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24 8. Pointleted (apiculatus); terminating abruptly in a little

point ; differing from mucronate in the point being part of the

limb, and not arising wholly from a costa. 9. Hooked (uncinatus, t uncatus); curved suddenly back at the

point; as the leaves of Mesembryanthemum uncinatum. 10. Beaked (rostratus, rostellatus); terminating gradually in a hard, long, straight point; as the pod of Radish.

lidong straight poindica 11. Acute, or sharp-pointed (acutus); terminating at once in a

point, not abruptly, but without tapering in any degree ; as

any lanceolate leaf. 12. Taper-pointed (acuminatus); terminating very gradually in a

point; as the leaf of Salix alba. 13. † Acuminose (+ acuminosus); terminating gradually in a flat

narrow end. 14. Tail-pointed (caudatus); excessively acuminated, so that the

point is long and weak, like the tail of some animal; as the

calyx of Aristolochia trilobata, the petals of Brassia caudata. 15. Blunt (obtusus); terminating gradually in a rounded end; as

the leaf of Berberis vulgaris. 16. Blunt with a point (obtusus cum acumine); terminating ab

ruptly in a round end, the middle of which is suddenly length

ened into a point; as the leaf of many Rubi. 17. Retuse (retusus); terminating in a round end, the centre of

which is depressed; as the leaf of Vaccinium Vitis Idæa.

18. Emarginate (emarginatus); having a notch at the end, as if a

piece had been taken out; as the leaf of Buxus sempervirens. 19. + Accisus ; when the end has an acute sinus between two

rounded angles. Link. 20. Truncate (truncatus); terminating very abruptly, as if a piece

had been cut off ; as the leaf of Liriodendron tulipifera. 21. Bitten (præmorsus, succisus); the same as truncate, except

that the termination is ragged and irregular, as if bitten off : the term is generally applied to roots; the leaf of Caryota urens

is another instance. 22. + Dædaleous (+ dædaleus); when the point has a large circuit,

but is truncated and rugged. W. 23. Trident-pointed (tridentatus); when the point is truncated,

and has three indentations (W.); as Saxifraga tridentata,

Potentilla tridentata. 24. Headed (capitatus); suddenly much thicker at the point than

in any other part; a term confined to cylindrical or terete

bodies ; as Mucor, glandular hairs, &c. 25. Lamellar (lamellatus, lamellosus); having two little plates at

the point; as the style of many plants. 26. + Blunt (+ hebetatus, De Cand.); having a soft obtuse ter

mination. 27. Pointless (muticus). This term is employed only in con

tradistinction to some other that indicates being pointed ; thus, if, in contrasting two things, one were said to be mucronate, the other, if it had not a mucro, would be called pointless : and the same term would be equally employed in contrast with cuspidate or aristate, or any such. It is also used absolutely.

2. Of Division.
A. With respect to the Margin.


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5 .. Entire (integer). Properly speaking, this means having no

kind of marginal division ; but sometimes it has been used to indicate not pinnatifid, and also nearly destitute of marginal

division. 2. Quite entire (integerrimus); perfectly free from division of

the margin.


3. Crenated (crenatus); having convex teeth. When these

teeth are themselves crenated, we say bicrenate. 4. Sawed (serratus); having sharp straight-edged teeth pointing

to the apex. When these teeth are themselves serrate, we

say biserrate, or duplicato-serrate. 5. Toothed (dentatus); having sharp teeth with concave edges. When these teeth are themselves toothed, we say duplicatodentate, or doubly toothed, but not bidentate, which means

two-toothed. 6. Gnawed (erosus); having the margin irregularly toothed, as

if bitten by some animal. 7. Curled (crispus); having the margin excessively irregularly

divided and twisted; as in many varieties of the Garden Endive, Mentha crispa, Ulmus cucullata.

8. Repand (repandus, + sinuolatus); having an uneven slightly

sinuous margin ; as the leaf of Solanum nigrum. 9. Angular (angulatus, angulosus); having several salient angles

on the margin; as the leaf of Datura Stramonium. 10. Sinuate (sinuatus); having the margin uneven, alternately

with deep concavities and convexities; as the leaf of Quercus Robur.

B. With respect to Incision. 1. Torn (lacerus); irregularly divided by deep incisions. 2. Cut (incisus); regularly divided by deep incisions. 3. Slashed (laciniatus); divided by deep, taper-pointed, cut

incisions. 4. Squarrose-slashed (squarroso-laciniatus); slashed with minor

divisions at right angles with the others. 5. Lobed (lobatus); partly divided into a determinate number of

segments. We say bilobus, two-lobed, as in the leaf of Bauhinia porrecta; trilobus, three-lobed, as in the leaf of Ane

mone Hepatica ; and so on. 6. Split (fissus); divided nearly to the base, into a determinate

number of segments. We say bifidus, split in two ; trifidus,

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in three ; as in the leaf of Teucrium Chamæpitys; and so on.

When the segments are very numerous, multifidus is used. 7. Parted ( partitus); divided into a determinate number of

segments, which extend nearly to the base of the part to which they belong. We say bipartitus, parted in two; tri

partitus, in three ; and so on. 8. Palmate (palmatus); having five lobes, the midribs of which

meet in a common point, so that the whole bears some re. semblance to a human hand; as the leaf of Passiflora

cærulea. 9. Pedate (pedatus); the same as palmate, except that the two

lateral lobes are themselves divided into smaller segments, the midribs of which do not directly run into the same point as the rest; as the leaf of Arum Dracunculus, Helleborus niger, &c.



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12 10. Fingered (digitatus); the same as palmate, but the segments

less spreading, and narrower. 11. Pinnatifid (pinnatifidus, pennatipartitus, pinnatiscissus); di

vided almost to the axis into lateral segments, something in the way of the side divisions of a feather; as Polypodium vulgare. M. De Candolle distinguishes several modifications of pinnatifidus: - 1. Pinnatifidus, when the lobes are divided

down to half the breadth of the leaf : 2. pinnatipartitus, when the lobes pass beyond the middle, and the parenchyma is not interrupted : 3. pinnatisectus, when the lobes are divided down to the midrib, and the parenchyma is interrupted: 4. pinnatilobatus, when the lobes are divided to an uncertain depth; lyrate and the like belong to this modification. He has similar variations of palmatus and pedatus; viz. palmatifidus, palmatipartitus, palmatisectus, palmatilobatus ; and peda

tifidus, pedatipartitus, pedatisectus, and pedatilobatus. 12. Comb-shaped (pectinatus); the same as pinnatifid; but the

segments very numerous, close, and narrow, like the teeth of a comb; as the leaf of Lavandula dentata, all Mertensias.

C. With respect to Composition or Ramification. 1. Simple (simplex); scarcely divided or branched at all. 2. Quite simple (simplicissimus); not divided or branched

at all. 3. Compound (compositus); having various divisions or ramifi

cations. As compared with the two following, it applies to cases of leaves in which the petiole is not divided; as in the

Orange. 4. Decompound (decompositus); having various compound divi

sions or ramifications. In leaves it is applied to those the petiole of which bears secondary petioles ; as in the leaf of

Mimosa purpurea. 5. Supradecompound (supradecompositus); having various de

compound divisions or ramifications. In leaves it is applied to such as have the primary petiole divided into secondary ones, and the secondary into a third set; as in the leaf of Daucus

Carota. 6. + Bifoliolate (+ bifoliolatus, binatus); when in leaves the com

mon petiole is terminated by two leaflets growing from the same point; as in Zygophyllum Fabago. This term has the same application as unijugus and conjugatus. We say trifoliolate, or ternate, when the petiole bears three leaflets from the same point ; as in Menyanthes trifoliata: † quadrifoliolate, if there are four from the same point ; as in Marsilea quadrifolia : and quinquefoliolale, or quinate, if there are five from

the same point; as in Potentilla reptans: and so on. 7. + Vertebrate (f vertebratus); when the leaf is contracted at

intervals, there being an articulation at each contraction; as in Cussonia spicata. Mirb.

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