Imagens das páginas

45. Uncertain (vagus); having no particular direction. 46. Peritropal (peritropus); directed from the axis to the hori

zon. This and the four following are only applied to the

embryo of the seed. 47. Orthotropal (orthotropus); straight, and having the same

direction as the body to which it belongs. 48. Antitropal (antitropus); straight, and having a direction con

trary to that of the body to which it belongs. 49. Amphitropal (amphitropus); curved round the body to which

it belongs. 50. Homotropal (homotropus); having the same direction as the

body to which it belongs, but not being straight.

3. Of Insertion. A. With respect to the Mode of Attachment or of Adhesion.

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1. Peltate (peltatus, umbilicatus); fixed to the stalk by the centre, or by some point distinctly within the margin ; as the leaf of

Tropæolum. 2. Sessile (sessilis); sitting close upon the body that supports it,

without any sensible stalk. 3. Decurrent (decurrens, decursivus); prolonged below the point

of insertion, as if running downwards. 4. Embracing (amplectans); clasping with the base. 5. Stem-clasping (amplexicaulis); the same as the last, but ap

plied only to stems. 6. Half-stem-clasping (semi-amplexicaulis); the same as the last,

but in a smaller degree.

7. Perfoliate (perfoliatus); when the two basal lobes of an am

plexicaul leaf are united together, so that the stem appears to

pass through the substance of the leaf. 8. Connate (connatus); when the bases of two opposite leaves

are united together. 9. Sheathing (vaginans); surrounding a stem or other body by

the .convolute base : this chiefly occurs in the petioles of

Grasses. 10. Adnate (adnatus, annexus); adhering to the face of a

thing. 11. Innate (innatus); adhering to the apex of a thing 12. Versatile (versatilis, oscillatorius); adhering slightly by the

middle, so that the two halves are nearly equally balanced,

and swing backwards and forwards. 13. Stipitate (stipitatus); elevated on a stalk which is neither a

petiole nor a peduncle. 14. + Palaceous (+ palaceus); when the foot-stalk adheres to the

margin. Willd. 15. Separate (+ solutus, liber, distinctus); when there is no

cohesion between parts. 16. Accrete (accretus); fastened to another body, and growing

with it. De Cand. 17. Adhering (adhærens); united laterally by the whole surface

with another organ. De Cand. 18. Cohering (cohærens, coadnatus, coadunatus, coalitus, con

natus, confluens); this term is used to express, in general, the fastening together of homogeneous parts. De Cand. Such are De Candolle's definitions of these three terms; but in

practice there is no difference between them. 19. Articulated (articulatus); when one body is united with another by a manifest articulation.

B. With respect to Situation. 1. Dorsal (dorsalis); fixed upon the back of any thing. 2. Lateral (lateralis); fixed near the side of any thing. 3. Marginal (marginalis); fixed upon the edge of any thing. 4. Basal (basilaris); fixed at the base of any thing. 5. Radical (radicalis); arising from the root. 6. Cauline (caulinus); arising from the stem. 7. Rameous (rameus, ramealis); of or belonging to the


8. Axillary (axillaris, + alaris); arising out of the axilla. 9. Floral ( floralis); of or belonging to the flower. 10. Epiphyllous (foliaris, epiphyllus); inserted upon the leaf. 11. Terminal (terminalis); proceeding from the end. 12. Of the leaf-stalk (petiolaris); inserted upon the petiole. 13. Crowning (coronans); situated on the top of any thing.

Thus, the limbs of the calyx may crown the ovary; a gland at the apex of the filament may crown the stamen; and

so on. 14. Epigeous (epigæus); growing close upon the earth. 15. Subterranean (hypogæus, subterraneus); growing under the

earth. 16. Amphigenous (amphigenus); growing all round an object. 17. Epigynous (epigynus); growing upon the summit of the

ovarium. 18. Hypogynous (hypogynus); growing from below the base of

the ovarium. 19. Perigynous (perigynus); growing upon some body that sur

rounds the ovarium.


It has been already explained, that collective terms are those which apply to plants, or their parts, considered in masses; by which is meant that they cannot be applied to any one single part or thing, without a reference to a larger number being either expressed or understood. Thus, when leaves are said to be opposite, that term is used with respect to several, and not to one ; and when a panicle is said to be lax, or loose, it means that the flowers of a panicle are loosely arranged; and so on.

1. Of Arrangement. 1. Opposite (oppositus); placed on opposite sides of some other body or thing on the same plane. Thus, when leaves are opposite, they are on opposite sides of the stem; when petals are opposite, they are on opposite sides of the ovary; and so on.

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2. Alternate (alternus); placed alternately one above the other

on some common body, as leaves upon the stem. 3. Stellate (stellatus, stelliformis, stellulatus); the same as ver

ticillate, No. 4., except that the parts are narrow and

acute. 4. Whorled (verticillatus); when several things are in opposition

round a common axis, as some leaves round their stem ; sepals,

petals, and stamens round the ovarium, &c. 5. Ternate (ternus); when three things are in opposition round

a common axis. 6. Loose (laxus); when the parts are distant from each other,

with an open light kind of arrangement; as the panicle

among the other kinds of inflorescence. 7. Scattered (sparsus); used in opposition to whorled, or oppo

site, or ternate, or other such terms. 8. Compound (compositus); when formed of several parts

united in one common whole; as pinnated leaves, all kinds of

inflorescence beyond that of the solitary flower. 9. Crowded (confertus); when the parts are pressed closely

round about each other. 10. Imbricated (imbricatus); when parts lie over each other in

regular order, like tiles upon the roof of a house; as the

scales upon the cup of some acorns. 11. Rosulate (rosulatus, rosularis); when parts which are not

opposite, nevertheless become apparently so by the contraction of the joints of the stem, and lie packed closely over

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each other, like the petals in a double rose; as in the offsets

of Houseleek. 12. Cæspitose (cæspitosus); forming dense patches, or turfs; as

the young stems of many plants. 13. Fascicled (fasciculatus); when several similar things pro

ceed from a common point; as the leaves of the Larch, for

example, 14. Distichous (distichus, bifarius); when things are arranged in

two rows, the one opposite to the other; as the florets of

many Grasses. 15. In rows (serialis); arranged in rows which are not neces

sarily opposite each other : biserialis, in two rows; triserialis, in three rows: but these are seldom used. In their stead, we generally add fariam to the end of a Latin numeral : thus, bifariam means in two rows; trifariam, in three rows;

and so on. 16. One-sided (unilateralis, secundus); arranged on, or turned

towards, one side only; as the flowers of Antholyza. 17. Clustered (aggregatus, coacervatus, conglomeratus); collected

in parcels, each of which has a roundish figure; as the flowers

of Cuscuta, Adoxa, Trientalis, &c. 18. Spiral (spiralis); arranged in a spiral manner round some

common axis ; as the Aowers of Spiranthes. 19. Decussate (decussatus); arranged in pairs that alternately

cross each other; as the leaves of many plants. 20. Fastigiate (fastigiatus); when all the parts are nearly

parallel, with each pointing upwards to the sky; as the branches of Populus fastigiata, and many other trees.

as the leaves of all the parts liv; as

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