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him. Besides, the whole shape of this publican censor was both hard and sharp, notion is changed, and clothes are some will think ; but he had his amiable longer interpreters, but need themselves points; and were it only for the filial piety an interpretation. So that if a man that which breathes in the dedication of his forsook this land some forty years since, works to his father, one must cherish an should now return again, in good manners affection for his memory. A dutiful son he could not but say, your Lordship, to cannot be a graceless man. So I thought at a gentleman ; and your Worship, to the least, as I lay ruminating in that old room son of a farmer,... Such a confusion at Halton; where at length sleep fell upon hath this vice bred, that by it both men me, as I was dreamingly trying to picture to and their degrees are grown out of know- myself the forms and features of the worthy ledge ; for unknown they are both to father, and his reverent and grateful son. themselves and others.” The old Re- Five-ways.



them arose,

CLEANING THE OUTSIDE OF THE head tumed sufficiently to hear their conPLATTER.

versation, and after he had finished, disThe Mohammedans repeat certain forms

puted a remark one of them had made of prayer five times every day. Whether

while he was praying. Truly it may be at home, in their shops, in the streets, or

said of the prayers of this people, that on a journey, as soon as the appointed they are solemn words on thoughtless time arrives, they fall on their knees, and

tongues. They worship God with their go through with the whole routine of

lips, while their hearts are far from Him. prayers and bodily prostrations. One

-Henry Harris Jessup. day several Moslems called upon us, at the eighth hour of the day, (about two o'clock

A HAPPY EXPERIENCE. P.M.,) and after they had been sitting The following conversation took place some time engaged in conversation, one of with a slave, an old man, in one of the

and said to his companions, “I Southern plantations in the United States must pray.” They all asked, “Why? It of America :is not the hour of prayer." “ Because,” “ You are an old man: will you not said he, “when I went to the mosque at die soon?" noon to pray, I had an ink-spot on my “Yes, I know I must." finger-nail, and did not perceive it until " Where do you expect to go?”. after I came out, and hence my prayer “I think I shall go to the good land.” was of no avail. I have just now scraped “Why do you think you will go it off, and must repeat my noon-prayer.” there?” So saying, he spread his cloak upon the “I cannot tell; but the nearer I come floor, and then kneeling upon it, with to death, somehow Jesus and I get nearer his face towards Mecca, commenced his

together." prayers, while his companions amused Good reasoning; blessed experience. themselves by conversing about his cere- “ Father, I will that those whom Thou monial strictness. He proceeded, with his hast given Me be with Me where I am.”

Monthly Notes for Beaders.

The Rev. William Shaw, late General Superintendent of the Wesleyan Missions in South Eastern Africa, has furnished & thoroughly good book, under the title of The Story of my Mission. He was, as most of our readers know, the pioneer of the Wesleyan Missionary operations

among the colonists and native tribes in that interesting portion of Africa. нө gives ample information respecting the habits and customs, manners and superstitions, of the untutored children of nature with whom he met; and tells, with characteristic modesty and force, a tale of



successful labour among them. The facts he gives, and the observations he makes, on many topics of deepest interest to the colonists, will amply repay an attentive perusal. A sound and discriminating judgment is everywhere apparent; and no one, after reading these pages, will wonder at the extraordinary influence which their author acquired amongst all classes in the land of his toil. It is interesting to know that a copy of this book reached Her Majesty a day after Prince Alfred returned from his African travels, and which she was pleased graciously to accept.

Whoever wishes to obtain, within a moderate compass, the information the Scriptures give of heaven, will do well to procure Edmondson's Scripture Views of the Heavenly World, now re-published at the Methodist Book-room. New and cheap editions of the truly valuable Life of Colonel Gardiner, and the instructive Letters on the Distinguishing Excellencies in the Character of Remarkable Scripture Personages, by the Rev Robert Huston, are issued this month. Mr. Mason has also added three Tracts to those published under the direction of “the WesleyanMethodist Tract Committee.” The first

of these is the capital article, written by one of the ablest living Methodist Ministers, entitled Who's your Dressmaker ? the beginning of which our readers have in some preceding pages of our present Number. Another Tract, belonging to the Large-Type Series, entitled I am no Scholar, by one of our most successful Tract-writers, deals well and wisely with the objection couched in those words, so often used by the ignorant to excuse their neglect of religion and of the means of grace. A Story of the Irish Revival gives an account, in the man's own language, of a wonderful instance of the power of Divine grace in the conversion and the reclamation of a terrible backslider,

Our friend who makes the inquiry, and others who wish for information on the subject of class-meetings, will do well to read the Rev. John Hartley's Plea for Class-Meetings, Price 2d.; the Rev. R. Newstead's Advices to One who meets in Class, Price 2d.; the Rev. Luke H. Wiseman's Thoughts on Class-Meetings, Price 4d.; the Rev. Theophilus Woolmer's Absence from Class, Price ld.; and the Rev. Edmund Grindrod's Duties, Qualifications, and Encouragements of Classe Leaders, Price 4d.

Memorials of the Departed.

MR. JOHN LLOYD was a native of Madeley, in Shropshire. His father was 1 miner, and was killed by an explosion of foul air, whilst his son John was a mere boy. Little is known of John's early Fouth, except that his school-education was very limited, and that he was accustomed to the dangers and privations of a miner's life from a tender age. The character of his parents does not appear to have been decidedly Christian: they were, however, deemed respectable people. In 1832 John was living at Bilston, Staffordshire, with his mother and two sisters, who all died of cholera in that year. He was then a "decent, steady” youth, but not religious. fellow-workman, afterwards for many years a Leader at Bilston and Ettingshall, was a friend to him; took him to God's house, and sought his conversion. One afternoon, perhaps on a Monday, when the miners in this

district seldom work, the two young men spent their time in singing hymns. In the evening they attended a prayer-meeting, in the course of which Mr. Lloyd obtained redemption in the blood of Jesus. He repeatedly spoke of this in after-life ; and always regarded his conversion as a sudden one. For a period of more than twenty-two years, the character which he maintained proved the reality of the good work then begun. He now met in class, grew in grace and in knowledge, taught in the Sunday-school, and, in about three or four years, was received on the “Plan" as a Local Preacher. In 1836 he removed to Ettingshall, near Bilston. Here he became a Class-Leader; married; and, through the help of one of his Methodist friends, rose from thọ position of an ordinary workman to that of a “butty.” This odd expression designates a contractor; one who undertakes




to work the mine, and raise the mineral to world has little attraction to me;" with the surface at a certain sum per ton. other observations of the same import. After considerable difficulty and dis- His wife could not help noticing decided couragement, he eventually prospered in progress in piety and heavenly-mindedbusiness, and realized property. He built

On the morning of May 25th, a house for himself at Monmoro-Green ; 1855, he left home to attend to business and then, like David, had it in his heart as usual, and proceeded to examine the to build a house for God's worship at workings of a mine, when an explosion, the same place. This was desirable, as similar to that which caused the death of the place was destitute of one, and as the his father, terminated his life. The Rev. population was fast increasing. A Wes- John Kirk, then of Wolverhampton, in a leyan chapel was built, and opened in the letter addressed to Mrs. Lloyd at the time, spring of 1847. Here Mr. Lloyd sustained remarks, “ Your beloved husband was the office of Trustee, Chapel-Steward, indeed a blessed man of God. I cannot Society-Steward, and Leader. In 1854, Mr. express the high esteem I had for him. He Lloyd's employers requested him to take would be found ready. Sudden death the management of a colliery near Longton. would be to him sudden glory." Mr. Lloyd's He rather reluctantly consented, and re- early education was, as we have said, moved thither with his family in May. defective. He felt that; and though he He immediately connected himself with had business to attend to, a young and the Wesleyan Society there, raised a class, increasing family, appointments on the frequently preached with great enlarge- “Plan,” two classes, and other churchment and power, and did what his hand

engagements, yet he found time to imfound to do, while it was day: alas! the prove his mind. He had a plan of readnight was at hand. Here he lost his ing, which marked out work for each day second daughter by death. This event, in the week. In the relations of husband doubtless, reminded him impressively of and father he was remarkably kind and the uncertainty of life, and the nearness of considerate. True religion and good sense eternity. He often said in the family- blessed him for both worlds. They will circle, “I sit loose to all below ;" “ This do the same for every friendless youth.

Tabular Record of Mortality.

Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord.


Bunting, Robert, Rotherham, Rotherham, 43 Oct. 1st, 1860. Huggins, Mrs. Rachel, Thetford, Thetford,

69 Oct. 15th, 1860. Jessop, Mrs. E., Wickersley, Rotherham, 64 (Oct. 4th, 1860. Lock, Mrs., Coronation-square, Lynn,

69 Oct. 23d, 1859. Norton, Mrs., Pudsey,


67 Oct. 13th, 1860. Olivent, Mr. G., Park-gate, Rotherham, 50 Sept. 30th, 1860. Parkes, Eliza, Duke-street, Birmingham, East, 56 Aug. 14th, 1860. Pascoe, Mrs., Redruth, Redruth,

37 Sept. 15th, 1860. Pymer, Mr. John


80 Oct. 13th, 1860. Richardson, Margaret, Ravenstonedale, Hawes,

15 Dec. 31st, 1859. Shepard, John, Wickersley, Rotherham, 56 April 23d, 1860. Snare, Mr. Henry, Thomas-street, Lynn,

70 Oct. 30th, 1859. Sutherby, William, Selby,


16 Jan. 9th, 1859. Taylor, James,


48 March 8th, 1859. Wade, Mrs. B., Pudsey, Bramley,

47 Oct. 15th, 1860. Ward, Martin, Selby,


65 Jan. 9th, 1859. Whiteley, Mr. James, Edingley, Mansfield,

79 July 11th, 1860. Wood, Mrs., Pardshaw, Cockermouth, 94 Oct. 6th, 1860.


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THE CATACOMBS AT ROME. It is very interesting to observe how different means may conduce to the same end, and to watch the way in which similar results are attained by persons situated at great distances, and surrounded by very different circumstances. Oneness with diversity is a stamp which the Creator has put on the works of His hands; and it is a sign that man is made in His image, when we see him able to use various means for the accomplishment of the same final purpose. One interesting form, under which to trace this modifying and applying power, is found in examining the buildings of distant ages, and those of different countries at the present time; in noticing the forms under which most races of men, except uncivilized nations and wandering tribes, have reared habitations for themselves, and larger buildings for religious and public purposes. It would be curious to have a complete history of the various materials which have been employed; and to see how, while man has made them serve his great purpose, they, in their turn, have made modifications necessary which have given a peculiar stamp to the buildings of one nation or age, and have led to the existence of circumstances which did VOL. VII.- Second Series.- FEBRUARY, 1861.




not enter into the calculations of the man who first used them. Where no rock sufficiently hard for the purpose was to be found, some artificial mixture has been used. Thus, of the first city of which we have any details, we read, “ Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar.” Those millions of earth-made bricks have crumbled to earth, forming vast hills of ruins which look like natural elevations from the "plain ” on which they rise.

There is a great contrast to this in that mighty city, Rome, in the substance of which its massive and most remarkable buildings are composed; and, from that as much as from anything, it derives, perhaps, its title to the name

“eternal.” Time would have left much more than yet remains, had not the hand of man been diligent, during many years, in pulling down, and using for comparatively modern buildings, the great remains of antiquity. Yet, even now, the Coliseum stands with its massive blocks of travertine fitted together, unaided by cement, which time seems only to harden. It is to its buildings that it owes its catacombs; at least, to the cement used in them.* The soil around the city is peculiar, being of volcanic formation; consisting of a compact tufa, with beds overlying it of more recent formation, formed of ashes and cinders, with currents of compact lava intermixed. Among the volcanic ashes, a peculiar kind is found, called "pozzolana :" it is unequally distributed, more in patches than in veins, or continuous beds. This, mixed with lime, formed the cement which has so greatly contributed to the durability of Rome. When a deposit of pozzolana was discovered, it was dug out by means of subterranean galleries, much in the same way as our coal-mines; and then abandoned. Thus, as Rome increased in size, there were formed around it, chiefly outside the walls, not large caves and caverns, but here and there galleries and passages, unequal in height and width ; perhaps, on an average, nine feet high, and five feet wide; sometimes swelling out almost into small underground chambers, with one or two ways branching from them; again narrowing so as to allow barely a way through, rising and ascending according as the material had been found out; not at a very great depth below the surface, but sufficiently so to be dark and obscure.

Most likely, at first, these catacombs were isolated; but after they began to be used for refuge and a place of burial, communications were formed between them, and many miles might be traversed without ascending to the light of day. That it would be difficult to find the right road in such a labyrinth may easily be imagined. Stories are told of those who, taking a lamp and a piece of cord, have sallied forth to explore, and have been unfortunate enough to find their light extinguished, and at the same moment to lose the precious cord which was to reconduct them to the outer world. It would not be easy to over-colour the intense anxiety with which groping search would be made for the missing guide, or the feeling of despair experienced in case it were found impossible to recover it. Owing to the great danger of getting lost among these various

* Murray's Hand-Book,

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