Imagens das páginas



atrocious vices with which the papacy was "Arnulph. Bishop of Orleans, stained were too undisguised to escape

addressed the Council of Rheims, pointira! notice;* the tyrannical ostentation which

the Roman Pontiff: “Who is that sesta the popes displayed, and the grasping ava- upon a high throne, and radiant with pura rice which they exercised, were sometimes

and gold ? I say, whom do you take hisos resented and opposed by some one or other

be? Verily, if he thus follows uncharitable

ness, and is puffed up with his own learnir e, of the potentates of Europe, but never col.

it must be Antichrist, sitting in the tempt lectedly, and never with perseverance and

of God."

“ And in the Council of Ratisbon, #bki As the termination of the tenth century was held much later, Everard, Bishop approached, great alarm was felt by num. Saltzburg, exclaimed: “He who is the se. bers of the clergy, and was spread wide vant of servants desires to be lord of lords: among the laity, relative to the fulfilment he profanes, he pillages, he defrauds, he rets, of those striking passages in the Revelation : he murders, and he is the lost man xboz “And when a thousand years are expired, called Antichrist." The last words prie Satan shall be loosed out of prison, and

that the name was habitually applied shall go out to deceive the nations.” c. xx.

the Pope.”—p. 5, 6. v. 7 & 8. And again “ Babylon is fallen, and become the habitation of devils, and the denses or Albigenses, the application of the

In the reformations begun by the Walhold of every foul spirit.” c. xviii. v. 2. These were applied to Rome, and many bold prophetic texts of the Apocalypse was ofta ecclesiastics did not hesitate to denominate unhappy people fell victims to the arcaised

nd frequent; and while thousands of those the Pope, Satan and Antichrist, and to style vengeance of the papal see, the troubados Rome, Hell and Babylon.

of Provence filled their poetic strains wit "Even before the year 1000, Claudius, invectives against Rome. In the [ archbishop of Turin, who was celebrated for century, Petrarch and Dante, who drank the purity of his life and doctrine, though as deeply from the same fountains of imagcensured by some members of the church for nation and scriptural truth as their prehis writings against the Pope, wrote: “No decessors, the Provencal bards, with whose wonder that the members of Satan speak of compositions they were well acquainted, me thus,"

were indignant at the enormous iniquities of “Of the Pope Hildebrand (Gregory VII.) the papal court. Among the prose writings who lived at the end of the prophesied thou

of Petrarch, there is a volume entileza sand years, we read: "The raging Satan has been unchained, that the mighty arm of the

Epistolarum sine titulo liber, a book of Lord may destroy him, that is, the Pope work the author of the “ Disquisitions"

letters without a name.-- From this curion Hildebrand."

“ Lambert, the Monk of Aschaffenburg, has made numerous extracts, of which the writing of the same Pope, says :” Satan has following is a short specimen. broken forth from prison, and lays waste the “ He writes from Avignon, then the papa! Church."

see, to a confidential friend, thus :“ A little later, the English Carmelite, “ The sun never shone on a more shamsWilliam Dysse, who was celebrated for his

less city than this western Babylon, where preaching in France or Spain, &c., indignant I am now dwelling: its river, the proad at the vices of the heads of the church, ex

Rhone, is like the burning Cocytus claimed:

Acheron; and here reigns a proud race of "O, how worse than useless are the modern priests! fishermen, who are no longer poor. In the Rather may they be called priests of Hell!"

name of Jesus, but with the works of Belial,

they imprison numbers of unhappy ChriTo the ninth and tenth centuries “intrigue, and passion, and violence," as the author of Europe in

tians, and then, after pillaging them of every the Middle Ages' observes, “ were the only visible thing, they condemn them to the flames movers of the spiritual machine. It may readily be inferred, that in such elections (to the papal chair.)

(Epis. 4.) “ Woe to thy people, Christ Jesus, neither intellect nor moral worth was mnch regard woe to thy people, Lord ! Fountain of all ed : youths almost beardless, and open debauchees, were sometimes chosen. Two famous patrician

mercies, suffer us to pour out our sortoas ladies, mother and daughter, of morals the most unto thee; for as our woes are great, so do infamous, raised, during half a century, their lovers, or immediate connections, to that dignity. The for

our hearts cling to thee more fondly. Give mer, Theodora, procured the tiara for her lover, not our souls, we implore thee, as a prey to Jobn X. whom she had placed in the metropolitan see of Ravenna : the latter, Marozia, at the head of

the devouring beasts. Thou hast sorely tried the opposite faction, caused him to be imprisoned, thy people, like as silver is tried; we have and successively couferred the papacy on two of her creatures. Though married, first to Alberic, mar.

passed through the flame, &c.; we trusted in quis of Camerino, next to Guido, duke of Tuscany. thee, who rulest over the waters, to still the she had never forsaken her criminal connections. She had been the mistress of Sersius III., and the fury of the waves, which destroyed the fir=1 son, whom she next raised to the poperion, John XI. fisherman ; was reasonably supposed to be the offspring of that


we hoped that thoa wouldst have calmed them when his bark




eeended to another : we trusted that these these flowing though the minds of good roud ones would have been humbled, and men, and seeking that communication which hat thine arm would have overthrown thine might enable them by their union to burst semies, for they are no longer lambs, but like united torrents upon the foul iniquities olves; no longer fishermen, but pirates; of papal Rome and wash it from the face of o longer shepherds, but butchers; but their

the earth ; but the power of which they exride increases now more and more.” (Epis. pressed their abhorrence was strongly estab0.) " This ecclesiastical Dionysius oppresses

lished in the ignorance and superstition nd spoils our Syracuse—his delight is in

of mankind. Wickliffe, in England had thers' woes ; fishing in troubled waters, preached that “the popes and cardinals rieving in darkness.” (Epis. 11) “0,

were not ordained by God, but introduced hrist! thou who art all-powerful, hear our by the devil;" and alluding to the thousand viseries, and put an end to this struggle, for years of the Revelations, he said “ from ar yoke is intolerably heavy. We are ihe begining of the tenth century down to rent and zealous, 0 Saviour, in thy ser- this day, the consecrated host bas been conice." (Epis. 15.)

verted into a heresy, for it was then in the In another letter, he dissuades a friend

hands of the devil." The followers of rom going to that infernal city, and con

Wickliffe were numerous, and more than tres him rather to visit any other part of 40,000 armed sectarians in Hungary he world. “Go where thou wilt, even mong the Indians, but come not to Babylon; doms of Huss and Jerome of Prague.

avenged upon the Latin church the martyr.

In lescend not, while living, into Hell.-No ight is here, but all is confusion, darkness,

the sixteenth century, Luther found the nd perplexity; (and to use the words of minds of men prepared to received docvacan,) a night of intense wickedness ; yes, trines which were no longer new to them. night of clouds and darkness, unspeakable In his work on the captivity of Babylon, he nisery, infinite anguish, and distress that has pointed to Rome as Babylon, and called 10 end." (Epis. 12)

the pope Antichrist, but merely found him. Horrified with the wickedness he saw, he self enabled, by circumstances, to publish scaped from Avignon, fearing probably that with impunity, what had before been spoken le might share in the works of Satan, and

of cautiously, or had been openly declared, afterwards writing to a friend who was still

with the devotion of self-sacrifice to the here, he urged him to fly directly from the

cause of divine truth. tabernacle of the devil, if he would not be danned for ever. “ The Rhone surpasses

But the imprudence of this open conCocytus and Acheron, the rivers of hell. All

duct was seen to be pernicious not only that has been ever heard or read of perfidy,

to the fearless victims but to the cause itself deceit, pride, and unbridled licentiousness ;

which suffered in its means of promulgation all that earth ever contained, in its different by these tenable immolations. They regions of impiety and immorality, is gath- increased the hatred of mankind to the ered and concentrated there. And if thou papal power, but they compelled men to still lovest Christ, piety will give thee seek security in secret means of communistrength to fly from the sight of the enormi- cating this hatred to one another. In 1243 ties of his enemies. For thou art living in Patarini, a sect of Lombardian dissenters the midst of a people who have rebelled from the Roman church, adopted signs by against him, who were ranged under his

which they might know one another, and banners, and are fighting the battles of Satan; in a word, a people impious, proud, greedy,

their discourses abounded in allegories. and vain; with a heart of iron, a breast of The allegorical language was founded on steel, a will of lead, but soft of speech; a the opinions then predominant, which were people who follow the example of Judas of two classes, profane, and sacred; and from Iscariot, who betrayed his master with a kiss,

these were derived the different styles of mystic saying, “Hail, Master!' and of those Jews figures, the mythological, and the scriptural; who clothed their Lord in purple, and by means of which, the world was described crowned him with thorns, and then smote under two aspects, -as what it was and what it him, and spat upon him, and bowed the knee ought to become. The ages of iron and gold ; before him in bitter mockery, crying, “Hail, the deep vale of sin, and the lofty mountain king of the Jews !' And what else do those of virtue ; Avernus and Elysium, and other enemies of Christ continually ?" (Epis. 15.) similar poetical imageries, are all ingenious

It would indeed have been strange had mythological fancies. The scriptual afford a there not been a current of sentiments like innocent, and sinful : in his first state placed

not less abundant store: first, we have Adam

in the Garden of Eden, on the top of a sunny From this, and many other passages, we clearly collect that Petrarch considered that ihe Apostolical

mountain, full of flowers, fruits, and domestic Succession had passed to the persecuted, and not to animals; and in the last, banished to a world their persecutors, whom he calls Satan, demons, &c. &c.

of tears and darkness, full of tribulation and 20. SERIES, no. 46.- VOL. IV.

190.- VOL. XVI.


sorrow; there peace, abundance life, joy, lank and matted hair, and around them ho and happiness ; here, war, poverty, death, squalid filth and disease, with every ill sadness, and misery. Then again, the woful brings death. The cruel shepherd, e slavery in Babylon, and the joyful return to rounded by this train, and guarded by sca Jerusalem; the iron age of the one, and the with bloody scales, amuses himself in t golden age of the other; an allegory taken turing his wretched flock: they are de from the old and the new Testament, as in refreshed with the shears, nor cheered by the Revelation, the wicked Babylon, and the sound of the pipe; but spirits and sheep = holy Jerusalem, are described in contrast. alike terrified with the blasts of a horn, wie Again, the condition of mankind under the he ever and anon sounds from his rocky dominion of Satan, after the original sin, is to awaken the Furies. Then do the ch contrasted with Christ's holy kingdom, after sisters appear on the steeps, aud torment the divine redeniption. And figures of alle- with hydras; the ferocious ministers ran gory we may also call Hell and Paradise, the multitude, assign the respective puni with all the different descriptions and ideas ments, and then hurl the condemned frs associated with each. These were the wea- the top to the bottom of the cliff. Plutan pons with which talent made war on power,

himself casts the wolves into the flames, an turning the erudition of paganism and the too often, alas ! have I been flung into the sacred doctrines into dark meanings, in order in their company !” “() Lycidas, say = to wound its enemies secretly, and leave them more, I implore thee! Thou hast been : no field whereon to meet it. But to succeed those wolves, thou hast been hurled into t in this warfare, with what skill must the flames beneath.” writer have armed himself! with what dissi- It appears that this Lycidas, who re'st mulation cloaked his meaning! what a va- all these things, is a figure of some wretc riety of resources must he have had in store ! who was employed by the Inquisition a: One false step would have led him to a fatal informer against the sect. A wolf, and a precipice.

mented by the great Wolf, nevertheless, ko We have not space to exemplify, by caccio tells his friend in confidence, tha:

called him Lycidas, quotations, the skill with which the allego.

“from Lyeo, which się rical style was used in the eclogues of

nifies a wolf.” (See Manni. p. 60.) Petrarch and of Boccaccio. We must con

The leading object of Sig. Rossetti sta tent ourselves with one extract,

prove that the great poem of Dante, the “ The 10th eclogue, which is called “ The

Divina Commedia, is a continued allegoryn Dark Valley," opposed to the Sunny Moun- this description; or in other words, an awful tain, describes the Infernal regions, where mystic satire against papacy. To this end reigns a cruel shepherd named Plutarch, and to the further purpose of decypher. who torments those who dwell in these dis- and explaining that sublime and astonishing mal shades, with a flock of wolves; Boc- composition by the key which he conceites caccio here hints to a friend; "The tenth he has discovered to its inward meaning eclogue is called the Dark Valley, because in it I have treated of infernal deeds.” (Manni.) and, in this task, he has discovered grtal

the great body of his disquisitions is devoted; “ In the centre of Tænarus there is a cave where the sun never penetrates, and where learning and ingenuity. The interpretatica

of the immortal poem of Dante has als: those are imprisoned who are shut out from

been regarded as an object of importaxt, heaven. Awatch-dog* stands at the mouth of the cave to guard the entrance, and when he sees

not merely in a literary point of view, but any one approach, he wags his tail at them, on account of the light that might be thro*} if they seek to enter the cavern; but flies at by it upon the history and theology of the them if they attempt to leave it without the age in which it was written; yet there are permission of the prince. Within are dark critics who find sublimity in the deti woods and rivers : and its appearance is alto- obscure though which the bright truths tini gether dreadful. The valleys are surcharged live and glow in the genius of Dante sex with a dense marshy fog, and the hills are

to be labouring to break, and who this blackened with smoke. The ice never melts

that to the purely practical reader enough: there; the gloom never clears away, and perceptible to raise his admiration and I there is a constant slow fire burning without the need of fuel to feed it. The place is

fix his attention. To prove to us that the infested with serpents, which are the pests

whole is an enigma, or a combination of of the land it their tails lash us, their teeth

enigmas blended artfully together would in bite us, and their black folds crush us. Plu- no degree add to our respect for the author; tarch and his dusky queen are seated upon a

and we doubt much whether, with a serse throne of rock; their faces are covered with of the ingenuity of the contrivances to give

every combination of circumstances, n • In this watch-dog, we may recoguize the Holy Office, the Cerberus of the age.

persons two separate and opposite mea. + Papal Roine wus called in this jargon Libica Tellus, considered as Carthage, the enemy of Impe.

ings, deeply impressed upon our minds, i rial Rome.

should ourselves again read the Inform

he awful delight with which we have papal iniquity, was figured by the statue -fore frequently perused it.

seen by Nebuchednezzar in his dream, and nte Alighieri, by his early devotion to that the papal court, was the bell, menhibelline party at Florence drew upon tioned in Job, where “the light is as dark-If the enmity of pope Boniface VIII. ness, by open denunciations as well as by

It was during this unfortuuate period, that te intrigues, procured his complete ruin

Dante, banished though the influence of the his banishment from his native city. pope, made his pilgrimage thoughout Italy, dering from one town of Italy to in search of a subsistence and a shelter. ser, frequently reduced to the lowest And what scenes did he there behold! At mity of want, his mind, enriched with every step a crime, at every look a misfortune, e knowledge attainable at that period, and turbulence, alarm, blood, and misery imbued with the most exalted senti. every where. Could he shut his eyes to the is of the obligations of man to God and

cause of all this woe? It was while in this s fellow creatures, burnt with indigna- state of distress and poverty, that liis poem at the wrorgs which human nature and

was composed; and writing its various parts tianity sustained from the conduct of

while he was wandering about, and often Roman See. By the artifices of the interrupting his lalours, either to fly from

the persecution which pursued him, or to es, the States of Italy, (at the subjuga- procure the necessaries of life, how more or the control of which they continually

than probable is it that he checked many of ed) were instigated to constant hatred of his original impulses! His enemy was too foranother, and in their mutual conflicts midable for him to venture openly to express ght the protection sometimes of the Em- all the just hatred he felt, a hatred which and sometimes of France. The sovereigns was continually aggravated by the weight of Germany indeed urged a union of the his own misfortunes, and the sight of those ian states, but whenever they took any

of others! What resource had be then ? sures to effect so desireable an event,

Siience! yes, such silence as Petrarch and jealousy of France was awakened and

Boccaccio observed in their pastorals : somepopes in alliance with the French King mation, but he soon again veiled it in mys

times he did burst forth into an open exclad all the terrible means with which the

tery: as in the Monarchia for instance, otry of superstition had armed them, to

which was written at the time when the intain and increase the dissentions of the speedy arrival of the Emperor in Italy was istian world. Some patriotic spirits, looked for: “ Not only do they defraud the wever, continually sighed for the confe. Church, but what is worse, every day they racy and deliverance of the whole of Italy, usurp some ecclesiastical patrimony, and thus d they were encouraged by the imperial she is becoming poor and miserable. What urt, through views frequently as selfish as can we say of such pastors? What can we use of France and the Pope, to look to say, when we see them squandering away e emperor for support. This party was property which should be inviolate, or else lled the Bianchi or Ghibellines while the converting it into the aggrandizement of their of the Pope and the French

own families? But perhaps it is better, with onarch were denominated the Neri or the

the materials we have already in our hands,

to wait in patient silence, for the coming of uelphs. The moral and political prospects our Saviour.” (Book 2.)-p. 53. i which the Ghibellines were engaged were ia lofty character. They looked for the foun- As the body of the work before us conation of extensive or even universal empire, sists entirely of the adaptations of the explafwhich Rome should be the centre, and nation founded upon this basis to the three

which justice and pure religion should great divisions of the Divina Commedia, ave domination. “This fancied empire, our readers connot expect us to follow him hey called in the language of Scripture the in such an undertaking. We have cerNew Jerusalem, and the head of it the tainly been much gratified by some portions king of kings, who was to humble the of the unravelling of this entangled web, bride of the servant of servants.”

and have felt ourselves the more and more shelter from persecution which the open astonished, at the efforts of the mind of the vowal of such views would have certainly great Poet which seems to have been endeadrawn down on the heads of those who ouring, at the same moment, and in the entertained and promoted them, recourse same words, to illude and deceive the iniwas had to allegories: the writers in that quitous and tyrannical power of the papacy, species of literature were numerous, and it while it is instructing and encouraging the was secretly understood among the mem

confederate foes of that power, in the bers of the Ghibelline faction, that the strongest possible language; embodying inpapal authority, or, rather, that the era of vective against their detested oppressor,



As a

elevated promises of ultimate success and jewels, which are exceedingly ren
transcendant glory. Yet with all the illuci- were delivered up, and Don Migue.
dation afforded by Signor Rossetti, there barked for and arrived at Genoa.
will still be obscurities in the great work of The crown of Portugal was to
Alighieri remaining, whichwillstand as proofs, placed upon the head of Doone I
either that the strength of his genius some- the Cories of that kingdom bave con
times carried him beyond the conventional convened at Lisbon, and they base
limits of the Ghibelline allegories, or that that Dom Pedro shall be Rezeni si
this mystical language was never accurately tugal, during the minority of the the
reduced to a system. Both these, whatever The finances and currency are zisot
Signor Rossetti may urge to the contrary, in a train of settlement, such as buds
are circumstances so likely in themselves relieve the government from is a
to have occurred, and are so clearly mani- rassments, and redeem the credit ei in
fest in numerous passages, which the Signior country.
will have much difficulty to explain, should Spain is yet perturbed. Doo Car
he ever have the courage to write a com- the surrender of Dom Miguel, rege-
plete commentary on Dante's works, as the Portuguese authorities to procent
having actually happened, that, we can- a passage in a British ship of
not but conclude allegorical literature to England, which request was granted. z
have been always a hateful fetter to genius. on the 18th June, this prince, erila
Dante indeed surpassed all other writers of spouse, three sons, and several fenze :
that school, in tossing his chains with poetic his family, landed from the Donc
dignity about him, but it is in those passages 78 guns, at Portsmouth. Afer a s
where he seems to have forgot that disguise stay in England, Don Carlos, in the I
was necessary, that he stands before us mysterious manner, left London, was
principally in all the sublimity of his native and his family had some time resided a

landed in the north of Spain. Am
her husband, and the hardships sét -

endured in Portugal, induced severe i EUROPE IN THE SUMMER OF 1834.

position in Donna Maria Francisco. :Tue war in Portugal occupied the first spouse of Don Carlos, and she des months of summer. Dom Miguel having Portsmouth early in the present " called in his garrisons fror Figueira and The civil war yet continues in the run Coimbra, and his forces from the north, with various success.

At Jadne marched out of Santarem, and concen- Cortes have assembled and are Et trating his whole force upon the heights of debate. The rights of the people and Asseceira, was determined to stake the finances of the nation are the subjects crown of Portugal upon the issue of a gene- cussed, and upon these, some hastys ral batile. The army of Dom Pedro, lutions have been already passed : D under the command of the Duke of Ter- while, if strong reinforcemeats are nas ceira, immediately accepted this challenge, sent to the army in the north, the *** and marching from before Santarem ; a rection may become general there, z. general engagement ensued, which ended exceedingly injurious to that country, #1 in the complete defeat of Dom Miguel's seems to be enthusiastic in the case army with great slaughter, numerous pri- Don Carlos. soners and the defection of a large portion France is pronounced by thousands of his troops, who upon this signal defeat, be the land of liberality and liberty; to entered the ranks of Dom Pedro. Dom how do these matter stand? Libera Miguel pressed by the victors, re-entered conscience is placed in the hands of een Santarem, but being instantly driven across village mayor, of which there are betina the Tagus, he sought refuge in Elvas: thirty and forty thousand througtoe: 3 however, on reaching Evora, somewhat out nation, each of which may or may of the direct route, he was met by the refuse to admit, within his jurisdicit I forces of Dom Pedro, under the command Protestant meeting, even for prayas of Marshal Saldana, while the army under as well as for preaching or teaching. De the Duke of Terceira advanced upon his mayors are for the most part Romania

Thus couped up, his whole army tholics, and they refuse to allow the became mutinous, and after an attempt to meetings, lest they should be refused 2* negociate an armistice, which failed, Dom lution by their priests, and because te Miguel surrendered at discretion. Subse- detest and denounce Protestants as berete quently, all the garrisons of Portugal sur- In the worst days of popery, das rendered to Donna Maria II.; the crown thing exceed this, except actual impez.


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