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(With a Portrait.)


This Lady is known to the world by two works of her own ; the former on the “ Domestic Manners of the Americans," the latter " Narrative of a Tour in Belgium,” &c. She is far better known to the world by innumerable reviews, of every diversity and degree of opinion and talent. This principally refers to her first production; and certainly the excitement it occasioned at its first appearance was not a little calculated, if not to compensate for the labour and cost, at least to gratify the vanity of which the race of authors are so shrewdly suspected. Of her latter production, as we have recently given a considerable space in our pages to an examination of its contents, we shall here say nothing. Indeed, in commenting upon the literary character of this Lady, there is a further reason why we should chiefly confine our view to her work on the Domestic Manners of the Americans. It was her first work; it was evidently the most lively, natural, and unconstrained exhibition of her habits as an observer, and her powers as a writer. These powers are at once considerable and curious. At one time the reader meets with that class of objects observed, which a woman's eye alone would catch; and these objects described with such a happy minuteness as leaves small doubt as to the sex of the writer—but anon there is a species of broad farce enacted, an outré style of caricature exhibited, which by no means reminds the reader of a lady's hand.

Furthermore, those outrageous lithographs form a very novel adjunct to a female performance, and draw, with a prodigality worthy of Munchausen, upon the faith of the untravelled reader. Her descriptive powers are unquestionably very superior. The gigantic scale of the American scenery; the eager bustle of the jostling, elbowing, progressing American; the uniform commercial stamp of each of the thousand individuals whom the traveller meets in the steam-boats, taking their little five-hundred-mile trips “ up the country;" the spick-and-span new aristocracy of New York; "the insensible perspiration” of the never-ending canvass: all these are depicted with the most diverting verisimilitude. To an English reader, who has never seen America, the effect of the representation resembles that of some portraits which we sometimes see, which we feel convinced must be excellent likenesses, though the originals are unknown to us. Some of the most piquant of her dialogues and adventures are indeed a little too good to be true, and are rather more redolent of Sister Trollope than of Brother Jonathan. These, however, are pardonable peccadillos; they are redeemed by a fund of humour, which must have produced laughter enough, one would suppose, to fatten a whole generation. 2D. SERIES, NO. 48.-VOL. IV

192.-VOL. XVI.


The chief objections to Mrs. Trollope's mode of writing are, first, a stu: infusion of prejudice, which she has too much honesty to dissimula: “ I speak,” says she, "of the population generally, as seen in touc country, among the rich and the poor, in the slave states; and the free site I do not like them; I do not like their principles; I do not like th: manners; I do not like their opinions.” In the comprehensiveness of denunciation, so much must of necessity be involved which never dig! could come under Mrs. T.'s observation, and which was “never dream. in her philosophy,” that the remark can only be traced to prejudice.

A more serious charge, however, against the writings of Mrs. Trol.., is the sacrifice of religion, and of what we should call morals also, o e prosecution of her main object. It is a dangerous thing to scatter er criminate censures against any class of professing Christians, it looks **** like an invidious attack upon religion itself. Upon the minds of i thoughtless it produces precisely the same result, and in the miod of author it may be shrewdly suspected to flow from the same source. Vi we should go still further: if we see in the pages of an author, any I. cations that he does not himself possess personal knowledge of, and seas of interest in, the truths of Christianity; if he indicate that he is s himself a Christian, -we must risk the charge of being uncharitable, . altogether denying his admissibility as a witness; we will not allow he : come into court; he labours under something more than absolute i rance, namely, an obliquity of vision and a delusion of mind. For an author, therefore, to criticise sermons and exercises of devotion, is 'N a little more absurd than for a man born deaf to doymatise about 13 and sharps. Again, with respect to morality, we are not much pieasca

. with Mrs. T. for such a declaration as the following. “On enteri: : slave state, I was immediately comfortable and at my ease.” The tende affections in man may, indeed, be extirpated by the storms of avarice 22. political passions, but we seem to feel a right to look, even in the se wilds of barbarism, to woman's eye for the tear of pity, to woman's her for the sigh of sympathy, and to woman's life for the prayer of interes sion. It is painful in a British lady to look for these in vain.

Upon Mrs. Trollope's political views, and on her notions of those of the Americans, it is unnecessary to enter; the truth is, that the essence of charge which she brings against our transatlantic brethren, is their want: refinement; this, it must be confessed, is not a crime of the first magaiti nor we fear is it the greatest crime. The Edinburgh Review, bo EFE suggests to the accused party an appropriate defence, in the reply of a gre: man of antiquity—“ True, I can not fiddle, but I can make a small state : great one;" and, in the same article, remarks, with that enviable feica which is common only in the pages of that work—“Mrs. Trollope addresse the Americans much as Touchstone addresses Corin:—Wast ever at cc shepherd? No, truly. Then thou art damned. Nay, I hope. Truly th. art damned like an ill-roasted egg, all on one side. For not being at cox your reason. Why, if thou never wast at court, thou never sawist polek manners; if thou never saw'st good manners, then thy manners mus * wicked; and in wickedness is sin, and in sin is damnation. Thou art 3 perilous state, shepherd.' Corin's auswer comprises a considerable partiz" of the proper American reply—“Not a whit, Touchstone: those that ar? good manners at court, are as ridiculous in the country, as the behaviour e the country is most mockable at court.'”




which it is fit for use or sale, the cultivation of the soil could not be carried on, tillage must be abandoned, and no separate direc

tion of industry or division of labour could Amongst the circumstances on which the subsist. Without storehouses wherein 10 opulence of society depends, the employ- lodge the fruits of the earth, they could ment of capital holds a distinguished place, not be preserved to supply our necessities and in consequence presents a subject when the season of production is past. which is worthy of a deliberate examina- To fell the forest, to pierce the mine, or to tion, not only from the interest which all traverse the waters, without the aid of capiinquiries bearing immediately on the wel- tal were impracticable: and the tenants of fare of society must possess, but from its the deep, the treasures of the mine, and the practical utility, as developing the causes luxuries of foreign climes would for ever of nalional opulence, from whence the remain inaccessible. means are perceived by which the progress The advantages derived from the use of of wealth is either advanced or retarded. capital are not confined solely to such as is

The employment of capital seems pe- employed to assist labour in the direct proculiar to the human species; and forms duction or manipulation of commodities, as one of the distinguishing features of its the tools, the plant and utensils, the workcharacter. The formation of man is pecu- shops and materials, and in the different liarly adapted to, and calls for, such em- branches of business. Similar advantages ployment, as indispensable to his state arise from the use of the floating capital and condition. Without it, bis condition employed and expended in procuring the would be far below that of the inferior raw or partly wrought materials, for the animals. These are furnished by nature workmen to manufacture, in the advance with members admirably constructed for of their wages, conveying goods to market, defence, for procuring food, and for per- collecting an assortment of them, and furforming whatever labour may be neces. nishing them in suitable quantities and at sary to their well-being but man is sent convenient seasons to the parties who reforth into the world almost defenceless; quire them. his hand is not armed like the beak of the To present a view of the important bird, or the teeth and claws of the quad- functions which this portion of capital fulruped, and he is under the necessity of fils, let us suppose that all at once it were resorting to some implement to supply withdrawn ; and that each person were what would otherwise be a defect in his obliged to perform himself the services he formation.

now receives from this portion of the capi. It is obvious that both the tools which tal of the farmer, manufacturer, and dealer. man employs to aid his labour, and the It is impossible, consistently with brevity, materials on which that labour is bestowed, accurately to trace all the steps which a are indispensable in almost every species consumer would be obliged io take to of industry. What could the husbandman acquire any commodity, if this capital were effect without his spade or his plough, or abstracted from business. It is sufficient to the weaver without his loom? And again, describe them generally. materials must necessarily be provided, out In the way in which capital is now of which to fabricate the articles our wants employed, if the consumer is in want of demand. Without these two descriptions a pair of stockings, they may be had at of capital, scarcely any kind of labour any time, and of any sort or quality, at a could be prosecuted with success, beyond hosier's shop. But if the capital which is what could be performed by the unaided employed in conducting and keeping them powers of the hand, and which yielded an were abstracted, the consumer would be immediate return; and our supply would obliged, in the first instance, to quit his be confined to the herbs, roots, and fruits usual occupation, and repair to the sheepof the forest, with a few of the more help- farmer's to procure a quantity of wool. less animals which we might be able to Having bought and paid for the wool, he outrun and overcome. Without seed to must then convey it to the carder and Sow the land, a future harvest could never spinner, whose wages he must advance. be obtained. Without a store of food pre- He would next have to go in quest of viously accumulated to sustain us during the thread when spun, to convey it to be the performance of our work, and until the dyed, and to pay the dyer. Lastly, be seasons return, or the operations of nature must carry the thread from the dyer to the have been completed which give effect to stocking-maker, pay him bis wages, and, labour, and its produce to that state in when finished, fetch the stockings home.

In the instance of commodities which from this distribution, from agriculture, it are procurable only by means of a foreign commerce, and the intercharge of trade, the use of this floating capital is modities, from the use of tools al = still more essential. Take the case of cot- chines, from the employment of labor ton, sugar, coffee, or other tropical produc- cattle and the natural moving powers, but tions, and suppose that the floating capital agricultural improvements, from the scenes now employed in purchasing these articles in and arts, they are all dependent on inte the countries where they are grown, in con- possession and employment of capital, ex veying them hoje, and storing them in the could not be enjoyed but in commax shops and warehouses of the traders, were al- with, and through its aid. together withdrawn. In such case, a con- It is plain, likewise, that the ques sumer in want of either of these articles and excellence of the produce o lze would have lo embark for the East or must mainly depend on the quantity : West Indies to purchase the quantity of capital employed ; such as the goodie them he might require. But when diffi- and suitableness of our tools and the culties of such magnitude must be sur. instruments of labour, the number : mounted, it would be impossible for any strength of our labouring caule, the private individual to procure them at all. state of cultivation into which the land la

Taking the first and least difficult of the been brought, the commodiousness de two cases, and examining the task thus im- workshops, granaries, and storehouses; de posed on the consumer, it will be found to number and power of our machine z consist in two different duties, First, he engines of every description, and the entert is compelled to withdraw from his own to which the natural powers of wind, re, stock the money with which he pays for and steam are applied in industry. We the wool, and that with which he pays the master is possessed of an ampie caps. the carder, spinner, and dyer, some time be is enabled to furnish the workmen en before he acquires the stockings, which the best implements and most effos occasions a loss of the profit he might machines that can be had, and to afri procure by retaining this capital in his him every known facility for canying a own business. Secondly, he is obliged to his business to the greatest advantage. perform the labour of selecting the wool, The different ways in which advantages and of conveying it to be carded and spun, from the employment of capital, may be atthe labour of carrying it to the dyer, and, sidered in the four following points el nem lastly, that of taking it to the stocking- First. It saves time and labour in the maker, and fetching it from thence home. production of almost every common

The capital expended in improvements with the aid of a useful tool or machine, a upon the soil contributes most essentially man's work is rendered easy, and his te to heighten the powers of labour, and aug. is saved. Without working harder

, bes ment the quantity of agricultural produce. enabled to do more work, or produces If previous labour had not cleared away than he could have done before

. In die the forests which encumbered our lands, ent countries, the horse, the ass, the et, to and drained off the waters which caused camel, the rein-deer, and some other ethem to be in part in morasses ; if it had mals, are trained ió labour. Mucha not been expended in fencing, manuring, ditional power is acquired from the esple constructing farm-buildings, and the other ment of these animals, and a much les improvements which have been made upon quantity of work is executed. Still get the land, it would be but a small quantity power is acquired through the use of of useful produce that the industry of the chinery impelled by water, wind, or ses country could raise from it. Obliged to These natural agents work while we * undertake these necessary works, the pro- our horses and machinery perform ac per cultivation of the land could not be labour for us, while we do nothing but commenced until they were completed. look on; or rather they act in conjunta But since the expenditure of capital was with us, assist our exertions, and lessen * made by which these works were executed, toil we must otherwise undergo; while su the labour of the husbandman is applied multiply the products of our labour at once to cultivation, and it has con- immeasurable degree. In every way ** tributed in a high degree to augment in every subsequent year the produce of industry. As then the distribution of employments Kingdom at 2,000,000. The power of a

estimates the number of horses in the [58

• Mr. Gordon, in his Treatise on Lacoes and division of labour can only be estab- usually reckoned as equal to that of sis mer lished through a previous accumulation of makes the total of horse - power in capital, whatever are the benefiis derivable artist

Kingdom equivalent to 12,000,000 op,

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