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in substance and nature, they still remain truly and only bread and wine, as they were before /.
Vi. That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine, into the substance of Christ's body and blood (commonly called I'ransubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant not to scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason; overthroweth the nature of the sacrament; and hath been, and is the cause of manifold superstitions, yea, of gross idolatries m. ,
VII. Worthy receivers, outwardly partaking of the visi- . ble elements in this sacraments, do then also inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of his death: the body and blood of Christ being then, not corporally or carnally, in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward fenses 0.
VIII. Although ignorant and wicked men receive the
ii ray blood of the New Testament, when he had given thanks, he brake which is med for many for the re- h, and said, Take, eat; this is my million of sins. body, which is broken for you:
/ 1 Cor. xi. 26. For as often as this do in remembrance of me. ye eat this bread, and drink this v. 2J. After the fame manner also cup, ye do shew the Lord's death he took the cup, when he had suptill he came. v. 27. Wherefore, ped, saying, This cup is the New whosoever shall eat this bread, and Testament in my blood: this do ye, drink this cup of the Lord unwor- as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance thily, (hall be guilty of the body of me. v. 26. (See in letter/.) Luke and blood of the Lord. v. 28. But xxiv. 6. He is not here, but is rilet a man examine himself, and so sen: remember how he spake unto let him eat of that bread, and drink you when he was yet in Galilee, of that cup. Matth. xxvi. 29. But v. 39. Behold my hands and my I fay unto you, I will not drink feet, that it is I myself: handle me, henceforth os this fruit of the vine,, and fee, for a "spirit hath not flesh Until that day when-1 drink it new and bones, as ye fee me have, with you in my Father's kingdom. VII. n 1 Cor. xi. 28. (See in
VI. m Acts iii. at. Whom the letter/.) • .
heaven must receive, until the times 0 1 Cor. x. 16. The cup of blesos restitution of all things, which sing which we bless, is it not the God hath spoken by the mouth of communion of the blood of Christ? all his holy prophets,since the world the bread which we break, is it not began. With 1 Cor. xi. 24. And the communion of the body of Christ?
VIII. 1 Car.
* / outward elements in this sacrament, yet they receive not the thing signified thereby; but by their unworthy coming thereunto, are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, to their own damnation. Wherefore all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with him, so are they unworthy of the Lord's table, and cannot, without great sin against Christ, while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteriespy or be admitted thereunto q.
CHAP. XXX. Of Church-Censures.
THE Lord Jesus, as King and Head of his church, hath therein appointed a government in the hand of churchofficers, distinct from the civil magistrate a.
Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us. v. 14. And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed, v. 1 j. Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. Matth. vii. 6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rent ydu.
I. a Is. ix. 6. For unto us a Child is born,unto us a Son is given, and the government mall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called, Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everUsting Father, The Prince of peace, v. 7. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to eslablilh it with judgment and with justice, from henceforth even for ever: the zeal of the Lord of hosts
VIII. p 1 Cor.xi. 2 7. 28. (See in letter /.) v. 29. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 2 Cor. vi. 14. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for wh'at fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? v. 15. And what concord hath Christ with Belial ? or what part hath he that believeth.with an infidel? v. i6. And what agree"ment hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
q 1 Cor. v. 6- . Your glorying is not good: Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? v. 7. Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our pasibver is sacrificed for us. v. 13. But them that are without, Godjudgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person. 2 Thess. iii. 6.
II To these officers of the keys of the kingdom of heaven are committed, by virtue whereof, they have power respectively to retain and remit sins, to shut that kingdom against: the impenitent, both by the word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion siiall require b.
will perform this.. 1 Tim. r. 17. Let the eldcs that rule well, be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine, i Thess. v. 12. And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you. Acts xx. 17. And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders of the church, v. 18. And when they were came to him, he said unto them, Ye know, from the first day that I came into Asia, aster what manner I have been with you at all seasons. Heb. xiii. 7. Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of Cod -y whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation, v. 17. Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your fouls, as they that must give account: that they may «ioit with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you. v- 34. Salute all them that have the role over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you. 1 Cor. xii. 28. And God hath set some in the church, first apoilles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues. Matth. xxviii. 18. And Jesus came, and spake unto tliem, saying, All power is given tiuto me in heaven and in earth.
v. 19. Co ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son,and of the Holy Ghost: v. 20. Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and lo, I am with you alway even unto the end os the world. Amen.
II. £ Matth. xvi. 19. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever thou malt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. Matth. xviii. 17. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it*unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let hint be unto thee as an heathen man,and a publican, v. 18. Verily I fay unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be bound [in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose t cn earth, slull be loosed in heaven. John xx. 2!. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as mv Father hath sent me, even so send [ you. v. 22. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said unto them, receive ye tire Holy Ghost. v. 23. Whosoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them: and whose soever sins ye retain, . they are retained. 2 Cor. ii. 6. Sufficient to such a man is this punilhment, which was inflicted of many, v. 7. So that contrariwise, he ought rather to forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such a one should
III. Church-censures are necessary for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren, for deterring of others from the like offences, for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump, for vindicating the honour of Christ and the holy profession of the gospel, and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall upon the church, if they should suffer his covenant, and the seals thereof, to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders c.
IV. For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the church are to proceed by admonition,' suspension from the sacrament of the Lord's supper for a season,, and by excommunication from the church, according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the person d.
be swallowed up with overmuch sorrow, v. 8. Wherefore I beseech you, that you would confirm yotu" love towards him.
III. c (1 Cor. v. throughout.) j Tim. v. 20. Them that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear. Matth. vii. 6. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rent you. 1 Tim. i. 20.' Os whom is Hymeneus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme. (1 Cor. xi. 27. to the end.) With Jude 23. And others save with fear, pulling them out of the sire; hating even the garments spotted by the flesh.
IV. d i Thess. v. 12. And we beseech you brethren, to know , them which lobour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you. 2 Tbess. iii. 6. Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every
brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us. v. 14. And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. ( v. 15. Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. 1 Cor. v. 4. In the name of our Lord" Jesas Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, v. 5. To deliver such an one unto Satan fcr the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus, v. 13. But them that are without, God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person. Matth. xviii. 17. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man, and a publican. Tit. iii. 10. A man that is an heretic, after the first and second admonition, reject.
Acts CHAP. XXXI. Of Synods and Councils.
FO R the better government and further edification of the church, there ought to be /uch assemblies as are commonly called synods or councils a.
II. As magistrates may lawfully call a synod of ministers, and other fit persons, to confidi and advise with about matters of religion b: so if magistrates be open enemies to the church, the ministers of Christ, of themselves, by virtue of their office; or they, with other fit persons upon delegation from their churches, may meet together in such assemblies c.
III. It belongeth to synods and councils, ministerially to determine controversies of faith, and cafes of conscience j
I. a Acts xv. 2. When therefore Paul and Barnabas hid no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the
and honesty. (2 Chron. xix. 8. to the end.) 2 Chron. xxix. and xxx. chapters throughout.) Matth. ii. 4. And when he had gathered all the chief priests r.nd scribes of the people together, he demanded of
Ition. v. 4. And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were re? ceived of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done with them. v. 6. And the apostles and elders came together for to consider of this matter.
II. b If. xlix. 23. And kings mail be thy nursing - fathers, and their queens thy nursing-mothers: they shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth, and lick, up the dust of thy feet, and thou ihait know that lam the Lord: for they shall not be ashamed that wait for nie. 1 Tim. ii. 1. I exhort theresore, that first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men: v. 2. For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life ia all godliness
v. 5. And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judea: for thus it is written bythe prophet. Prov. xi. 14. Where no counsel is, the people fall: but in the multitude of counsellors there is safety.
c Acts xv. 24. (See in letter <*.) v. 22 Then pleased it the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to fend chosen men of their own company to Antioch, with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas sirnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren, v. 23 And wrote letters by them after this manner, 1 he apostles, and elders, and brethren fend greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentles in Antioch, and Syria, and Cilicia. v. 25. It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to fend chosen men unto you, with our beloved Barnabas and Paul.