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5. Muricated (muricatus); furnished with numerous short hard

excrescences; as the fruit of the Arbutus Unedo. 6. Spiculate (+ spiculatus); covered with fine, fleshy, erect

points. 7. Rough (scaber, asper, exasperatus); covered with hard, short,

rigid points ; as the leaves of Borago officinalis. 8. Roughish (scabridus); slightly covered with short hardish

points; as the leaf of Thymus Acinos. 9. Tubercled (tuberculatus, verrucosus); covered with little ex

crescences or warts ; as the stem of Cotyledon tuberculata,

the leaf of Aloe margaritifera. 10. Pimpled (papillosus, + papulosus); covered with minute tu

bercles or excrescences, of uneven size, and rather soft; as the

leaves of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. 11. Hairy ( pilosus); covered with short, weak, thin hairs ; as the

leaf of Prunella vulgaris, Daucus Carota. 12. Downy (pubens, pubescens); covered with very short, weak,

dense hairs; as the leaves of Cynoglossum officinale, Lonicera Xylosteum, &c. Pubescens is most commonly employed in

Botany, but pubens is more classical. 13. Hoary (incanus); covered with very short dense hairs, placed

so closely as to give an appearance of whiteness to the surface

from which they grow; as the leaf of Mathiola incana. 14. Shaggy (hirtus, villosus); covered with long weak hairs; as

Epilobium hirsutum. 15. Tomentose (tomentosus); covered with dense, rather rigid,

short hairs, so as to be sensibly perceptible to the touch; as

Onopordum Acanthium, Lavatera arborea, &c. 16. Velvety (velutinus); the same as the last, but more dense

so that the surface resembles that of velvet; as Cotyledon

coccineus.. 17. Woolly (lanatus); covered with long, dense, curled, and

matted hairs, resembling wool; as Verbascum Thapsus,

Stachys germanica. 18. Hispid (hispidus); covered with long rigid hairs ; as the

stem of Echium vulgare. 19. Floccose (floccosus); covered with dense hairs, which fall

away in little tufts; as Verbascum floccosum, and pulveru

lentum. 20. Glandular (glandulosus); covered with hairs bearing glands

upon their tips; as the fruit of Roses, the pods of Adenocarpus.

21. Bearded (barbatus, crinitus); having tufts of long weak hairs

growing from different parts of the surface ; as the leaves of Mesembryanthemum barbatum. It is also applied to bodies bearing very long weak hairs in solitary tufts or parcels; as

the filaments of Anthericum, the pods of Adesmia. 22. Strigose (strigosus); covered with sharp, appressed, rigid

hairs. W. Linnæus considers this word synonymous with

hispid. 23. Silky (sericeus); covered with very fine close-pressed hairs,

silky to the touch ; as the leaves of Protea argentea, Alche

milla alpina, &c. 24. + Peronate (peronatus); laid thickly over with a woolly sub

stance, ending in a sort of meal. W. This term is only applied

to the stipes of Fungi. 25. Cobwebbed (arachnoides); covered with loose, white, en

tangled, thin hairs, resembling the web of a spider; as Cal.

ceolaria arachnoidea. 26. Ciliated (ciliatus); having fine hairs, resembling the eye

lash, at the margin ; as the leaves of Luzula pilosa, Erica

Tetralix, &c. 27. Fringed (fimbriatus); having the margin bordered by long

filiform processes thicker than hairs; as the petals of Cucuba

lus fimbriatus. 28. Feathery (plumosus); consisting of long hairs, which are

themselves hairy; as the pappus of Leontodon Taraxacum, the

beard of Stipa pennata. 29. Stinging (urens); covered with rigid, sharp-pointed, bristly

hairs, which emit an irritating fluid when touched; as the

leaves of the Urtica urens. 30. Mealy (farinosus); covered with a sort of white scurfy

substance; as the leaves of Primula farinosa, and of some

Poplars. 31. Leprous (lepidotus, leprosus); covered with minute peltate

scales; as the foliage of Elæagnus. 32. Ramentaceous (ramentaceus); covered with weak, shri.

velled, brown, scale-like processes; as the stems of many

Ferns. · 33. Scaly (squamosus); covered with minute scales, fixed by one

end; as the young shoots of the Pine tribe. 34. Chaffy (paleaceus); covered with small, weak, erect, mem

branous scales, resembling the paleæ of Grasses; as the receptacle of many compound plants.


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C. With respect to Polish or Texture. 1. Shining (nitidus); having a smooth, even, polished surface ;

as many leaves. 2. Smooth (glaber, or lævis); being free from asperities or hairs,

or any sort of unevenness. 3. Polished (lævigatus, t politus); having the appearance of a

polished substance; as the testa of Abrus precatorius, and many seeds. 4. + Glittering (+ splendens); the same as polished, but when the

lustre is a little broken, from slight irregularity of surface. 5. Naked (nudus, denudatus); the reverse of hairy, downy, or

any similar term : it is not materially different from glaber. 6. Opaque (opacus); the reverse of shining, dull. 7. Viscid (viscidus, glutinosus); covered with a glutinous ex

udation. 8. Mucous, or slimy (mucosus); covered with a slimy secretion ;

or with a coat that is readily soluble in water, and becomes

slimy; as the fruit of Salvia Verbenaca. 9. + Greasy (+ unctuosus); having a surface which, though not

actually greasy, feels so. 10. Dewy (roridus); covered with little transparent elevations of

the parenchyma, which have the appearance of fine drops

of dew. 11. + Dusty (+ lentiginosus); covered with minute dots, as if

dusted; the calyx and corolla of Ardisia lentiginosa. 12. Frosted (pruinosus); nearly the same as roridus, but applied

to surfaces in which the dewy appearance is more opaque, as if the drops were congealed; as the surface of the leaves of

Rosa pruinosa and glutinosa. 13. Powdery (pulverulentus); covered with a fine bloom or

powdery matter; as the leaves of Primula farinosa. 14. Glaucous (glaucus); covered with a fine bloom of the colour

of a Cabbage leaf. 15. Cæsious (cæsius); like glaucous, but greener. 16. Whitened (dealbatus); covered with a very opaque white powder ; as the leaves of many Cotyledons.

4. Of Texture or Substance. 1. Membranaceous (membranaceus); thin and semitransparent,

like a fine membrane ; as the leaves of Mosses. 2. Papery (papyraceus, chartaceus); having the consistence of writing-paper, and quite opaque; as most leaves.

3. Leathery (coriaceus, alutaceus); having the consistence of

leather; as the leaves of Pothos acaulis, Prunus Laurocerasus,

and others. 4. Crustaceous (crustaceus); hard, thin, and brittle ; as the testa

of Asparagus, or of Passiflora. 5. Cartilaginous (cartilagineus); hard and tough; as the testa of

an apple-seed. 6. Loose (laxus); of a soft cellular texture, as the pith of most

plants. The name is derived from the parts of the substance

appearing as if not in a state of cohesion. 7. Scarious (scariosus); having a thin, dry, shrivelled appear

ance; as the involucral leaves of many species of Centaurea. 8. Corky (suberosus); having the texture of the substance called

cork; as the bark of Ulmus suberosa. 9. Coated (corticatus); harder externally than internally. 10. Spongy (spongiosus); having the texture of a sponge ; that

is to say, very cellular, with the cellules filled with air; as the

coats of many seeds. 11. Horny (corneus); hard, and very close in texture, but ca

pable of being cut without difficulty, the parts cut off not

being brittle; as the albumen of many plants. 12. Oleaginous (oleaginosus); fleshy in substance, but filled

with oil. 13. Bony (osseus); hard, and very close in texture, not cut with

out difficulty, the parts cut off being brittle; as the stone of

a peach. 14. Fleshy (carnosus); firm, juicy, easily cut. 15. Waxy (ceraceus, cereus); having the texture and colour of

new wax; as the pollen masses of particular kinds of

Orchis. 16. Woody (lignosus, ligneus); having the texture of wood. 17. Thick (crassus); something more thick than usual. Leaves,

for instance, are generally papery in texture; the leaves of

cotyledons, which are much more fleshy, are called thick. 18. Succulent (succulentus); very cellular and juicy ; as the

stems of Stapelias. 19. Gelatinous (gelatinosus); having the texture and appearance

of jelly; as Ulvas, and similar things. 20. Fibrous (fibrosus); containing a great proportion of loose

woody fibre; as the rind of a cocoa-nut. 21. + Medullary, or pithy (t medullosus); filled with spongy


22. Mealy (farinaceus); having the texture of four in a mass ;

as the albumen of Wheat. 23. Tartareous (tartareus); having a rough crumbling surface;

like the thallus of some Lichens. 24. Berried (baccatus); having a juicy succulent texture ; as

the calyx of Blitum. 25. Herbaceous (herbaceus); thin, green, and cellular ; as the

tissue of membranous leaves. .

5. Of Size. Most of the terms which relate to this quality are the same as those in common use; and, being employed in precisely the same sense, do not need explanation. But there are a few which have a particular meaning attached to them, and are not much known in common language. These are, — 1. Dwarf (nanus, pumilus, pygmæus); small, short, dense, as

compared with other species of the same genus, or family. Thus, Myosotis nana is not more than half an inch high ; while the other species are much taller. 2. Very small (pusillus, perpusillus); the same as the last,

except that a general reduction of size is understood, as well

as dwarfishness. 3. Low (humilis); when the stature of a plant is not particularly

small, but much smaller than of other kindred species. Thus, a tree twenty feet high may be low, if the other species of

its genus are forty or fifty feet high. 4. Depressed (depressus); broad and dwarf, as if, instead of

growing perpendicularly, the growth had taken place horizontally; as some species of Cochlearia, Coronopus Ruellii,

and many others. 5. Little (exiguus); this is generally used in opposition to

large, and means small in all parts, but well proportioned. 6. Tall (elatus, procerus); this is said of plants which are

talier than their parts would have led one to expect. 7. Lofty (exaltatus); the same as the last, but in a greater

degree. 8. Gigantic (giganteus); tall, but stout and well proportioned.

To this class must also be referred words or syllables expressing the proportion which one part bears to another.

1. Isos, or equal, placed before the name of an organ, indicates

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