empires, we have hitherto seen nothing to useful talents, created diversities which were encourage mankind to trust their welfare perpetually fluctuating from family to fato the despotism of a single man. Even mily, and from individual to individual ; so were it possible that our progress in know- that all was excitation, exertion, intrigue, ledge should effect such an improvement in corruption, envy, and servility. Such a state our nature, that we might seldom be of society is undoubtedly advantageous to deceived in looking for harmlessness in the fine arts, to eloquence, to the drama, to one another, yet must we never expect, every species of public display: it furnishes that, in any merely human state, we shall the contemplative philosopher also with ever be able wholly to lay aside the wisdom materials for moral theories; but the virtues of the serpent—which is caution. I do not are known only in the conversations and in

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the writings of such a people, who, in the the mind in a state of ignorant exhaustion, Los clash and confusion of their immediate in- a prey to discontent and turbulence. The terests, have no time to put them in prac- senators and the citizens of Rome had to tice. Life in Athens had no repose ; exist- assimilation of interests, except in war; m ence was one continued struggle : but the peace their jealousies broke forth, and intellect, ever in action, was ever bright season of domestic broils always succeeded and acute; and the Athenians, though they a campaign of glory. As the miliary were never happy, were always splendid. renown and the distant conquests increased, Men of capacity were always at the head so did the dissensions of the patricians and of their affairs, but men of pure principle plebeians, and the still more sanguinary

Though the Athenians," says an contests among the patrician factions themhistorian,* somewhat partial to them, “were selves, increase also. The wealth of Roma sometimes directed by persons of integrity, had not its source in industry or in convirtue, patriotism, and magnanimity, they merce. The trade and even the agriculture too often listened to the counsels of many of these masters of the world were chiefy whose characters were the reverse; for he conducted by slaves, and they were accoidwho could best offer the incense of adula- ingly ill-managed, and uncertain in their tion to the people, was most certain of their returns and their produce. The wealth of confidence and esteem. Such qualifications the Romans was the plunder and tribute of as these enabled the turbulent and licentious conquered and enslaved nations. It was demagogues, who ost resembled the audi- always casual, sudden, and temporary, ence, generally to prevail in the popular exactly like the supplies of robbers; so assembly; and the reward which real merit that no city ever suffered more by rapid deserved, was carried off by specious and transitions froin wealth to wretchedness, even noxious qualities.”

than did Rome during the last century of. Not in the cold and settled servitude of a the republic. Rome declined and fell, despotism, nor in the restless fervour of because, by her devastations, she had er democratic competition, do we discover hausted the world; and when she supk, that mutual connexion and assimilation of unable to resist the hordes of barbarians interests between man and man, in which that assailed her, to how dreadful a state of the happiness and stability of a state are to wretchedness were those people of Asia, be expected; and I turn from Asia and Africa, and Europe found to have been Greece, to inquire in what degree the har- reduced, which to the very last she ravaged, monizing principle existed in Rome. The and from which she had drawn the latest government of Rome, during the period of dregs of her supplies. the republic, was an aristocracy ; but the It is not, then, in a state like that of plebeians, or common Roman citizens, were Rome, that that unity of interests, on wbich aristocrats as respected the rest of the world, national stability is founded, is to be met and looked upon kings and satraps as in- with. We must seek it elsewhere; and I finitely beneath them. There was a com- turn towards Christian Britain with the mon feeling in early Rome, more extensive most earnest hope of a more favourable and more intense than is perceptible in any result. Perhaps there is no people among other people recorded by history; this was whom the reciprocity of connecting interests a feeling of national pride, which rendered is so well understood and acted upon as it the glory of Rome a principle paramount is among Englishmen; and if it be not yet to every other in the bosom of every indi. sufficiently felt and acknowledged by us, vidual. It was, in reality, the religion of there can certainly be no doubt of the proRome, to which its brilliant mythology was gressive state of that principle in the British merely secondary and subservient. Never- community, both theoretically and practitheless, strong and diminant as this prin- cally. Nothing can impede that progress; ciple of public glory and of the honour we see daily that the distinctions of society, and greatness of Rome undoubtedly was, it which in the days of feudalism were broad must be regarded as an external rather than and hereditary, are becoming almost iman internal motive of action; an impulse perceptible; and persons of what are termed for display and unity abroad, not a source the lower orders, are attaining that intelliof comfort and concord at home; a trum- gence, and power of investigation, which pet-sound, which, when, as a summons to mentally obliterates all the distinctions of arms, either for defence or conquest, it was rank. It would be strange, indeed, that men heard, was instantly obeyed with ardour thus situated, should not perceive that the and delight, but which, as it ceased, left prosperity of individuals is mutually depen.

dent on the prosperity of the whole, and • Aspin's Systematic Analysis of Ancient History. gradually set aside all such customs and

stitutions, which, having originated in the bill enlarged the basis of that assimilation ilitary feudalism of the Norman invaders, of rights and views, by which this country in the dominion of the papal church over has hitherto steadily proceeded in the acuir ignorant forefathers, serve only to im- mulation of wealth, and in diffusing and de as well the reciprocity of both rights securing prosperity. Impediments still d interests, as the spread of the spirit of exist, and, perhaps, from the imperfections hristianity.

of human nature, must ever exist, to that There is a pacific change gradually pro- perfect assimilation of such rights and ineding among us, which, if it sometimes ferests, which ardent minds, in their beneems to threaten violence, almost imme- volent and christian anticipations, are perately subsides and flows on in its regular, mitted to imagine ; but, if we may not look

its destined course. It may indeed be for perfect happiness, we are not forbiduced, and sometimes observed in a turbu- den, either by reason or religion, to disnt state, from 'almost the earliest periods courage the hope of approximating slowly our history. When the Norman barons, and distantly to a state upon earth, in

resisting the tyranny of the crown, found which men, labouring together for their necessary to call upon the representatives mutual advantage, may bestow a healthful industry and of personal wealth in the stability to their own nation. It is the part ties and towns, to share with them and of a christian patriot to promulgate, as e sovereign in the legislature of the king- extensively as he can, the idea of this wide om, an assimilation of many rights and assimilation of interests in his native ierests was established. Other rights of country; and it is with no small degree e people were claimed and admitted at of satisfaction that I have, during many isuing periods, so that, instead of bringing years of a life devoted to speculations of own the aristocracy by violence, as was this character, traced in this country the rinously and hastily done at an early progress of that assimilation in the coneriod of the French revolution, the people necting ties of all classes with each other, fere elevated, by accessions to the rights of which removes farther and farther from us, heir representatives, to a level with the those circumstances to which the decline ristocracy. An evil resulted from this ap- and fall of empires have hitherto been roximation, which manifested itself strongly assigned. uring the reign of George the Third ; but le remedy grew up by the side of the evil, nd at length obtained sufficient strength to urmount it, and materially if not wholly O subdue it. The representatives of the

God Invisible. people became more assimilated with the Mrch is seeing feeling man actuated by iristocracy, in whose rights they had been the objects around him. All his powers vermitted so largely to participate, in in- are roused, impelled, directed by impreserest also, so closely, that in a great degree sions made on his sensitive organs, yet he interest of wealth and power had become objects of sense have only a definite force listinct and separate from the interest of upon him. A hundred-weight crushes a he people. The laws were made by the man's strength to a certain degree, and no iristocracy in one house, and by servile more; he sustains it, and bears it away. dependents on, and the wealthy aspirants On the edge of the ocean he may tremble 0, aristocracy in the other. The people at the vast expanse, but he tries the depth were not forgotten by this legislative asso. of the shore, finds it but a few feet, and no ciation, but they were thought of as the longer fears to enter it. The waves cannot sources of the production of wealth which overtop his head; or, is it deeper,, he can was forestalled by an enormous national swim, and regards it no longer with fear. debt, and drawn up into reservoirs under Nay, he builds a ship, and makes this tre. the disposal of those who held the govern- mendous ocean his servant, wields ils vast. ment itself at their disposal, by every ness for his own use, dives to its deep means of taxation. It was then that the bottom to rob it of its treasures, or makes struggle of the people of this country be- its surface convey him to distant shores. A came more intense and more agitated than much smaller object shall affect him more, the constant competitions of the Athenians; when bis senses are less distinctly acted but it was not turbulent, or politically in- upon, but his imagination is somewhat jurious. It served to extend that sense of roused. He travels in the dark, he starts at the connecting interests of society, on which, a slight but indistinct noise, he knows not I contend, that the solidity and duration of but it may be a wild beast lurking, or a empires are to be founded. The reform robber ready to seize on him. Could he 20. SENTES, NO. 42.-VOL. IV.

186.- VOL. XVI.




have distinctly seen what alarmed him, he ing reptile, and only then shens carse had, unalarmed, gone on;—it was only the ness and hardihood when their fa si moving of the leaves, waved gently by the mighty ! Without inquiring what Elza wind. He stops to consider well, for he saw, let us apply these ideas to the super hears the sound of water falling, a gleam Spirit, let us meditate on an object on from its foaming surface sparkles on his finitely greater, nearer importante eye, but he cannot tell how near he is to it, invisible God—the more impressively's or how distant; how exactly it may be in portant, because invisible. Let us, £ his path; how tremendously deep the abyss moment, suppose the contrary to be into which he may fall at the next step; case : suppose the Deity to be the obje had it been daylight, could he have ex- of our senses, he then loses much of a amined thoroughly, he had then passed it majesty; he becomes fixed to one spit, te without notice: it is only the rill of a small in which we can see him; must be disa ditch on the road-side; his own foot could from many other places; and, when istehave stopped the trickling current. This ing himself in other places, must te to effort of indistinctness rousing the imagi- distant from us, even at a time when nation, is finely depicted in Job iv. 14. most need his presence. Nay, we shen. Eliphaz describes it thus—“Fear came begin to comprehend him, to philoseres upon me, and trembling which made all upon and atiempt experiments with be my bones to shake; then a spirit passed Were he vast as the starry heavens, before my face; the hair of my flesh stood could measure him ; bright as yonder e. up; it stood still, but I could not discern we could contrive to gaze at him; elenge the form thereof." The senses, in this de- as the vivid lightning, we should bring tin scription, are but slightly affected; the eye down to play around us : in no form casa could not discern any specific form, the conceive of his being the object of sets, touch could not examine the precise nature but we sink him to a creature, give : of the object; the imagination, therefore, some definable shape, reduce him 9 1 had full scope. The mind was roused man, or a mere idol, and have beed beyond the power of sensible objects to provide him a temple made with batu stimulate it, and the body felt an agitation for his accommodation. If, indeed, the greater than if its senses had been more fully were any doubt of his existence - bet ta acted on; he trembled, and the hair of his man is incapable of reasoning, who ter flesh stood up. He could not discern sons thus. There are proofs enough tz the form ; it might therefore be terrific in he is at our right hand, though we do na shape, or tremendous in size; "it stood see him; that he works at our left baie still," as if to do something to him; to though we cannot behold him. Intest speak—perhaps to smile, to destroy; and of asking, with the speer of doet, how could he guard against that which he “ Where is he?" or, carelessly thirdzą

, could not see, could not tell what, or where shall God see?" a much more rateca it was? That which (from what he could behaviour is, with awe and reverence, is discern, and still more from what he could say, “ Whither shall I fee from thy pes not discern) seemed to be no mortal sub- sence?" “ Thou hast beset me behind etc stance to which he was accustomed, and before, and laid thine hand upon ne with which, with care or courage, he might Could any supposition take place eren de deal safely; but a spirit, utterly beyond his momentary absence—that he were impression, yet having unknown power off on a journey, or asleep and needs to impress him even to — who can tell must be wakened it might be alleged

, what degree? The certainty of an object sanction the carelessness, provided the so near him, joined to the uncertainty of were aware of his absence, and knee what might be its powers, intentions, and time of his drowsiness or distance. Bu natural operations, impressed him deeply an omnipotent Deity ought to fill o with awe, expectation, and anxiety. with seriousness, and the uncertainties

How absurd, then, how contrary to all his operations where ? how !-when be their feelings in other cases, is the conduct will work-should fill us with deep, later of infidels, who affect to despise God, to and constant awe! deny his existence, because they cannot see thought makes a temple in every place bim! or, without affecting this, do actually to realize it, is to begin actual *** neglect, forget, and do him despite, by ship: whatever I may be about to occasion of this circumstance. Men 'who dulge it

, is to make all other existence fair can be appalled by some distant danger, away. 'Amid the roar of mirth

, I he and grow courageous at one near at hand, only his voice; in the glitter of Jesuper who trembles at a fellow-man or a crawl tion, I see only his brightness ; in e

He exists! The

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