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whole charge of the musick thousand pounds. The clothes reckoned one with another at + least, amounted to £10,000.- . rest of the masque, which we, cieties, were accounted to be sand pounds.

“I was so conversant with so willing to gain their favour. time, that I composed an air assistance of Mr. Ives, and Coranto; which being cried publiquely by the Blac were then esteemed the best of London.”

PROLOGUES AN in

THE speaker of the pro diately after the third sount in a long black velvet ch Induction to Cynthia's R. the prologue to The Co which the following is an a ** Since 'tis become the to A woman once in a coron With pardon speak the A welcome to the theatro That with a little beard, With a starch'd face and Before the plays thus two Present a welcome to to Again, in "...so to Beaumont and Fletcher, ductions are out of date is as stale as a black ves land.” Some traces of served in the suit of lo these few years, to be speakers; and the com; §. speaker is still ited in Hamlet. Epilogues were not to plays in Shakspear had none, or if they h served. In such o s exception of the Seco it is spoken by a dan. one of the persons of the character of the observable in the ejo poraries. Tji

This was a pers whose constant from vacancy, b ::". bu, says Lupton in Things, “were one that was . saies: ‘like a layhouse it d !. being in called upon to denly going, players bad as he was so boy) there's dom neither is known to

Encount Clown and ed his i. T

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HENRY CONDELL,

l, aid by Roberts, the player, to have been a *dian, but he does not mention any authority *** ***rtian but stage tradition. In Webster's Poros of Malfr, he originally acted the part of * Cardinal; and, as when that play was printed is lon. Another performer had taken the character, ** Probable that he had retired from the stage or that time. He still, however, continued to *** interest in the theatre, being mentioned with ***r players to whom a license was granted * Charles I. in 1625. He had, probably, a con*** Portion of the shares or property in the ** *d Blackfriars theatres. This actor, as well * Ifeminges, lived in Aldermanbury. He is *rably noticed in Shakspeare's will, and was

** the editors of his dramas.

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iam Kempe, as * in the favour of her majestie, as in the opinion

Nothing: he, probably, acted such parts as required dry humour rather than splendid declamation. He was recognised as a fellow by Augustine Phillips, in 1605, and distinguished as a friend by a legacy of twenty shillings. He lived among the other players, and among the fashionable persons of that period, in Holywell-street. The exact date of his death is unknown, but he was buried, says the register of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, on the 13th of March, 1618, three days before the great Burbadge was laid in the same cemetery.

JOHN LOW IN

WAs a principal performer in .*. plays. If the date on É. picture in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, is accurate, he was born in 1576. Wright mentions in his Historia Histrionica, that “before the wars, he used to act the part of Falstaff with mighty applause;” but, without doubt, he means during the reign of king Charles I. from 1625 to 1641. When our poet's King Henry IV. was first exhibited, Lowin was but twenty-one years old; it is, therefore, probable that Heminges, or some other actor, originally represented the fat knight, and that several years afterwards the part was given to Lowin. Roberts, the player, informs us, that he also performed King Henry VIII. and Hamlet; but oil. respect to the latter, his account is certainly erroneous, since it appears from more ancient writers, that Joseph Taylor was the first representative of that character. Lowin is introduced in the Induction to Marston's Malecontent, and he and Taylor are noticed in a copy of verses, written in the year 1632, soon after the appearance of Jonson's Magnetic Lady, as the two most esteemed actors of that time:

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SAMUEL CROSS. This actor was, probably, dead before the year 1600; for Hol. who had himself written for the stage before that time, says he had never seen

him.
A LeYAN der COOKE.

It appears that this actor was the heroine of the stage, even before the year 1588. He acted as a woman in Jonson's Sejanus, and in The Fox; and it is thence reasonably supposed, that he represented the lighter females of Shakspeare's dramas. Alexander Cooke was recollected as a fellow by Augustine Phillips, and distinguished as an intimate by a legacy.

SAMUEL GILBURNE, unknown.

ROBERT ARMIN

Performed in The Alchymist, in 1610, and was alive in 1611, some verses having been addressed to him in that year by John Davies of Hereford, from which he appears to have occasionally performed the part of the clown or fool:

“To honest, gamesome, Robert Armine, - - who tickles the spleene like a harmless vermin.

“Armine, what shall I say of thee, but this,
Thou art a fool and knave; both ---fie, I miss, .
And wrong thee much : sith thou indeed art neither,
Although in shew thou playest both together."

He was the author of a comedy called The Two Maids of More-clack, 1609; also of a book called A Nest of Ninnies, simply of themselvo; without Compound, 1608; and, at stationers' Hall, was entered, in the same year, a book called Phantasm,

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QBriginal 3ctors in $5akspeare's Dramas.

LAURENCE FLETCHER.

o who appeared at the head of the King's Servants, in the royal license of 1603, has escaped the notice of the historian of our stage; and, in truth, we know scarcely anything of him. Fletcher was, probably, of St. Saviour's, Southwark, where several families of that name resided, as may be learnt from the parish register. He was

laced before Shakspeare and Richard Burbadge in . James's license, as much, perhaps, by accident as design. Augustine Phillips, when he made his will, in May, 1605, bequeathed to his fellow, Laurence Fletcher, twenty shillings. And this fellow of Phillips and of Shakspeare was buried in St. Saviour's church, on the 12th of September, 1608. What plays of our author's he performed in is uncertain, nor does it appear whether he excelled in tragedy or comedy.

EDMOND SHAKSPEARE,

THE brother of the poet, was a performer at the Globe, lived in St. Saviour's, and was buried in the church of that parish. The entry in the register runs thus: “1607, December 31,[was buried] Edmond Shakspeare, a player, in the church.” Nothing more is known of him; stimulated, most probably, by his brother's success, he came to the metropolis and attached himself to the theatre; but he died young, and seems to have made little progress in his profession.

RICHARD BURBADGE,

The most celebrated tragedian of our author's time, was the son of James Burbadge, who was also an actor, and, perhaps, a countryman of Shakspeare's. He lived in Holy well-street, in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch ; from which it may be supposed that he originally played at the Curtain Theatre, which was in that neighbourhood. It is singular that he should have resided, from the year 1600 to his death, in a place so distant from the Blackfriars playhouse, and still further from the Globe, in which theatres he acted during the whole of that time. By his wife, Winifred, he had four daughters, two of whom were baptized by the name of Juliet. His fondness for the name of Juliet, *..."; arose from his having been the original

meo in our auther's play. Burbadge died about the 13th of March, 1619, and was buried in the church of St. Leonard, Shoreditch. His will is still extant in the Prerogative Oslice, but it contains nothing remarkable. Richard Burbadge is introduced in person in an old play called The Returne from Parnassus, and instructs a Cambridge scholar how to play the part of King Richard the Third, in which character Burbadge was greatly admired. That he represented this part is lo by bishop Corbet, who, in his Iter Boreale, speaking of his host at Leicester, tells us,

“When he would have said, king Richard died, And call'd a horse, a horse, he Eurbage cry’d.”

He, probably, also enacted the characters of King John, Richard II. Henry V. Timon, Brutus, Coriolanus, Macbeth, Lear, and Othello. He was one of the principal sharers or proprietors of the Globe and Blackfriars theatres; and was of such eminence, that in a letter, preserved in the British Museum, written in the year 1613, the actors at the Globe are called Burbadge's Company. Flecknoe writes thus of him in his Short Discourse of the English Stage, 1664: “He was a delightful Proteus, so wholly transforming himself into his parts, and putting off himself with his cloaths, as he never (not so much as in the tyring-house) assumed

himself again, until the play was done. He had ast the parts of an excellentorator, animating his words with speaking, and speech with action; his auditors being never more delighted than when he spake. nor more sorry than when he held his peace; yet. even then, he was an excellent actor still ; never failing, in his part when he had done speaking, boat with his looks and gesture maintaining it still to the height.” The testimony of sir Richard Baker is to the same purpose; he pronounces him to have been “such an actor as no age must ever look to see the like.” In Philpot's Additions to Camden's Remains we find an epitaph on this tragedian more concise than even that on Ben Jonson, being only “Exit Burbadge.” The following also appears in a manuscript in the British Museum : “Epitaph on Mr. Richard Burbage, the Player. “This life's a play, scean'd out by natures arue, Where every man hath his allotted parte. This man hathe now (as many more can tell) Ended his part, and he hath acted well. The play now ended, think his gravo to be The detiring howse of his sad tragedie; Where to give his fame this, be not afraid, Here lies the best tragedian ever plaid.” JOHN HEMINGES Is said by Roberts, the player, to have been a tragedian, and, in conjunction with Condell, to have followed the business of printing, but his authority is doubtful. As early as November, 1597, he appears to have been the manager of the Lord-chainberlain's Company; . This station, for, which his prudence qualified him, he held, probably, during forty years. There is reason to believe that be was

originally a Warwickshire lad, a shire which has o so many players and poets; the Buradges, the Shakspeares, the Greens, and the

Harts. Of Heminges' cast of characters little is known ; there is only a tradition that he was the first representative of Falstaff. He was adopted by king James, on his accession, as one of his theatrical servants; and was ranked the fifth in the royal license of 1603. He had the honour to be remembered in Shakspeare's will, and was the first editor of Shakspeare's works. He died at the age of seventy-five, in the parish of St. Mary, Aldermanbury; and was buried, according to the register, on the 12th of October, 1630. His will, still preserved, devises considerable property, and provides various kind tokens of remembrance for so relations and fellows.

AUGUSTINE PhILLIPS

WAs placed next to Burbadge in the royal license of 1603. He was an author as well as an actor, and left behind him some ludicrous rhymes, which were entered in the Stationers' books in 1593, and were entitled The Jigg of the Slippers. He is supposed to have performed characters in low life. Whatever he might have been in the theatre, he was certainly a respectable man in the world. He amassed considerable property. He died at Mortlake, in Surrey, in May, 1605, and was buried. at his dying request, in the chancel of the church, of that parish, leaving his wife, Anne, executrix of his will; with this proviso, however, that if she married again, John Heminges, Richard Burbadge William Sly, and Timothie Whithorne, should ise his executors. His widow did marry again, and John Heminges immediately proved the will. on the 16th of May, 1607, and assumed the trust which Phillips had reposed in him.

WILLIAM KEMPE

WAs the successor of Tarleton. “Here I must needs remember Tarleton," says Hey woud in his Apology for Actors, “in his time gracious with the queen his soveraigne, and in the H.". general applause; to whom succeeded William Kempe, as well in the favour of her majestie, as in the opinion and good thoughts of the general audience.” Trom the 4to. editions of some of our author's plays, we learn that he was the original performer of Dogberry, in Much Ado about Nothing, and of Peter, in Romeo and Juliet. From an old comedy, called The Return from Parnassus, we may collect that he was the original Justice Shallow ; and the contemporary writers inform us that he usually acted the part of a clown, in which, like Tarleton, he was celebrated for his extemporal wit. Launcelot, in the Merchant of Venice; Touchstone, in As You Like It; Launce, in The Two Gentlemen of Verona; and the Grave-digger, in Hamlet; were, probably, also performed by this comedian. He was an author as well as an actor. So early as the year 1589, Kempe's comic talents seem to have been highly estimated; for an old pamphlet called An Almond for a Parrot, written by Thomas Nashe, is dedicated “to that most comicall and conceited cavaleire monsieur du Kempe, jestmonger, and vice-gerent generall to the ghost of Dick Tarletoo.” From a passage in one of Decker's tracts, it may be presumed that this comedian was dead in the year 1609. In Braithwaite's Remains, 1618, he is thus commemorated : “Upon Kempe and his Morice, with his Epitaph. *wejceme from Norwich, ho all joy to see Thy safe return inoriscoed lustily. But eat. alas: how soone's thy morice done, Whea pipe and tabor, all thy friends be gone; And lease thee now to dance the second part with feeble nature, not with nimble art' Then all thy triumphs fraught with strains of mirth, Sball be raz'd up within a chest of earth: the Italian Taylor, and his Boy, made by Mr. Armin, servant to his majesty. He was certainly one of the Lord-chamberlain's Players at the accession of king James, and was received, with greater actors, into the royal company. As a fellor, Armin was kindly remembered by Phillips, who left him a legacy of twenty shillings. WILLIAM OSTLER HAD been one of the Children of the Chapel, having acted in Jonson's Poetaster, together with Field and Underwood, in 1601, and is said to have erformed women's parts. . In 1610, both he and nderwood acted as men in Jonson's Alchymist. In Davies's Scourge of Folly, there are some verses addressed to him with this title: “To the Roscius of these times, William Ostler.” He acted Antonio, in Webster's Duchess of Malsy, in 1623; but the period of his death is uncertain.

Shail be? they are; thou hast danc'd thee out of breath; And new must make thy parting dance with death.”

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HENRY CONDELL,

Is said by Roberts, the player, to have been a comedian ; but he does not mention any authorit for this assertion but stage tradition. In Webster's Duchess of Malfy, he originally acted the part of the Cardinal ; and, as when that play was printed in 1623, another performer had taken the character, it is probable that he had retired from the stage before that time. He still, however, continued to have an interest in the theatre, being mentioned with the other players to whom a license, was granted by Charles I. in 1625. He had, probably, a considerable portion of the shares or property in the Globe and Blackfriars theatres. This actor, as well as Heminges, lived in A.o. He is honourably noticed in Shakspeare's will, and was one of the editors of his dramas.

WILLIAM SLY Was joined with Shakspeare in the license granted in 1603. He is introduced personally in the Induction to Marston’s Malecontent, 1604; and from his there using an affected phrase of Osrick's in Hamlet, we may collect that he performed that part. He died before the year 1012.

Rich ARD COWLEY Is said to have been an actor of a low class, having taken the part of Verges, in Much Ado about

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Nothing: he, probably, acted such parts as required dry humour rather than splendid declamation. He was recognised as a fellow by Augustine Phillips, in 1605, and distinguished as a sriend by a legacy of twenty shillings. . He lived among the other players, and among the fashionable persons of that period, in Holywell-street. The exact date of his death is unknown, but he was buried, says the register of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, on the 13th of March, 1618, three days before the great Burbadge was laid in the same cemetery.

JOHN LOW IN

WAs a principal performer in Shakspeare's plays. If the date on |. picture in the Å. Museum at Oxford, is accurate, he was born in 1576. Wright mentions in his Historia Histrionica, that “before the wars, he used to act the part of Falstaff with mighty applause;” but, without doubt, he means during the reign of king Charles I. from 1625 to 1611: ... When our poet's King Henry IV. was first exhibited, Lowin was but twenty-one years old; it is, therefore, probable that Heminges, or some other actor, originally represented the fat knight, and that several years afterwards the part was given to Lowin. Roberts, the player, informs us, that he also performed King Henry VIII. and Hamlet; but .# respect to the latter, his account is certainly erroneous, since it appears from more ancient writers, that Joseph Tayfor was the first representative of that character. Lowin is introduced in the Induction to Marston's Malecontent, and he and Taylor are noticed in a copy of verses, written in the year 1632, soon after the appearance of Jonson's Magnetic Lady, as the two most esteemned actors of that time:

“Let Lowin cease, and Taylor scorn to touch The loathed stage, for thou hast made it such.”

Though Heminges and Condell had an interest in the theatre to the time of their death, yet they ceased to act about the year 1623; and, in the next year, Lowin and Taylor took the management. After the theatres were suppressed, Lowin became miserably poor; and, in his later years, he kept an inn, the Three Pigeons at Brentford. He died in London, aged eighty-three, and was buried in the ground belonging to the parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, March 18, 1658.

SAMUEL CROSS. This actor was, probably, dead before the year 1600; for Hol. who had himself written for the stage before that time, says he had never seen

him. ALEXANDER COOKE.

It appears that this actor was the heroine of the stage, even before the year 1588. He acted as a woman in Jonson's Sejanus, and in The Fox; and it is thence reasonably supposed, that he represented the lighter females of Shakspeare's dramas. Alexander Cooke was recollected as a fellow by Augustine Phillips, and distinguished as an intimate by a legacy.

SAMUEL GILBURNE, unknown.

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NATHANIEL FIELD,
AND JOHN UNDERWOOD.

. Both these actors had been Children of the Chapel; and, probably, at the Globe and Blackfriars theatres, performed female parts: Field, when he became too manly to take the characters of women, played the part of Bussy d'Ambois, in Chapman's play of that name. From the preface to one edition of it, it appears that he was dead in 1611.

Nothing more is known of John Underwood but that he performed the part of Delio, in The Duchess of Malfy, and that he died about the year 1624.

NICHOLAS TOOLEY,

Was one of the unnamed associates of Shakspeare, Burbadge, and Heminges, at the Globe, and was one of the original actors in our bard's dramas. He; too, represented women, as early as 1589, and acted Rodope, in Tarleton's Platt, of the Seven Deadlie Sinns. He performed in the Alchymist, in the year 1610. Tooley, from some expressions in his will, seems to have been the servant or apprentice of Burbadge, to whose last testament he was a witness. Tooley made his own will on the 3d of June, 1623; he died soon after, in the house of Cuthbert Burbadge, in Holywell-street; to whose wife, Elizabeth, the testator left a legacy of ten pounds, “as a remembrance of his love, in respect of her motherly care of him.” Tooley, was a most benevolent man, while he bustled in the world he did many kind acts; and when he could no longer perform, he gave considerable legacies to the poor of St. Leonard's Shoreditch, and St. Giles's Cripplegate, which administer, to the comfort of the needy even to the present day.

WILLIAM ECCLESTONE.

All we know of this actor is from Ben Jonson's Alchymist, in which his name occurs, in the year 1610. It is highly probable, however, that he performed in our author's plays.

JOSEPH TAYLOR.

According to Downes, the prompter, he was instructed by Shakspeare to play Hamlet; and Wright, in his Historia Histrionica, says, “He performed that part incomparably well. From the remembrance of his performance of Hamlet, sir William Davenant is said to have conveyed his instructions to Mr. Betterton. He likewise played Iago, and is logo; commended by various contemporary authors. In the year 1614, Taylor was at the head of a distinct company of players, called The Lady Elizabeth's Servants, but he soon returned to his old friends; and after the death of Burbadge, Heminges, and Condell, became manager of the King's Company, in conjunction, with Lowin and Swanston. }. September, 1639, he was appointed Yeoman of the Revels in Ordinary to his K. in the room of Mr. William Hunt; there were

certain perquisites annexed to this office, and a salary of sixpence a day. When he was in attendance upon the king, he had a salary of £3 : 6s: 8d. per month. Taylor died in the year 1653, and was buried at Richmond. He must have been nearly seventy years of age at his death. He is said by some to have painted the portrait of Shakspeare. now in the possession of the duke of Chandos; but. if genuine, it is much more likely that Burbadge was the artist, for there is a picture in Dulwich College, which he is known to have painted.

robert BENField - WAs but a second-rate actor. He acted the King, in the Deserving Favourite; Ladialaus, in The Picture; and Junius Rusticus, in The Roman Actor. He was living in 1647, being one of the players who signed the dedication to the folio edition of Fletcher's plays, published in that year.

Robert GOUGhe. This actor performed female characters: in the Seven Deadly Sins he played Aspatia; but in 1611 he had arrived to an age which entitled him to re}. male parts; for in The Second Maiden's ragedie, which was produced in that year, he performed the Tyrant.

RICHARD ROBINSON Acted in Jonson's Cataline in 1611; and from a passage in The Devil is an Ass, 1616, it appears that at that period he usually took female characters: The merriest sup ot. night Follo; *o. ht Di boo'. i.o sir, brought Dick Robinson In The Second Maiden's Tragedie he performed the Lady of Govianus. In The Deserving F. 1629, he played Orsinio; and in The Wild Goose Chase, Le Castre. Hart, the celebrated actor, was originally his boy or apprentice. . In the civil wars he served in the king's army, and was killed in an engagement by Harrison, who was afterwards hanged at Charing-cross. Harrison refused him quarter after he had laid down his arms, and shot him in the head, saying at the same time, “Cursed is he that doeth the work of the Lord negligently.”

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We have thus enumerated all those performers who, appear, with any certainty, to have distinguished themselves in the original productions of Shakspeare's dramas. Of their real merits it is impossible to speak; yet some of them, doubtless, particularly Burbadge, Taylor, and Lowin, were very excellent actors; and though the mechanical part of stage representations was, in their time. extremely imperfect, we may be certain that they were able to furnish the public of that age with an entertainment highly acceptable. The ão. indeed, was much more a national pastime then than at present, for it furnished a source of delight to all ranks, and was highly patronised. In our own more enlightened age, dicing, boxing, and horseracing have ...]". among the higher classes, the antiquated attractions of that stage, which Shakspeare, Jonson, and Massinger, illustrated by their transcendent genius.

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