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Greeks are nominally Christians, and might therefore not seem, at first, within the limits of the efforts to be now made for evangelizing the world. But if the Greeks be Christians, it must not be forgotten that Greece is a Mahometan state; governed by a Mahometan despotism; and that nearly all its disposable means-as far as they are applied to the support of any kind of religion-are applied to the support of the religion of the Koran. Here, then, is a vast Mahometan country to be brought back to the empire of the Cross; the country where Christianity arose and was propagated, where its first churches were established, and where its first martyrs bled. Does not this present a field for missionary exertion, more attractive and more hopeful than the distant regions of the East, or the barbarous isles of the Pacific ? Farther, in this country, which thus of itself awakens our Christian zeal, there is a germ of faith. There is a persecuted, an oppressed, a cruelly outraged minority,-the descendants of the ancient lords of the soil,—who nominally embrace the Christian doctrine. This furnishes a promising foothold to the teacher from the prosperous, benevolent, and civilized states of Christendom. The faithful missionary who should address the Greeks, groaning under the Turkish sway, would, in some respects, address precisely the same class of men whom Paul addressed, and who welcomed the Gospel of the poor. But he would address those already professing the name of Christianity, and not, therefore, like the Mahometan, the Hindoo, the Pagan tribes of the East, prejudiced beforehand against the very name of the doctrine offered to their belief. At the same time, we fear that the Greek Christians stand in little less need of light from abroad, than Hindoo or heathen. It seems to be admitted, that Christianity exists among them in an exceedingly imperfect form. The ignorance of the lower orders,—the necessary consequence of their wretched political condition,-is inconsistent with any other state of things. But when the people are ignorant and superstitious, the priesthood must, of necessity, be divided into two classes, the ignorant who are bigoted, and the wise who are insincere. It
be almost laid down as an axiom, that there cannot be an enlightened, pious, and sincere clergy, without an enlightened church. Nor does the evil stop here. The young men of talents, who, in considerable numbers, resort to the seminaries of learning in Western Europe, in consequence of the gross superstitions with which Christianity is associated at home, carry no religious impress
ions abroad, and, as a matter almost of course, return without any to their country. There is too much reason to fear, that religion has no earnest friends among that class of men, who ought to be looked to as its ablest champions; those who, in consequence of distinguished talents, have been sent abroad to enjoy the advantages of schools in the West of Europe. · It is, therefore, in every view which can be taken of the subject; in the highest degree necessary to regard the Greeks as a people in need of religious aid ; at the same time that we certainly regard them as the people offering the fairest scope for the efforts of religious benevolence and zeal. Colonel Stanhope, in the work mentioned at the head of these remarks, mentions no subject more frequently, than the want of schools and teachers; and he alludes honourably to the American missionary press established at Malta. We think it a question highly deserving of the consideration of our societies for foreign missions, Whether Greece, at this moment, is not a country where all their disposable means might be employed with he greatest hope of a rich harvest of intellectual and spiritual good. We firmly believe, that the final expulsion of the Turks from Greece would prove the most signal extension of the empire of Christianity, which has taken place since the colonization of America.
We have not thought it necessary to offer our readers a formal analysis of Colonel Stanhope's Letters on Greece. This gentleman is the son of the Earl of Harrington, a very respectable English nobleman; and the Colonel himself, being on his half pay in the English army, repaired to Greece, under the directions of the London Greek Committee. The work consists principally of his Letters to the Committee, which. contain, of course, an account of his occupations in Greece. These were of almost every kind which zeal for the cause of liberty could prompt. The Colonel acquired a title to the confidence of the Greeks, by the disinterestedness with which he determined to appropriate two-thirds of his income to their cause; and this pecuniary effort was but one of his claims on their gratitude. He laboured to establish a corps of artillery and a laboratory at Missolonghi; a printing-press and newspaper there, and in two or three other places. He wrote letters, and made journies to reconcile the dissensions of the Greek chieftains, from which the most serious difficulties in the progress of their revolution have grown. Colonel Stanhope went to Greece, furnished with propositions from Mr Bentham,
whose confidence he appears to have possessed in a high degree, toward codifying the Greek law. The perseverance of this veteran philosopher is truly exemplary, and we do hope that the astonishing political revolutions of the age will, before long, place him in the sovereignty of some remote island, in the magistracy of some Australasian republic, where he may have it in his power to make a fair experiment of codification. As for the modern Greeks, having adopted the Code Justinian and the Code Napoleon, they are not in such a suffering state in this respect, but that they may dispense with the Code Bentham.
Colonel Stanhope was one of the Commissioners of the loan raised in London for the service of the Greeks. He informs us, in the summary of the state of the Greeks which is appended to his work, and which has been extensively copied in the public prints," that the Greeks think they have but one want-that of money.
** The Captains (the Greek Chieftains so called) are in general averse to the loan, from a dread that it would fall into the hands of their antagonists (the popular party), and deprive them of power. The rest of the nation look forward to its arrival with feverish impatience. They think, and with truth, that, if well applied, it would not only secure their independence, but also their freedom.” Some delay took place in ihe reception and application of the loan, in consequence of the decease of Lord Byron, who was one of the trustees appointed for those purposes. There is no doubt, that it was owing to this timely supply, that the Greeks have been enabled to nieet the Turkish fleets so successfully at sea during the year. Whether supplies go from the same quarter,—the Stock Exchange of London,-lo enable the exhausted treasury of the Grand Seignior to prosecute the contest, does not appear.
Meantime the late accounts from England mention that a second loan to the Greeks, of two millions of pounds sterling, has been effected in London, through the house of the Messrs Ricardo. We know not what foundation there may be for this report, but if the English capitalists are willing to keep the field with their pounds sterling, the Greeks most assuredly will keep it with their armies; and the Turks must yield. If fair scope be given to its operation, there is no doubt that English money, backed by Greek spirit, is an overmatch for the resources of the Divan; and nothing but the direct interference of the Holy Alliance would be competent to maintain, or rather restore, the sovereignty of the Grand Seignior.
Whether public sentiment is so contemptibly weak in the civilized world, that the sovereigns of the Holy Alliance could openly take the field, to restore an atrocious Mahometan despotism over a Christian people, we will not now discuss.
We cannot suppress a remark, suggested to us by the effect which the English loans are calculated to have, in advancing the revolutionary cause in Greece. It appears to us, that English capital is acquiring a power in the political system of the world, novel in its character, astonishing in its weight, and likely to produce very momentous results. It is, at this moment, infusing life into the revolutionary cause, not only of Greece, but of four or five of the free states of this continent, It is not only creating a very strong pecuniary interest on the part of the English nation, in the emancipation of the pastures of Arcadia and the olive gardens of Attica; but it is opening the drowned mines of the Mexican mountains, sounding the pearl fisheries of the coast, and for many of the most important purposes, it is conferring on these young and scarcely organized states, all the benefits of the most powerful and best regulated governments. It is difficult to conjecture what Spain will now do toward the re-subjugation of her late Colonies, under the loss of those supplies from them, which formed the greater portion of her disposable wealth, backed by a recognition of their independence by the most powerful maritime states, and with the steam engines of Bolton and Watt pounding up the core of the Andes into dollars to pay the troops
of the revolution.
But to return to Colonel Stanhope, and bring these remarks to a close,-he was an associate of Lord Byron in Greece, in the honourable efforts and sacrifices, by which that great and eccentric mind was making large atonement for his offences against the age. Some very characteristic anecdotes of Lord Byron form the most entertaining portion of the book. It sufficiently appears that his lordship was rendering great and generous services to the Greek cause; that he was profusely liberal in bestowing his funds, and as liberal with his personal exertions and labours. He appears even to have borne, with more equanimity than could have been expected, the various crosses and vexations incident to the undertaking in which he had embarked. The worth of his influence was incalculable; his presence was, we had almost said, the best hope of Greece; his death one of the greatest losses that could have befallen her.
Colonel Stanhope was finally recalled from Greece by the commander-in-chief. However much we may regret that the cause should thus be deprived of two persons like Lord Byron and Colonel Stanhope, at nearly the same time, no reasonable complaint can be made against the Colonel's recall. While the British government proposes to maintain a neutral position, it could not, of course, with consistency, allow a colonel in its army to embark in the cause. It is understood that the Turkish government remonstrated with Lord Strangford on this subject; and that this was the immediate occasion of the Colonel's being recalled. The state papers which have appeared from the Divan, in the course of this struggle, abound with remonstrances on the subject of the aid rendered to the Greeks by the various societies existing in states at peace with the Porte, particularly in England. There is no doubt that this species of aid has been of the last importance to the Greeks; and it would be a glorious triumph for humanity, if, in the result, the benevolent exertions of individuals and unofficial societies should succeed in wresting a country of Christians from a power once so formidable as Turkey.
Colonel Stanhope's book contains a good deal of information, diffused however over a larger space than was necessary. The French and Italian originals of his letters to different persons of Greece, need not have been given in addition to the English translations of them; and, for ourselves, we should have liked the book better, if it had been a little less radical. Sure we are, the cause of Greece is any thing rather than served, by mixing up with it the party politics of its English champions.
One word we beg leave to say, about the American edition. It omits several interesting fac-similes contained in the English. Of this it is useless to complain, if it is impossible for the American bookseller to sell enough of an edition to pay him reasonably, unless its price be reduced by the omission of these cheap engravings. But in this case, we think the public ought to be dealt fairly with, and informed by an advertisement or a note, that such and such articles have been omitted. If we cannot have the comfort of furnishing ourselves, in the American editions, with faithful copies of English works, we ought, at least, to be honestly told how much is left out. This omission, however, is very general. Sometimes it is so gross, that allusions and direct references are preserved in the text, to engravings that are omitted ; and this in cases where the