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superior happiness of a religion as benevo- subject of his very elegant piece of big lent as it is holy, all shapes and forms of phy; and, indeed, had we a wider za tyranny, corruption, wicked hatred between we might, perhaps, \have ventured to es high and low, with a thousand other evils bat what appears to be his leading opera which afflict humanity, will ultimately The intellectual powers, we think, ar v vanish like foul and heavy mists before the splendour of the morning sun.”—p. v. to ix.

proper and the only objects of tuition, es

that it is dangerous to attempt to enga Silvio Pellico was born, it appears from upon the moral boughs, a bud of any su Maroncelli, at Saluzzo in Piedmont, about whatever, of a different growth. lepo the year 1789. His family was respect- the intellectual faculties as much as po able, though not opulent, and the members sible, --store them with facts to sci i of it were bound together by the domestic degree that truth can never present ise! affections, and by an ardour for intellectual before them without their recognising te attainments, which emanated from powers every form, and under every digger of a high order, and, in Silvio, “rose into Then, if you will, propose your was the fire of brilliant genius," while unhap- dogmas; but even then beware hop, pily they “called forth the suspicions and the authority of a tutor or a father, ki persecutions of political enemies." His insist upon the adoption of any; mother, whom in temperament of mind he Of a bodily constitution which subjecres seems to have closely resembled, was a him to much illness, Silvio was reared on woman of “superior mind and accom. difficulty, and contrary to the repeated for plishments," and of a “religious dispo. phecies of the medical faculty; we, s sition.”

first, pronounced it to be impossible bit " It has often been remarked," observes

should survive to see his seventh yer Mr. Roscoe, “that the characters of extraor- and, appearing to have decided at last za dinary men have been more or less moulded he held life renewable only on a seven by early maternal care and judgment; and years' lease, they asserted that either is it has almost uniformly been asserted by fourteenth or his twenty-first year wat. genius itself, in various walks of literature find him in his grave. This does te and of science, that to this source was to be speak favourably for the state of medo chiefly attributed the degree of excellence to in Piedmont at the close of the last osa which it attained. In all the vicissitudes of fortune, the mother of Silvio retained the

tury: same courage and the same well-regulated

“ But though the third of these assertions affection for her children ; and, in virtuous shared the same fate, Silvio, as regarded E opposition to the prevailing custom, she was physical powers, had by no means an easy at once their nurse, and their earliest in- task to refute them. To the infinite tende structress."--p. xiii.

ness and care of a mother, he owed his pro

longed existence. When the faculty be We regret that our limits will not permit passed their septennial act

, they left his us to follow Mr. Roscoe through his views articulo mortis, as they believed ; but we? of education, as connected with that of the in extreme exhaustion, his admirable pares:

with a devotion rivalling any upon record • In opening the Rev. Mr. Cattermole's intro

restored him by the milk from ber om ductory essay to Dr. Hall (Bishop of Norwich's) Trea- breast, and may be said, indeed, again a tises, which lies upon our desk, we have accident- have given him life.”—p. xix. ally lighted on a passage corroborative of this fact. • The excellent prelate, Joseph Hall, was among

During his youth, or rather his boyhood, those numerous examples on record, of persons memorable for religious and moral worth, who

Silvio and his brother were accustomed by

commit to memory, and to recite drames characters , under providence, to the care of mater pieces, which

were chiefly the productice of nal piety. "His mother," he says, was a woman of that rare sanctity, that, were it not for my inte

their father, Signor Onorato :Test in nature, I dare say, that neither Aleth, the mother of that just honour of Clairval, nor Monica, bear a part in these recreations, was aument

" Among the young persons accustomed = nor any other of those pious matrons anciently famous for devotion, need to disdain her admit- interesting young girl, named Carlottica tance to comparison. So had she profited in the school of Christ, that it was hard for any friend to

who was cut off at the early age of fourteet come from her discourse no whit holier.

Her unfolding loveliness, and sensibility ei often have I blessed the memory of those divine character, appears to have made no transea! passages of experimental divinity which I have impression on

Silvio's young mind, What day did she pass without a large task of private devotion ? Never

however romantic it may seem, we are to any lips have read to me such feeling lectures of that the image of his youthful love frequendy accurately practised them than her own. Shortly. Spielberg, or gave a melancholy occupation

visited the midnight couch of the captive en for I can hardly take off my pen from so exemplary a subject, her life and death were saint-like."

to the heavy hours and days of sad waking Introductory Essay, p. xiv.

thoughts and early recollections."--. IX.

have had reason to ascribe the formation of their


heard from her mouth !


A mind deeply imbued with the philo. children. Every condition has its duties phy of christianity, if we may be per

and the first duty of the unhappy, be he itted to use an expression in itself so cha- captive or be he free, is to suffer with magcteristic of the subject of this memoir,

nanimity ; his second, to draw wisdom from vuld not be wanting to its own support,

misfortune; and the third, to pardon. Alhen, in “a solitude, appalling as the

ready was written in our heartsingeons of Spielberg," it was thrown

'Il giusto, il ver, la libertà sospiro!

For justice, truth, and liberty I sigh. holly upon its own resources :

Shall calamity have the effect of erasing " A fact which farther shows the triumph

words like these ? Rather let us subdue, : the principle sought here to be illustrated,

and not be subdued by it. If any captive id of such vital importance in the educa

survive to see the light, let him be witness on of future generations, was the captive's for the others here condemned to perpetual wn division of his time and studies. These

darkness, and let our vow be fulfilled withe distinguished by terming them, a life of

out reference to the inhumanity of those who udy, and a life of action; corresponding with

oppress us. This shall only be allowed to je intellectual, and moral or practical use

act as an incentive to a higher degree of f the human faculties. First, his life of virtue; we prepare ourselves to attain it, and udy was conducted by certain mechanical

to learn to rejoice in the necessity imposed ales, distributing what is possible to be nown into several classes, and these again

upon us of improving our hearts and minds.'

" It is for civilized Europe to decide whento particular courses, the process of which

ther characters capable of displaying resigerved to revive what he had before known, nd, in some instances, to add to his stock of nation, fortitude, and magnanimity, such as

breathe in these resolutions were supported nowledge. When confined in the same

by truth and justice, and in how far they ungeon with his friend Maroncelli, he pur

could have merited the infliction of the most ued the same plan ; and they thus acquired fearful of human ills. That cause must be epositories, more or less abundant, through

indeed good and holy, and deeply imbued which each took their separate courses of knowledge, except in cases where the me

with the purest spirit of christianity, which

could not only enable them to survive à nory of one proved treacherous, and the

series of suffering so prolonged, but to parther could aid him, or undertook to give

don their enemies, and meet the fury of their nstructions in a branch unknown to the

persecution with the language of conciliation ther. One day, for instance, was devoted,

and peace. By what spirit, on the other according to this arrangement, to repetitions of history; another to those of philosophy;

hand, their oppressors were actuated-how

much in accordance with the precepts and third, to those of geography, chronology, nathematics, the fine arts; and, in propor

injunctions of their Divine Master, a master

by whom the motives and actions of princes tion as each acquired a proficiency, he spoke

must one day be weighed - we shall not, one day in French, another in German, a

however we deplore it, stop to inquire."third in Latin, and a fourth in the English

p. xxvii. to xxx. language.

“ This, which was considered only as con- But, in speaking of the religious strength templative or passive study, was invariably which enabled him to sustain the rigors of completed by the active; which means, that this dreadful captivity, we have passed the one who felt equal to the task collected

over the circumstances which led to it. and condensed his thoughts upon a given subject, directed his mind to the production

He was born twin with a sister, of a lovely of some work, a process which at times, by

person, and congenial in disposition with dint of strong mental tension, as in the case

himself. She espoused a distant relative of Newton extracting the square-root in his

at Lyons, and her beloved brother accomown head, arrived at complete execution. panied her to her new abode. While No one, by this plan, need be destitute of a devoted there to the studies congenial to subject for active study, in whatever degree his youth, he was suddenly roused to a of solitude or captivity he may happen to degree of_impassioned patriotism by a be-namely, the study of himself, with the poem of Foscolo's, called “I Sepolcri," object of making himself better ; a study the Tombs. He immediately quitted wholly independent of varying creeds and France for his native country. Italy was sects, and one to which each of the prisoners devoted himself by a philosophic vow, pro

then a kingdom attached to the French nounced either on the day of their sentence

empire, and his father was at Milan, acting

as chief of division under the minister of or on the following. It is sufficiently curious and novel, being pronounced under such cir

war. In the society of Monti and Foscolo, cumstances, to give it in the words of Ma- the poetic genius of Pellico was rapidly roncelli. It is to the following tenor :

matured. He wrote his Francesca da 'Calamity, not justice, hath stricken us; let Rimini, and his Eufemio; became acus show that ii hath stricken men, and not quainted with Mad. de Stael, and Schlegel

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and was introduced to Lord Byron, and to engine of mighty power they knew pet bom our present lord chancellor Brougham :- to direct-in the diffusion of knorele “ Pellico had, shortly before, translated

which may make a discontented and mai the Manfred of Byron. The latter requested increasing population wise, but not wise e to see the manuscript of his drama of Fran

salvation-render them keenly sensite cesca, which had not then publicly appeared their condition, without imparting on Two days after his Lordship received it, he courage and christian consolation to e himself returned it into Pellico's hands,

them under it—the jealousy of any go observing, “ You won't be angry, if I have

ment might justly be excited. Had it. translated it?" He had, in fact, transferred

and his illustrious friends not connected to it into English verse ; and he then added, conciliatory doctrines with popular edoces “ You ought to have translated the Manfred

founded on a solid religious basis, and by into verse.

Pellico disputed this opinion, previous establishment of moral and elegan believing that in a language like the Italian tary schools had they sought to dife' in particular it could not be done without light of nature without the light of reies adding to, or taking away so much as very

tion-science without religion - reason 23 greatly to impair the effect of the original. truth without the moral vigour and jodene In 1819, Lodovico Breme put forth an edi. to wield them, thus creating a fertile se tion of the Francesca, with which he united

of evil in the fermentation of the intellets the above-mentioned translation of Lord elements without the restraining force Byron's Manfred."-p. xliv.

gious and moral discipline - impelling the In order to elevate the sentiments of his people to employ their knowledge in en

misdirected combinations, in a restless countrymen, when, after the fall of Napo- morbid activity to equal those above then leon, they were depressed under the dead

whom they believe they equal in posti ening weight of Austria, he, in concert intellect ;—-letting loose, in short

, a fears with some literary friends, established a

power when unregulated by moral culotce. periodical work, entitled “the Conciliator," and religious discipline,--the conductors a work of high-toned sentiment in its moral, the conciliatory system need not have e religious, and social views, and extensively astonished at the failure of their plans"comprehensive in what relates to science p. xlix. to l. and art. The associated friends met at A short time only elapsed before the Count Porro's, where Pellico acted as se- devoted conciliators were seized upon, a cretary, and anticipated with patriotic condemned to dungeons and the scarica ardour the benefits which his country must for the crimes of inculcating the trods derive from the diffusion of knowledge, of science, the higher truths of religion

, and the calm dictates of a religion of love. and the love of one another. Pelico, But the jealousy of the Austrian govern- on entering Milan, was accosted by a ment was speedily alarmed. Despotism is person, who “ whispered in bis eatmistrustful of the sweetest sounds ; nay, of the police are after you.” “They knee the calmest and most placid thoughts. where I am to be found,' was the abse Under its dominion the human intellect *I am going to wait for them. He went must remain in a dumb and inanimate and they were in readiness for bim! H: stupor, or must be employed solely in papers, his poems, tragedies, romanen organising armies, and in devising means correspondence, were all seized. He to increase the revenue and the power of conducted to the police prisons of Sura the crown. But, in the following elegant Marghereta, and, subsequently, “hamed passage, Mr. Roscoe has expressed, with from dungeon tó dungeon, under every perspicuity and eloquence, what every variety of physical and moral suferine man, who looks for the social improvement until he found himself in the subterrani of mankind, must feel on this occasion :- caverns (sentenced to fifteen years' close

“ If the power of knowledge might with confinement,) of the castle of Spielberz." safety have been entrusted into the hands of In turning to the work which is prefer any people, it was the people of modern by this memoir, we are struck by the elites Italy; and when based on the system of con- ness of the deductions with which the ciliation, of moral dignity, and discipline of duties of men” are shewn to be, in the the faculties, as opposed to violence and perfection, derivable from the sublime, te anarchy, we are doubly at a loss to perceive sacred, and the benevolent doctrines a any just or rational grounds for its suppress christianity. The translator has done 1 laid the heads of its noblest promoters in the tice to the clear and calm style, so suitable dust. Had the system of education attempted to the subject, in which the divine stresa to be introduced been far in advance of the of a holy morality is traced from its SOUT moral spirit and capacity of the people; had through all the connexions of the indizabal it consisted in placing at their command an with his race-of man with makind.

difficult to select a passage

for an extract of the middle ages, and in the succeeding im a work, where all the parts possess a periods of civilization, throw lustre upon pending excellence upon each other, and

their race! There the martyrs to truth; are led to the following, chiefly because here the benefactors of the afflicted; in other contains the record of one of the better parts, the fathers of the church, presenting atiments of the unhappy and brilliant in themselves a miracle of gigantic philoso

phy, united to the most ardent charity; and yron.

everywhere valiant patriots, the advocates of “ In human nature we esteem those who, justice, restorers of light and truth, learned stifying in themselves to its moral grandeur, poets, men of profound science, and skilled int out to us that which we ought to emu- artists. Yet neither the remoteness of ages, te. We may be unable to equal them in nor the glorious destinies of these individuals, me; but this is not necessary. In genuine should strike our imagination as something orth we can always aspire to the highest belonging to a different nature from ourandard. I mean in the cultivation of noble selves. No: they were in their origin no ntiment, so soon as we can think and rea- more demigods than ourselves. They were in, when born under common advantages, the offspring of woman ; they were troubled, r ourselves.

and they wept, like ourselves; they were "If ever, therefore, we feel tempted to bound like us to struggle against their evil espise humanity from what we behold with inclinations : at times they felt humiliated, ir own eyes, or from what we read in his again to triumph over themselves."-p. 23 ry of its baseness and its excesses, let us to 26. in our attention to those numerous and enerable names which threw lustre round je periods in which they lived. The irri

REVIEW. - Tales about Europe, Asia, ible but generous Byron used to tell me,

Africa and America. By Peter Parley, at this was the only method he could dopt, to save him from falling into absolute

Author of the Tales about Natural nisanthropy : “ The first great man,' he oh

History, &c. With numerous Engravings. erved, “who thus occurs to my mind is

Tegg and Son, London, 1834. lways Moses ; Moses, who restored to great. DistinGUISHED as is the present period less a people immersed in utter degradation; for useful and interesting accessions to the sho rescued it from the opprobrium of ido- juvenile library, the claims of Peter Parley atry and slavery; who dictated to that peole a law full of wisdom, a wonderful bond

to a welcome reception by the anxious and between the religion of the patriarchs and inquiring youth of every family cannot for he religion of civilised periods, -I mean the

a moment be doubted. Although an gospel. The great qualities, with the insti- American by birth, he will be greeted here, utions, of Moses, were the means by which in England, with as many smiling faces as Providence produced among that people the in his own country, and be listened to distinguished men, brave warriors, excellent with as much attention. citizens, prophets zealous for the right, who

Unfortunately, in his budget of very foretold the fall of the haughty and hypo- amusing geographical and historical tales, critical, and the future civilisation of all

those about England happen, in our opinnations. " "When I think of some of these great

ion, to be the most erroneous and the worst

selected of all the rest. The idea of the men, and in particular my favourite Moses,' added Byron, I always repeat with enthu

work is altogether excellent, and the public siasm that splendid line of Dante

have much reason to thank Messrs. Tegg "Che di vederli, in me stesso m'esalto!'

for this importation from America, which "Whom to behold is to exalt myself,'

has been got up in a very attractive manand I then am enabled to resume my good ner, and at great expense; but we cannot opinion of this race of Adam, and of the spirits belp thinking, that by the aid of a little which it enshrines.'

job-authorship (particularly if some of our “These words of the greatest of England's female writers, so eminent in the literature poets, remained impressed indelibly upon my of childhood, would have undertaken the mind, and I confess that I have derived no

task) the worthy Yankee might have been inconsiderable aid by adopting his own noble

better adapted to British society. The thoughts whenever assailed by the tempta

change that has been made in his appeartion of falling into misanthropical views.

ance is rather an unfortunate one; on purpose “In truth, the grand minds which have appeared, and continue to appear, amply

to preserve the order of the four quarters refute the assertions of those who entertain

of the globe as they stand in our old conmean opinions of the nature of man. Let us tinent, Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, only cast a glance upon the splendid list fur- the order assumed by the author and other nished us by antiquity! Look at the Roman American writers, is reversed, and so we annals ! How many, during the barbarism have the preface and the introduction at


in North America.


and wise.

the end instead of the beginning of of useful and interesting matter. Be the volume. But the young perusers the general geography, descriptive sin of these pages will not be very critical various countries and nations of the sea upon an error of this nature, which which, though compendious, is full of will certainly offer no impediment to the ticulars including the latest circumser amusement and instruction which run to. or discoveries, we are presented gether in a sprightly and sparkling stream all that can be useful to the general 154. amidst the illustrative wood-cuts of every in ancient, classical, and biblical geogter page. Of the good feelings of our worthy together with the terms of geografica American towards the country of his an

The style in which the seven cestors, we have a sterling proof, in a pas- articles are written, is clear and cenç sage which we will quote, not only to hensive, and it is astonishing to obey secure to him a reciprocity of good will how much of the wealthy stores of the among us, but because we fully partici. most recent and best authenticated to pate in the pacific hope which constitutes agers and travellers, the compiler has coz the leading sentiment.

trived to compress in every page, and "We may now hope that war will never happen with the various produce of extens again between England and America. The people science and classical knowledge. Wer of the two countries speak the same language, lect, as a specimen, the following na believe in the same religion, and live in the same on the names of rivers derived from a manner. Why should they quarrel! Why should colour of their waters :they not live in peace, doing each other good, rather than going to war, and doing each other all "Black River. There are several rivers d' the harm they can? If my little reader should ever name; one in Ireland, one in Jamaica, and a go to England, I am sure he will see a great deal

There are black giren to admire in the people and the country. Every fact, as well as white rivers, in different langat part of the land is finely cultivated, and it is all over the world. Thus, in ancient Grace covered with towns, cities, and villages.

we have the Hebrew Sichor, the Greek Velas, a. people are intelligent, and many are very learned the Latin Niger, all meaning black, and in sede

Some of them live in a magnificent geography, the Turkish Kara-su, the Spanis et style; and in no part of the world are there such Portuguese Rio Petro, Rio Negro (or Nere, in beautiful gardens and country seats. England is Zama, words of the same import. We hare retin not only a very beautiful country, but it is the rivers under the same variations of dialet, 41 richest and most powerful nation on the globe. Bahr el Abiad, Ak-su, Rio Branco, Rio e Many of the cloths we wear, and many articles Among blue rivers, we have the Bahr al Ami. which we use for comfort and pleasure, are manu. the Nile itself, (from Nil, indigo,) the Yout factured in England, and in no part of the world kyang of China: and among yellow rivers $ are the arts carried to such perfection. We see, Chinese Whang-ho. We have also Red Rise La therefore, that we should entertain a great regard Brassos, &c. These names of rivers are dat for England, and we may all be proud that our gether arbitrary.

Humboldt remarks, that the forefathers came from that country."-pp. 119, 120. black waters and white waters of Guyana &

very specifically in quality as well as in appenauer The waters of the Esmeralda, the eastern best to

the Orinoco, are all black waters; that is, tha Review.-A Dictionary of Geography, waters, when seen in a large body, have eithe : Ancient and Modern, comprising a Suc- brown colour like coffee, or a greenish bleed

: cinct Description of all the Countries of

when the least breath of wind agitates their se the Globe, their Physical and Political face, they appear of a fine grass green, like in

lakes of Switzerland. These waters are este Geography, the Several Races of their Inhabitants, and their Ancient as well is very remarkable, are shunned for the most

pure, sweet, inodorous, and transparent, asd, vid as Modern Denominations, together by both the crocodiles and the mosquitoes, artikel with a Brief Notice of all the Capitals enormous water-snakes and porpoises aber and Principal Towns, also of Seas, in them. The Lower Orinoco, as well as the Rivers, and Mountains ; and a Glos- Guaviare, its western head, and its tributaries, en sary of Geographical Terms. By Josiah whi

white waters, which are always turbid, heart

, al Conder, Author of " The Modern Tra- impure, and infested by musquitoes. The best veller," Italy,' &c. Tegg and Son, have white borders; while the white river bare

waters, it is said, do not embrown the reeks

, bars London, 1834.

black borders. The former, from their very post MR. Conder, whose services in geograph- furish less aliment to aquatic insecto anche ical literature are well known and acknow

Some of the dark brown or coffee-coloured interna

become of an amber colour wherever there is ledged, puts in a claim to originality in

shallow. this performance, and it must be admitted boldt

These amber or golden waters, Hoe that no gazetteer or geographic dictionary hydrogen; while that which colours the best ever before comprised so complete a body rivers, may be, he thinks, a mixture of carbon act


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