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er of congratulation to the friends of the Resolution of the Subscribers to the on and civilization in every part of the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain d, to see the citizens of the United and Ireland, at their late anniversary; togeis and the subjects of Great Britain, in
ther with the Letters of Sir Alexander Johnsland of Ceylon, mutually recollecting,
ston and A. Vail, Esq.” the immediate protection of the “ The next Annual Meeting of our Board, sh government, their common origin, will be held in Philadelphia, in September. their common sympathies, and mutu. Meanwhile, I beg your acceptance of a forgetting, under the peaceful influence copy of our last Annual Report, (the 23d,) he christian religion, their former jea- which I send for you to the care of the ies, and their national animosities, co- Rev. Wm. Ellis, Foreign Secretary of the ate with equal zeal and prudence in London Missionary Sociely, Austin Friars, ading the English, their common lan- London : in that document you will learn ge, into every part of India, in instruct- the present state of our operations in difthe understandings and in improving ferent parts of the world. moral and social feelings of the natives “A fact, however, which has afforded us very caste and religious persuasion, and the greatest pleasure is not mentioned in 'enderiug applicable and advantageous the report. It is, that Sir Robert Wilmot heir present situation all their moral and Horton, the Governor of Ceylon, has been itical institutions, which, under various pleased to grant permission for new misdifications and various denominations, sionaries to come from America, until e, in all ages and in all countries, when- reference can be made to England on the r and wherever introduced with pru- subject, and has also promised to write in ice and moderation, invariably secured favour of the Mission to his Majesty's liberty of the subject, the authority of Secretary of State, requesting an official
government, and the prosperity of the removal of the restrictions which have for ion. I have the honour to be, dear sir, so many years prevented the enlargement jrs, very faithfully,
A. JOHNSTON. of our operations in Ceylon; such an event o the Honourable S.VAILF., &c., Acting Minister we confidently anticipated, whenever the Plenipotentiary, from the United States of Ame- character of our mission should become ica, to Great Britain."
fully understood by the government; and Missionary Rooms, Boston,
we are grateful to the enlightened friends
who have taken so much pains to collect DEAR SIB.-In transmitting a copy of a and diffuse correct information on the subesolution you did us the honour to move ject. I am, dear sir, with great respect, the annual meeting of the Subscribers to your obedient servant,—R. ANDERSON, e Oriental Translation Fund of Great “Foreign Secretary of the American Board of ritain and Ireland, Mr. Vail, our chargé Commissioners for Foreign Missions." affaires, was so kind as to forward also From the facts communicated in the copy of the letter from yourself, which above article, there is surely ample closed the resolution to him. These ground to encourage the most sanguine cuments having been laid before the hopes for the future. On the one hand, udential Committee of the American the efficient and ready protection of the Dard of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- English government, while it has already ons, I am instructed to communicate the been of such essential service to the cause Hlowing Resolutions in return, viz. of religion in Ceylon, holds out the most "Resolved, - That the Prudential Com- gratifying prospects for the future. It may Ettee, recognize with gratitude the honour- surely be taken as an indication of their le notice of the Board, taken by Sir Alex- anxiety to aid more private and individual der Johnston at the last Annnal Meeting efforts to extend to every part of their
the Subscribers to the Oriental Transla- dependencies the light and blessings of the on Fund of Great Britain and Ireland; as gospel, and those collateral advantages of æll as his favourable opinion of the Ceylon civilization and morality which invariably Lission, and his lively interest in its welfare, follow in its train. We may also be perEpressed in a letter to A. Vail, Esq. dated mitted to express a hope, that the noble, ept. 22, 1832, and that he be assured that zealous, and successful efforts of Sir Alexe important aid rendered by him to the ission of the Board in Ceylon, while resid
ander Johnston may operate as a stimulus g on that island, is thankfully remembered
and an example to his successors; and that the patrons of the Mission in this the time is not far distant when Christianity ountry."
shall have found in Asia a lasting restingResolved,—That the Secretaries submit place, and a theatre for the operation of - the Board, at its next Annual Meeting, its mightiest and happiest effects.
U.S.A. Jan. 23, 1833.
ING NATIONAL OPULENCE.
expansion, contraction; gravity, and the ON THE EXERTION OF LABOUR, AS AFFECT
like; “the processes performed by the sou
the air, the rain, and the sun;" with who In our last number we offered some man co-operates. The variety of producremarks on the influence of science and tions which labour draws and fashions from skill, in the application of labour, on the the original sources contributed by nature, are opulence or poverty of nations; adhering almost beyond conception. There is scarcer still to the subject of national wealth, we anything which the rational desires of beg to draw attention, in the present num- man can call for, the materials of which do ber, to another of the causes on which that not exist in the world, and which labour, wealth depends.
aided by capital, and skilfully applied, is The condition of individuals, and the not competent to afford us a supply of. magnitude of the population of nations, are The bounty of Providence is no less conson dependent on the productiveness of indus. cuous in the amplitude of the rewards of try, in procuring subsistence.
exertion which are placed within our reac, so, but all the higher and nobler inte- than its wisdom is displayed in the effect. It rests of mankind, moral and intellectual, ness of the motives of fear and hope, of are likewise dependent on opulence, and evil to be averted and of good to be through which alone their interests can be attained, by which man is moved from a secured and advanced, and hence those state of inaction, and impelled to exert his inquiries by which the sources of riches may powers. be developed, are of transcendent value. Since, then, nothing can be procured fa
The original acquisition of all the the satisfaction of our wants and desres, necessaries and conveniences of life is without the exertion of labour, it is, in effected by labour. In every nation, and every nation, its labour which is that greai in every state of society, it is only through the fund, by the outlay of which its supply of introduction of labour that the subsistence all the necessaries and conveniences of lite of man can be acquired. “By the sweat of is acquired. Consequently, it is this fuad thy brow shalt thou eat bread," applies to that calls, in an especial manner, for ws all our race, and to almost every article by dom in its direction, and for care and ecowhich our wants and wishes are supplied nomy in busbanding its expenditure, that if and gratified. “Though the woods abound may neither lie idle and unproductive, por with fruits, with vegetable productions, and be suffered to go to waste in useless or with game; though the waters abound with unprofitable channels. fish, and the bowels of the earth with mine- It is obvious, that, cæteris paribus, the rals,-the fruits and vegetables must be opulence of society must depend on the gathered before they can be of use to us; greater or less quantity of labour which a the game and the fish must be caught, the exerts. The quantity of labour exerted in earth opened, and the metal separated from any community, will depend, first, on the the ore, and prepared, before it can be used." industry of the persons engaged in labour ; Even in the most fertile soils, either from and, secondly, on the number of those the prolific qualities of their plants and ani- industrious persons, in relation to the duminals, which are useless or noxious to man, ber of other persons who are unemployed. or from the intervention of deep swamps, The industry of mankind depends on the impenetrable forests, and the like,
pre- operation of the two motives to exertionsent all the barrenness of the desert, and fear and hope. The lash of the overseer 8 mostly require persevering labour before the incentive by which the slave is impeilet they become highly productive. The to labour; the dread of want may be that animal and vegetable productions of the by which the free labourer is often actuated ; earth are presented only at certain times or while hope may frequently be introduced, seasons of the year, and hence they must be and afford a double motive, by adding laid upin store, and preserved, to supply us in the cheering prospect of bettering his conthose seasons when they could not otherwise dition, and providing comforts and enjor. be had ; besides that almost all the pro. ments for himself and family. It cannot ductions of nature are presented to us in a be doubted that the operation of both these rude state, and call for the application of motives, when a number of individuals of labour to prepare and fashion or modify different temperaments and character are lo them for use.
be wrought upon, must be more effectual Nature furnishes the materials on which than one of them alone. Hence the supe labour is exerted, together with her creative riority which is found in free labour over agency, her productive motions or opera- that of slaves : in the former, fear and hope tions, her laws of attraction, repulsion, are combined; in the latter, fear alone is an
rtion. But though wealth should be sion of these topics, but pass on to discuss ented by bringing both these motives the important question. action, and augmenting, to the utmost, force, yet individual happiness might On the Circumstances which occasion r by adding to the influence of fear, Employment, or Want of Employment. h is in itself an addition to the pain:ss of that labour which is sought to
The industry of a nation cannot be fully ndertaken by its operation, and its toil brought into play, except there be employired. On the other hand, the cheering ment for the workmen. From the distribuence of hope lightens and sweetens that tion of employments, and the mutability of ur which would otherwise be irksome, the affairs of business, a want of work, in e it animates the powers of the labourer, some occupations, is continually recurring : calls forth the highest and noblest exer
the workman is desirous to labour, but cans.
not find employment. The industry, then, he industry of a workman will depend, of a community, and consequently the abunpart, on the education which he has dance and excellence of its supply of the ived,
and the habits and character necessaries and conveniences of life, depend, ch have been formed in him in early also, on the degree in which a constancy of
The care which has been taken of his employment can be obtained, and a stagnath, and the proper exercise which has
tion of business averted. But how, or why, given to his bodily and mental facul- at one time, work for the labourer is offered contribute at once to promote their in abundance, and, in another, exists in such ngth, and to form habits of application, scarcity that it can only be procured with rprise, and perseverance, which recon- difficulty, few persons distinctly understand.
the mind to labour. Rectitude of cha- The effect of capital on employment, and er, too, founded on moral principles, from thence its influence in determining the tributes to the regular and steady exer- wages of labour, has been generally misun
of labour, by offering worthy motives derstood. It is usually considered that the ndustry.
scarcity or plenty of employment, as well as But the great and universally operating the wages of the workmen, are dependent on entive to industry, is to be found in the the quantity of capital to put labour in motion. spect of the rewards which labour pro- This is the opinion of Adam Smith,* Mr. es. “A man is induced to continue at Mill,t and other writers too numerous to our, by the prospect of obtaining a mention. But in opposition to this opiFard for it; he is inclined to discontinue nion, it may be remarked, that a slackness by fatigue.
The stronger motive will of work often exists with an abundance of evail. Whatever adds to the force of the capital; and this must be apparent, if we mer, or weakens that of the latter, will notice the circumstances that actually subsist rease the quantity and produce of when a want of employment is complained our.”
of. Few of the unemployed workmen are It would be easy to enlarge on the bene- without the necessary tools of their respective al effects of a liberal reward of labour, trades; they possess the means of subsist. only as regards the happiness of the
ence, or the credit necessary to procure ourer, but also as regards the quan- them. In fact, the same food and other - and quality, or value, of the work he things on which they are subsisted in ecutes; and, on the other hand, there is idleness, would equally maintain them in m to expatiate on the crippling, the
full work. The workshops and premises of pasing, and other lamentable results, of a
the master remain the same as when trade or reward of labour. The contrary posi
was brisk. The raw materials whereon to ns, which some political reasoners have work, in all probability, are to be had in rmed, and the arguments they have sufficient quantities from the warehouses of duced, for keeping down the wages of the merchants. Here, then, is capital of our, are happily as unfounded in fact, every kind- tools, subsistence, and matethey are opposed to every generous and rials, amply sufficient for the most active le sentiment. Doubtless, there are exertion of industry; and yet the workman ances, in which idleness and dissipation has nothing to do. Again, when employ,
induced by high wages; but this is the ment returns, is not the capital employed ception, and not the rule itself; and we in their occupations the same as that which not, from hence, argue against the be- existed previous to the want of work, and ficial tendency, on the whole, of an ample vard of labour. We shall not, however,
• Wealth of Nations, book i. chap. 8. the present occasion, enter on the discus
+ Elements of Political Economy, p. 25. 2 D. SERIES, NO. 46.--VOL. IV.
190,- VOL. XVI.
during its whole continuance, and might except at a cost of more than the indulgesc equally well have been employed as not is worth. Here are two opposite motifs during that whole time? How then can it the indulgence on one hand, and to be that capital is the cause of employment, sacrifice of acquiring it on the other : Pie and that a slackness of work is to be excess of the former over the latter corist ascribed to a want of capital, when, with an tutes the motive to exertion. abundance of every requisite kind of capital, Now a constant and effective demand is: the workmen are standing still? It is labour would be produced by the combina plain that the want of employment must nation of these circumstances.- First, that proceed from some other cause.
the labourers be sufficiently skilled in the Again, we have observed already, that various occupations, the produce of thica labour bestowed upon natural products is is called for in the eristing state of things the only source of wealth. When labour Secondly, that there erist a distribution has been bestowed upon natural products, the labourers in the several occupations prothey become articles of wealth and capital: portioned to the call there is for the respecbut they were not such until labour was tive articles, the produce of these occupa bestowed upon them. Consequently, it tions. Thirdly, that no higher prices on is labour that creates capital. It is not insisted on thun the purchasers are able and possible, then, that a wanı of employment willing to give, or than the existing state i can be the result of a want of capital, the market allows, of taking off the whult when it is labour alone that originally quantity of labour of that particular birid. created capital, and has been the source of These prices are those which the free are every subsequent addition to it. If such
open competition of the market determines; were the case, the remedy for a want of and a consequence of this exact distribuir work would be nothing more than a farther of labour, and of the contentedness to exertion of labour.
accept such prices, would be, a certain But if a want of work does not proceed equality in the rate of remuneration of from a want of capital, the causes must be labour in the several occupations, ditering sought for elsewhere; and therefore we pro- only in the different departments, as dues ceed to the inquiry—what are the causes of ence of skill, or other circumstances, real y employment, or of a scarcity of employ- call for higher wages in some than in ment?
others. Lastly, that commodities be The ability to labour, and the possession exempted from unreasonable taxatior. of tools and materials, or land, whereon to These several circumstances existing, a labour, are of themselves sufficient to afford steady and effectual demand for labour wil fullest occupation to him who is willing to always be found, and iudustry may extra work. Nothing more than these itself to the full extent of its powers, with necessary.
That which spurs men on to out apprehension, either that a vent shall labour, must, no doubt, be the never-end- be wanting for its produce, or that an ing cravings of their wants and wishes. inadequate remuneration of labour shall : But that which occasions a want of employ- obtained. But if any one of these circumment, cannot be the absence of these crav- stances be wanting, the workmen may be ings, because they always exist and ope- expected to be at times without full rate. Notwithstanding the high degree of employment, and industry, in a measure, efficiency to which labour has already cramped in its exertion. In remarking attained, human wants and wishes are far further upon these points, we observefrom being satisfied. On every hand we First, that a wani of einployment is often are still surrounded with poverty and misery, to be ascribed to the want of sufficient and when real wants are supplied, artificial knowledge or skill in workmen. The fall ones immediately arise actually more numer- development of the powers of industry ous, and scarcely less clamorous. Yet essentially depends on the possession of with demands for labour greater than the knowledge and skill in the application of utmost powers of humanity could ever labour. If the labourer be rude, or pot satisfy, the labourer is still without full sufficiently skilled, to produce the articles employment. This apparently contradic- we require, it is not likely there should be tory state of things must be accounted for, full employment for such unskilful labour. either from an inability to satisfy our crav- If the great bulk of the people of a country ings by means of labour; or an inability to is uninstructed in the arts of life; if they do so at a sacrifice of less labour than is are able only to tend cattle, grow potatoes, esteemed equivalent to the value of the construct mud cabins, or weave the coarsest indulgence of the cravings themselves : in cloth, our want of such things may be soon other words, the cravings cannot be indulged supplied. When this is done, we have no
rther occasion for labour that can furnish days. When his stomach is filled, there othing more desirable. All Ireland might is nothing more that he can do to gratify e fed, and clothed, and lodged, as her his desires : he may wish for better clothing, easantry is fed, and clothed, and lodged better lodging, better tools; but those which ith less than the tithe of their labour; he has already are the best his skill can furnd while her peasantry can do nothing nish. Nothing then remains to be done, but etter than this, they must continue with to be idle, or amuse himself in the best way ut a tithe of their labour in demand, and he can: these are his only resort. It is ne rest of their time must unavoidably be thus with every savage; and how could it pent in idleness. It is this unskilfulness, be otherwise ?' His indolence, which is iis ignorance of every art, that is, in every proverbial, is more from force of circumoor and barbarous country, the true cause stances than even from habit or disposition : f a want of employment; from the inabi- it is these circumstances, in fact, that have ty to produce anything desirable, or to produced the habit and disposition. roduce it with a less sacrifice than the Neither is it from want of appetite, or suffi. ratification it would yield is worth. ciently elevated desires, that his indolence
Of this important fact, that it is igno- proceeds, but from the want of power to ance which is the great parent of idleness gratify them; for his excesses are equally n barbarous or partially civilized countries, notorious with his indolence, which are sure we cannot be too fully persuaded. A glance to be indulged in whenever the indulgence & the different stages in the progress of of appetite is within his reach. Thus, it is nan, from ignorance and barbarism to civi- plain that a want of occupation, and someization and refinement, would sufficiently times its consequence, a habit of idleness, Demonstrate the truth of this position. is the unavoidable accompaniment of an Contrast the indefatigable industry of an unskilfulness of labour, and ignorance of the Englishman with the irreclaimable indolence arts of life. of a savage on the coast of Africa, or an On the other hand, skill, intelligence, and Indian of America. In this last case we refinement are the inexhaustible sources of ave a man who performs every kind of activity, and of indefatigable industry, which abour for himself, but destitute of the carry men almost to excess. Take the case knowledge of every art of civilized life. of a man highly intelligent, and skilled in Here is evidently no mis-direction of the arts which distinguish and adorn civiabour, and no glut of any one particular lized life. Let such an individual be sort. The direction of industry to the kind placed, like the savage, in circumstances of labour most wanted is complete : the where there can be no superabundance of individual changes his occupation from pro- labour of any particular kind, through an ducing one article to producing another, at improper direction given to it; this man the moment that his want of the first article would not be satisfied with the mere supply is supplied. His want of occupation, then, of the absolute wants of the stomach, shelter cannot be the result of industry improperly from the weather, or the covering of his directed. This man can build his hut, pro- limbs; his wants extend farther. He cure bis food from the wild fruits and herbs desires food of the choicest kinds; his drink of the woods, or by the chase and fishing; must be, not simple water, but fermented he can make his hunting and fishing wea- liquors, or spirits. Having skill to produce pons and tackle, and form bis clothing from such things with a moderate degree of exerthe skins of the wild animals he takes. tion, if leisure allow, he busies himself 10 Every thing, however, that he does is in procure them. His habitation must not the rudest and most simple fashion : he is be merely a mud hut, a cabin, or cavern of anable to add beauty, fineness, or splen- the earth, it must be of larger dimensions, of dour, to any of his works; or, if able, it is commodious and tasteful arrangement, cononly at a sacrifice of toil of an intolerable structed with materials neatly put together, magnitude. Like the Peruvians at the beautifully finished, and furnished not only time of the invasion of the Spaniards, he abundantly with articles of use, but of taste might, perhaps, be able at the expiration and ornament. The same of his dress, his of two years of persevering industry to equipage, his attendance. His intelligence manufacture a yard of cloth; that is, at a brings him in connexion with things cost of more than it could possibly be unknown and unthought of by the savage; worth. The wants of such a man, as far and which, while it gives him new faculties as his abilities can gratify them, or can do of enjoyment, at the same time gives him so at a reasonable cost, are soon supplied. new perceptions of wants. The object of The first animal he kills, is, in all pro- his desires multiply; they extend from such
more than sufficient for his food as are of a physical to those which are of an for the day, perhaps sufficient for several intellectual character; the pleasures of