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8. Pinnate (pinnatus); when simple leaflets are arranged on

each side a common petiole ; as in Polypodium vulgare. 9. Pinnate with an odd one (impari-pinnatus); when the petiole

is terminated by a single leaflet or tendril ; as in Pyrus aucu. paria. If there is a tendril, as in the Pea, it is called

cirrhose. 10. Equally pinnate ( pari-pinnatus, abruptè pinnatus); when the

petiole is terminated by neither leaflet nor tendril; as Orobus

tuberosus. 11. + Alternately pinnate (+ alternatìm pinnatus); when the leaf

lets are alternate upon a common petiole ; as in Potentilla

rupestris. Mirb. 12. Interruptedly pinnate (interruptè pinnatus); when the leaflets

are alternately small and large; as in the Potato. 13. + Decreasingly pinnate (+ decrescentè pinnatus); when the

leaflets diminish insensibly in size, from the base of the leaf

to its apex; as in Vicia sepium. Mirb. 14. + Decursively pinnate(t decursivè pinnatus); when the petiole

is winged by the elongation of the base of the leaflets; as in

Melianthus. Mirb. This is hardly different from pinnatifid. 15. Digitato-pinnate (digitato-pinnatus); when the secondary

petioles, on the sides of which the leaflets are attached, part

from the summit of a common petiole. Mirb. 16. Twin digitato-pinnate (bidigitato-pinnatus, biconjugato-pin

natus); the secondary petioles, on the sides of which the leaflets are arranged, proceed in twos from the summit of

a common petiole; as in Mimosa purpurea. Mirb. 17. Bigeminate (bigeminatus, biconjugatus); when each of two

secondary petioles bears a pair of leaflets; as in Mimosa

unguis Cati. Mirb. 18. Tergeminate (tergeminus, tergeminatus); when each of two

secondary petioles bears towards its summit one pair of leaflets, and the common petiole bears a third pair at the origin of the two secondary petioles; as in Mimosa tergemina.

Mirb. 19. Thrice digitato-pinnate (+ tridigitato-pinnatus, ternato-pin

natus); when the secondary petioles, on the sides of which the leaflets are attached, proceed in threes from the summit

of a common petiole; as in Hoffmannseggia. Mirb. 20. + Quadridigitato-pinnatus, as in Mimosa pudica, and + Mul

tidigitato-pinnatus, are rarely used, but are obvious modifica

tions of the last. 21. Bipinnate (bipinnatus, + duplicato-pinnatus); when the leaflets

of a pinnate leaf become themselves pinnate; as in Mimosa

Julibrissin, Fumaria officinalis, &c. 22. Biternate (biternatus, + duplicato-ternatus); when three

secondary petioles proceed from the common petiole, and each bears three leaflets; as in Fumaria bulbosa, Imperatoria

Ostruthium, &c. Mirb. 23. Triternate (triternatus) ; when the common petiole divides

into three secondary petioles, which are each subdivided into three tertiary petioles, each of which bears three leaflets; as

the leaf of Epimedium alpinum. 24. Tripinnate (tripinnatus); when the leaflets of a bipinnate

leaf become themselves pinnate; as in Thalictrum minus, or

(Enanthe Phellandrium. 25. Paired (conjugatus, unijugus, unijugatus); when the petiole

of a pinnated leaf bears one pair of leaflets; as Zygophyllum Fabago. Bijugus is when it bears two pairs; as in Mimosa fagifolia : trijugus, quadrijugus, quinquejugus, &c., are also employed when required. Multijugus is used when the number of pairs becomes very considerable ; as in Orobus sylva

ticus, Astragalus glycyphyllus. 26. Branched (ramosus); divided into many branches : if the

divisions are small, we say ramulosus. 27. Somewhat branched (subramosus); having a slight tendency

to branch.


28. Excurrent (excurrens); in which the axis remains always in

the centre, all the other parts being regularly disposed round

it; as the stem of Pinus Abies. 29. Much-branched (ramosissimus); branched in a great de

gree. 30. + Disappearing (+ deliquescens); branched, but so divided

that the principal axis is lost trace of in the ramifications; as

the head of an oak tree. 31. Dichotomous (dichotomus); having the divisions always in

pairs; as the branches and inflorescence of Stellaria holostea: if they are in threes, we say trichotomus ; as the stem of

Mirabilis Jalapa. 32. Twin (didymus); growing in pairs, or divided into two equal

parts; as the fruit of Galium. 33. Forked (furcatus); having long terminal lobes, like the

prongs of a fork; as Ophioglossum pendulum. 34. Stellate (stellatus); divided into segments, radiating from a

common centre; as the hairs of most malvaceous plants. 35. Jointed (articulatus); falling in pieces at the joints, or

separating readily at the joints; as the pods of Ornithopus, the leaflets of Guilandina Bonduc: it is also applied to bodies having the appearance of being jointed; as the stem and

leaves of Juncus articulatus. 36. Granular (granulatus); divided into little knobs or knots; as

the roots of Saxifraga granulata. 37. + Byssaceous (+ byssaceus); divided into very fine pieces, like

wool; as the roots of some Agarics. 38. + Tree-like (+ dendroides); divided at the top into a number

of fine ramifications, so as to resemble the head of a tree; as

Lycopodium dendroideum. 39. Brush-shaped (t aspergilliformis); divided into several fine

ramifications, so as to resemble the brush (aspergillus) used for sprinkling holy water in the ceremonies of the Catholic

Church; as the stigmas of grasses. 40. Partitioned (loculosus, + septatus, + phragmiger); divided by

internal partitions into cells; as the pith of the plant that produces the Chinese rice-paper. This is never applied to

fruits. 41. Anastomosing (anastomozans); the ramifications of any thing

which are united at the points where they come in contact are

said to anastomose. The term is confined to veins. 42. Ruminate (ruminatus); when a hard body is pierced in

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various directions by narrow cavities filled with dry cellular

matter; as the albumen of the nutmeg and the Anona. 43. + Cancellate (+ cancellatus); when the parenchyma is wholly

absent, and the veins alone remain, anastomosing and forming a kind of network; as the leaves of Hydrogeton fenes

tralis. 44. Perforated (pertusus); when irregular spaces are left open in

the surface of any thing, so that it is pierced with holes ; as the leaves of Dracontium pertusum.

3. Of Surface.
A. With respect to Marking or Evenness.

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1. Rugose (rugosus); covered with reticulated lines, the spaces

between which are convex ; as the leaves of Sage. 2. Netted (reticulatus); covered with reticulated lines which

project a little; as the under surface of the leaves of most Melastomas, the seeds of Geranium rotundifolium. 3. + Half-netted (+ semireticulatus); when, of several layers of

any thing, the outer one only is reticulated; as in the roots of Gladiolus communis. 4. Pitted (scrobiculatus); having numerous small shallow de

pressions or excavations; as the seed of Datisca cannabina,

Passiflora, &c. 5. Lacunose (lacunosus); having numerous large deep depres

sions or excavations. 6. Honeycombed ( favosus, alveolatus); excavated in the manner of a section of honeycomb; as the receptacle of many Compositæ, the seeds of Papaver.

7. + Areolate (+ areolatus); divided into a number of irregular

squares or angular spaces. 8. Scarred (cicatrisatus); marked by the scars left by bodies that

have fallen off: the stem, for instance, is scarred by the leaves

that have fallen. 9. Ringed (annulatus); surrounded by elevated or depressed

bands; as the roots of some plants, the cupulæ of several

Oaks, &c. 10. Striated (striatus); marked by longitudinal lines ; as the

petals of Geranium striatum. 11. Lined (lineatus); the same as striatus. 12. Furrowed (sulcatus); marked by longitudinal channels ; as

the stem of Conium, of the Parsnep, of Spiræa Ulmaria, &c. 13. † Aciculated (aciculatus); marked with very fine irregular

streaks, as if produced by the point of a needle. 14. Dotted (punctatus); covered by minute impressions, as if

made by the point of a pin ; as the seed of Anagallis arvensis,

Geranium pratense. 15. Even (@quatus); the reverse of any thing expressive of

inequality of surface.
B. With respect to Appendages or superficial Processes.

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32 33 1. Unarmed (inermis); destitute of any kind of spines or

prickles. 2. Spiny (spinosus); furnished with spines ; as the branches of

Cratægus Oxyacantha. 3. Prickly (aculeatus); furnished with prickles; as the stem of a

Rose. 4. Bristly (echinalus); furnished with numerous rigid hairs, or

straight prickles; as the fruit of Castanea vesca.

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