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blic and private exercises of his worfliip, and in the duties of necessity and mercy p.


day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over, lay np for you, to be kept until the morning, v. 25. And Moses said, Eat that to-day; for to-day is a Sabbath unto the Lord: to-day ye shall not find it in the field, v. 26. Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the Sabbath, in it there shall be none. v. 29. See, for that the Lord hath given you the Sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days: abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. v. 30. So the people rested on the seventh day. Exod. xxxi. 15. Six days may work be done, but in the seventh is the Sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord: whosoever doth any work in the Sabbath-day, he shall surely be put to death, v. 16. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant, v. 17. It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and en the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed. If. lviii. 13. If thou torn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day, and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable, and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words. Neh. xiii. 1 In those days saw I in Judah, some treading wine-presses on the Sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes,

and figs, and all manner of burdens which they brought into Jerusalem on the Sabbath-day; and I testified against them in the day' wherein they sold victuals, v. 16' There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the Sabbath, unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem, v. 17. Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and prophane the Sabbath-day? v. 18. Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel, by profaning the Sabbath, v. 19. And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the Sabbath, 1 commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the Sabbath-day. v. 21. Then I testified against them, and said unto them, Why lodge ye about the wall! If ye do so again, I will lay hands on you. From that time forth came they no more on the Sabbath, v. 22. And I commanded the Levites, that they should cleanse themselves, and that they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the Sabbath-day. Remember me, O my God, concerning this also, and spare me according to the greatness of thy mercy.

p Tf. lviii. 13. {See in letter 0.) Matth. xii. 1. to the 13 th verse.

I. Deut.

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CHAP. XXII. Of lawful Oaths and Vows.

ALawful oath is a part of religious worship a, wherein, - upon just occasion, the person swearing, solemnly calleth GoJ to witness what he asserteth or promiseth, and to judge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he sweareth b.

II. The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear, and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence c therefore to swear vainly or rashly by that glorious and dreadful name, or to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred d. Yet as, in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the word of God, under the New Testament, as well as under the Old e; so a lawful oath being imposed

I. a Dent. x. 20. 7'hou shalt fear the Lord thy God; him (halt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and swear by his name.

b Exod. xx. 7. Thou (halt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord wil! not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. Lev. xix. \i. And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane, the name of thy God: I am the Lord. 2 Cor.

1 23. Moreover, I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you, I came not as yet unto Corinth.

2 Chron. vi. 22*. If a man sin against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him, to make him swear, and

, the oath come before thine altar in this house: v. 23. Then hear thou from heaven, and do, and judge thy servants, by requiting the wicked, by recompensing his way upon his own head, and by justifying the righteous, by giving him according to his righteousness.

II. c Deut. vi. 13. Thou shalt sear the Lord thy God, and serve him, and shalt swear by his name.

d Exod. xx. 7. (See letter I.) Jer. v. 7. How shall I pardon thee for this? thy children have forsaken me and sworn by them that are no gods: when I fed them to the full, they then committed adultery, and assembled themselves troops in the harlots houses. Matth. v. 34. But I fay unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven, for it is God's throne, v. 37. But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these, cometh of evil. Jam. v. 12. But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea, be yea, and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnation.

e Heb. vi. 16. For men verily swear by the greater: and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife. 2 Cor. i. 23. (See letter b.) If. lxv. 16. That he who blesseth himself in the earth, shall bless himself in the God os truth, and he that sweareth in the earth, shall swear by the God of truth because fed by lawful authority, in such matters, ought to be taken f.

III. Whosoever taketh an oath, ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and therein to avouch nothing but what he is fully persuaded is the truth g. Neither may any man bind himself by oath to any thing but what is good and just, and what he believeth so to be, and what he is able and resolved to perform h. Yet it is a sin to refuse an oath touching any thing that is good and just, being imposed by lawful authority i.

IV. An

because the former troubles are forgotten, and becuase they are hid from mine eyes.

s 1 Kings viii. 13. If any man trespass against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to cause hfm to swear, and the oath come before thine altar in this house. Neh. xiii. 25. And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and pluckt off their hair, and made them swear by God, saying, Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters unto your sons, or for yourselves. Ezra x. 5. Then arose Ezra, and made the chief priests, the Levites, and all Israel to swear, that they should do according to this word: and they sware.

III. g Exod. xx. 7. (See letters.) Jer. iv. 2. And thou shalt swear, The Lord Iiveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the nations shall bliss themselves in him, and in him fliall they glory.

b Gen. xxtT. 2. And Abraham slid unto his eldest servant of his iouse, that ruled over all that he ^id, Put, I pray thee, thy hand *nder my thigh: v. 3. And I will *iAe thee swear by the Lord, the ^■od of heaven, and the God of the ^>rth, that thou Ihalt not take a

wife unto my son os the daughters of the Canaanites, amongst whom I dwell, v. 5. And the servant said unto him. Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land: mult I needs bring thy son again unto the land from whence thou earnest? v. 6. And Abraham said unto him, Beware thou, that thou bring not my son thither again, v. 8. And if the woman will not be willing to follow thee, then thou shalt be clear from this my oath: only bring not my son thither again v. 9; and the servant put his hand under the thigh of A braham his master, and sware to him concerning that matter.

;' Numb. v. 19. And the priest fliall charge her by an oath, and say unto the woman, If no man have lien with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness with another instead of thy husband, be thou free from this bitter water that causeth the curse, v. 21. 1 hen the priest (hall charge the woman with an oath of cursing, and the pridt shall say unto the woman, The' Lord make thee a curse and an oath among the people, when the Lord doth make they thigh to rot, and thy bjlly to swells Neh. v. 12. Then said they, We will restore

them, them, and will require nothing of them; so will we do as thou sayst. Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they (hould do according to this promise. Exod. xxii. 7. If a man (hall deliver unto his neighbour money, or stuff to keep,, and it be stolen out of the man's house; if the thief be found, let him pay double, v. 8. If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to fee whether he have put his hands unto his neighbour's goods, v. 9. For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, which another challenged! to be his; the cause of both parties -shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he {hall pay double unto his neighbour, v. 10. If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it: v. ir. Then shall an oath of the Lord be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto hi; neighbour's goods: rind the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.

• IV. An oath is to be taken in the plain and common fense of the words, without equivocation or mental reservation k. It cannot oblige to fm; but in any thing not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, although to a man's own hurt /; nor is it to be violated, although made to heretics or infidels m

V. A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath,

and and ought to be made with the like religious cafe, and to be performed with the like faithfulness n. *

IV. k Jer. iv. 2. (See letter £.) Psal. xxiv. 4. He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart: who hath not lift up his foul unto vanity nor sworn deceitfully.

/ 1 Sam. xxv. 22. So and more also do God unto the enemies of


David, if 1 leave of all that pertain to him, by the moming-Iight, any that pjsseth against the tfall. v. 32. And David said to Abfgail, Blessed be the Lord Goat os Isreal, which sent thee this day to meet me: v. 33. And blessed be thy advice, and blessed be thou, which hast kept me this day from corning to shed blood, arid from avenging .myself with mine own hand. v. 34. 'For in very deed, as the Lord God of Israel liveth, which hath kept me back from hurting thee, except thou hadst hasted and come to meet me, surely there had not been lest unto Nabal, by the morning-light, any that pisseth against the wall. Psal. xv. 4. In whose eyes a vile person is contemned: but he honoured) them that fear the Lord: he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not.

m Ezek. xvii. 16. As I live, faith the Lord God, surely in this place where the king dwelleth that made him king, whose oath he despised, and whose covenant he brake, even with him, in the midst of Babylon, he shall die. v. 18. Seeing he d«spised the oath, by breaking'the covenant, (when lo, he had givea his hand), and hath done all these things, he shall not escape v. io-. Therefore thus faith the J ord Uod, As I live, surely mine oath that he hath despised, and my covenant that he hath broken, even it will I recompense upon his own head. Josh, ix. 18. And the children of Isarei


VI. It is not to be made to any creature but to (Sodalone o; and that it may be accepted, it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith, and conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for die obtaining of what we want; whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to necessary duties, or to other things, so far and so long, as they may fitjy conduce thereunto p.


smote tjiem hot, because the princes of the congregation had sworn unto them by the Lord God of Israel: and all the congregation murmured .against the princes, v. 19, But all the princes said unto all the congregation. We have sworn unto them by Lord God of Israel: now therewe may not touch them. With it), xxi. !,• Then there was a ie in the days of David, three , year after year; and David inquired of the Lord. And t.hfi d answered, It is for Saul, and dy (bouse, because lie flew the



V. « js. xlx. 2J. And the Lord thai) be known to Egypt,, and the I^gyptians shall know the Lord .in that day, and ihall do sacrifice and oblation, yea, .they (hall vow a vow onto the Lord, and perform it. Eccl. v. 4. When thou yowest a-vow unto God, defer not to pay it: fqr he hath r»p pleasure in fools; pay that which .thou hast vowed, v. $t Better is it that ,tho,u (houldst not vow, than that thou (houldst V.P.yr and not pay. v. 6. Suffer not thy mouth to cjuse thy .flesh to sin, neither say thou before the angel, .tha,t it was an error,: therefore (ho.ujfl God be.angry at.thy voice, and .destroy the work of thine hands ? Psal. lxi. 8. So will,I sing praise unto,thy name forever, that I may daily perform my vows. Psal. lxvi. 13. I will

go into thy house With burnt-offerings: I wilj pay thee my vows v. j4. Which my lips have uttered and my mouth hath spoken when I was in trouble.

VI. oPsal. lxxvi.t i. Vow, and pay unto the Lord your Godj let all that be round .about him bring presents .unto him that ought t;o be seared. Jer. xliv. 25. Thus faith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, saying, Ye and your wives have both spores! with your mouths, and fulfilled with your hand, faying, We will surely perform our vows that we have vowed, to burn incense to the gueen of heaven, and to pour out drink-offerings unto her: ye will surely accomplish your vows, and .surely perform your vows. v. 26' Therefore hear ye the word of the Lord, all Judah that dwell in the land of Egypt, Behold, I ,haye sworn by my great name, faith the Lord, , that my vnam,e shall no more be na.rned Vf> tne mouth of any man of Judah, in all the land os Egypt, .say* "ing, The LprdGod liveth.

/ Deu,t. xxiii. 21. When tho;.i .(halt vow avow unto the Lord thy .God, thou (halt not slack to pay it: for the Lord thy God will surely .require it of thee; and it would be ,sm in-thee, y. 22. But if thou (halt forbear to vow, it (hall be no sin id thee. v. 23. That which is gone out of thy lips, thou (halt keep and R perform}

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