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PART THE SECOND.
WHEN the author published the first volume of these Travels, he proposed to divide the work into three portions. The observations made in "Greece, Syria, and Egypt," were reserved for the second part; whether consisting of one volume, or of more than one. This plan is still pursued; but from the very perplexed state of the geography of the country alluded to by the word Syria the less exceptionable appellation of Palastine was substituted, in the second edition, for that of Syria. The same perplexity has again induced the author to alter what he had thus written, and to consider the present publication as containing observations made in Greece, Egypt, and the Holy Land.
The several names of Syria, Palestine, the Holy Land, the Land of Canaan, the Land of Judæa, and the Land of Promise, have been used indiscriminately with reference to a particular territory, or separately applied to different parts of it. Neither ancient nor modern geographers are agreed as to the precise limits intended, by either of these appellations. According to some authors, Syria, Pho nice, and Palastine, were three distinct regions. Others include, within the Syrian frontier, not only Phoenice and Palæstine, but also Mesopotamia. Strabo describes Syria as comprehending all the country from Mount Amanus and the river Euphrates to Arabia and to Egypt.(a) The word Palæstine occurs only once, incidentally, in all his writings.(b) Yet the name was in use above four
(a) Strabon, Geog. lib. xvi. p. 1063. ed. Oxon. 1807.
(b) Lib. xvi. p. 1103. ed. Oxon. It is found in the following authors, according to the references which I have collected from Reland's Palæstine, c. 7. Dio Cassius, lib. 37. Photius in Biblioth. p. 1311. Julian, în lib. contra Christian. Flav. Vopisqus in vit. Aureliani. Statius Syľv. lib. 3. carm. 2. Silius. Ital. lib. 3. Ovid in Fastis. Idem, lib 4 et 5. Metam.
centuries anterior to the Christian Era, as appears by several passages in the text of Herodotus, (c) who describes Palæstine as that country which reaches from the borders of Egypt as far as Phoenice. Pliny separates the two countries of Phoenice and Palæstine in more than one instance.(d) Phocas, who visited the Holy Land in the twelfth century,(e) and wrote the account of it so highly esteemed by Leo Allatius, (f) evidently distinguishes Palæstine both from Gallilee and Samaria.(g) Brocardus, who travelled a century after Phocas, with equal perspicuity and brevity,(h) extends the boundaries of Syria from the Tigris to Egypt; separates Phœnice from Palæstine, but considers both these countries as belonging to Judæa and Samaria, into which kingdoms the Holy Land was divided after the time of Solomon,(i) Considering therefore Palæstine as a part of the Holy Land, he divides it into three parts; the first being Palæstine, properly so called, whereof Jerusalem was the metropolis; the second, Palæstine of Cesarea; and the third, Palæstine of Gallilee. Adrichomius, (k) who professes to follow Brocardus, (1) considers the land of Canaan, Palæstine, and the Holy Land, as names of the same country.(m) In this he is not accurate; and the same remark may be applied to the writings of Cellarius, when he uses the expression “Palæstina, seu Terra Sancta;"(n) thereby making Palæstine include all Phonice, which it never did; although Phoenice was comprehended in the territory called Terra Sancta, or the
Herodot. Clio, 105. Thalia, 5. Polyhymn. 8.
"Namque Palæstina vocabatur, qua contigit Arabas, et Judæa, et Cæle, dein Phænice." Plin. Hist. Nat. 1. 5. c. 12. "Finis Palestines centum octoginta novemmillia passuum, a confinio Arabiae, deinde Phoenice." Ibid. c. 13. L. But. 1635. (e) A. D. 1185.
"Antor elegans et accuratas, prout illa ferebant tempora, visus est." Leon. Allat. Profat. in Evulura. Colon 1653.
(g) "Urbis dextere partes Carmelum et Maritimam Palæstinæ oram, sinistræ Gallilæam et Samariam habent." Phocus de Loc Syria, Phanicie et Palestina. cap. 9. (4) Locorum Terræ Sanctæ Desriptio. Basil, 1537. Brocardus travelled in the year 1283. See Egmont and Heyman's Travels, vol. II. p. 236. London,
(i) Post tempus Salomonis in duo regna excrevit unum regnum Judae dicebatur --- alterum vero regnum Samaria vocabatur. Ibid.
(k) Theatrum Terra Sancta, Colon. 1623.
(1) Ibid in Præfat, pp. 1 et 3.
(m) Theatrum Terrae Sancte, p. 1.
(n) Cellar. Geog. Antiq. passim. Vide cap. xii. lib. 3. "De Syria." cap. xiii "De Palestine," quæ et Chanaan, et Terra Sancta, &c." tom. II. Lips. 1306.
Holy Land. Palæstine differed from the Holy Land, as a part may be said to differ from the whole. Brocardus evidently considers the first as being a part of the second (0) On this account the author has preferred the name of the Holy Land, as being the only general appellation which can be said classically to comprehend the whole of that territory, distinguished as the Land of Promise to the Israelites, and by the passion of Jesus Christ (p) It has been erroneously supposed that the appellation "Terra Sancta" originated in the writings of Christians, who indefinitely applied it to that district of Syria memorable for the sufferings of our saviour; but the name existed before the Christian æra. The epithet of Holy had been applied to every thing connected with the Jewish people; among whom, not only their cities, their priests, and their temples, had this epithet, but their whole territory, by way of eminence, was peculiarly considered as " Holy Land." That Phoenice was included within its boundaries, is evident from the book of Joshua,(q) which extends the borders of the tribe of Asher from Carmel unto Sidon. Hence Maundrell judiciously observes, (r)" Near about Sidon begin the precincts of the Holy Land, and of that part of it in particular which was allotted to Asher." Phoenice is thus proved to have constituted a portion of the Holy Land; and that Palestine did not include Phoenice is decidedly manifest from a passage in Herodotus,(s) wherein Phoenice, Palestine, and the Island of Cyprus, are separately enumerated. Cluverius, defining the boundaries of Palæstine, begins by marking a line of separation between that country and Phoenice.(t)
(0) Bishop Pocoke, in his description of the East, considers the two expressions as synonymous. See vol. II. part 1. ch. 1. London, 1745.
()" Duplici ratione nomen Terra Sancta huic regioni tribuitur, aliter a Judais, aliter a Christianis." Reland De Nomine Terræ Sancta. Vide Thesaur. Antic. Ugol. vol. VI. cap. 4. Hadriani Relandi Palcestina, Ven. 1746.
(q) Joshua, xix. 24 to 31.
(r) Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 45 Oxford, 1721.
(s) Thalia, cap. 91. Reland has cited a passage from a most ancient Hebrew commentary upon Genesis, wherein a similar distinction is, as decisively, marked: Et erat fames in omnibus terris, sc. in tribus terris, Phoenicia (ita jam tum scribebant, barbari pro Phanice.) Arabia, et Palæstina." Relandi Palaestina, cap. 7. in Thesaur. Antiq. Sacrar. tom. VI. 33, 34. Venet. 1746.
(t) Palaestina claudifer a Septentrione Phoenice. Cluver. Geng lib. 5. c. 20. p. 588. Amst. 1729.