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men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you : But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father 15 forgive your trespasses. Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the 16 hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces,
God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes (for Alleluia. Re. xix. 4 ; xxii. 20.
Jerusalem's restoration). Da. ix. 3. She 14 If ye forgive, &c.] See verse 12. and (Anna the prophetess) was a widow of about com. With what judgment ye judge, ye shall fourscore and four years, which departed not be judged, and with what measure ye mete, from the temple, but served God with fastings it shall be measured to you again. Mat. vii. and prayers night and day. Lu. ii. 37. 2. So likewise (as the king in the parable Cornelius said (to Peter), four days ago I was punished the servant who had not mercy on his fasting until this hour; and at the ninth hour fellow servant) shall my heavenly Father do I prayed in my house. Ac. x. 30. As “they" also unto you (said Jesus), If ye from your ("the prophets and teachers of the church at hearts forgive not every one his brother their Antioch") ministered to the Lord, and fasted, trespasses. Mat. xviii. 35. Whoso stoppeth the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas his ears at the cry of the poor, he also shall and Saul for the work whereunto I have cry himself, but shall not be heard. Pr. xxi. called them. And when they had fasted and 13. He shall have judgment without mercy prayed, and laid their hands on them, they that hath shewed no mercy, and mercy re- sent them away. Ac. xiii. 2, 3. And when joiceth against judgment. Ja. ii. 13. In this they had ordained them elders in every the children of God are manifest, and the church, and had prayed, with fasting, “they children of the Devil. Whosoever doeth not ("Paul and Barnabas”) commended them unto righteousness is not of God, neither he that the Lord, on whom they believed. Ac. xiv. loveth not his brother. 1 John iii. 10. 23. Defraud ye not one the other, except it
16 When ye fast.] Then came to “him" be with consent, for a time, that ye (the hus("Jesus") the disciples of John, saying, Why band and wife) may give yourselves to fasting do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy and prayer. 1 Co. vii. 5. We then, as workers disciples fast not? And Jesus said unto them, together with “him" (" Christ'') beseech you, Can the children of the bride-chamber mourn that ye receive not the grace of God in vain. In as long as the bridegroom is with them? But all things approving ourselves as the ministers the days will come when the bridegroom shall of God; in stripes, in imprisonments, in tube taken from them, and then shall they fast. mults, in labours, in watchings, in fastings. Mat. ix. 14, 15. David besought God for the 2 Co. vi. 5. Thrice was I beaten with rods child (which he had by the wife of Uriah); and (said Paul); in journeyings often, in weariDavid fasted, and went in and lay all night ness and painfulness, in watchings often, in upon the earth. Then (when the child had hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold died) said bis servants unto him, What thing and nakedness. 2 Co. xi. 27. is this that thou hast done? Thou didst fast Be not, as the hypocrites.] See verses 2. 5. and weep for the child, while it was alive, but and com. And it came to pass, when Ahab when the child was dead, thou didst arise and heard those words (of Elijah denouncing judgeat bread. 2 Sa. xii. 16. 21. When I heard ments), that he rent his clothes, and put sackthese words (said Nehemiah, respecting the cloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in afflicted state of Jerusalem), I sat down and sackcloth, and went softly. I Ki. xxi. 27. wept, and mourned certain days, and fasted, Wherefore have we fasted, say " they” (“the and prayed before the God of heaven. Ne. i. hypocrites”), and thou seest not? Wherefore 4. Go gather together all the Jews that are have we afflicted our soul, and thou takest no present (was the answer of Esther to Mordecai) knowledge ? Behold, in the days of your in Shushan ; and fast ye for me, and neither fast ye find pleasure, and exact all your laeat nor drink three days, night or day: I also bours ; behold, ye fast for strife and debate, and my maidens will fast likewise, and so will and to smite with the fist of wickedness: ye I go in unto the king (Ahasuerus), which is shall not fast as ye do this day, to make your not according to the law; and if I perish, I voice to be heard on high! Is it such a fast perish. Es. iv. 16. But as for me (said that I have chosen ? a day for a man to afflict David), when “they" (“ my false witnesses") his soul? Is it to bow down his head as a were sick, my clothing was sackcloth : I hum bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes bled my soul with fasting. Ps. xxxv. 13. under him? Wilt thou call this a fast, and When I wept, and chastened my soul with an acceptable day to the Lord? Is. Iviii. 3, fasting, that was to my reproach. Ps. Ixix. 4, 5. Speak unto all the people of the land, 10. My knees are weak through fasting, and and to the priests, saying, When ye fasted, my flesh faileth of fatness. Ps. cix. 24. And and mourned, in the fifth and seventh month,
I set my face (said Daniel) unto the Lord even those seventy years, did ye at all fast God, to seek by prayer and supplications, unto me, even to me? Zec. vii. 5. Ye have
that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, 17 They have their reward. But thou, when thou fastest, anoint 18 thine head, and wash thy face; That thou appear not unto men
to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, 19 which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly. Lay not up for
yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt,
said, It is vain to serve God: and what profit riches, and knoweth not who shall gather is it that we have kept his ordinance, and them. Ps. xxxix. 6. If riches increase, set that we have walked mournfully before the not your heart upon them. Ps. kxii. 10. Lord of hosts? Mal. iii. 14. And the dis- Riches profit not in the day of wrath. Pr. ciples of John and of the Pharisees used to xi. 4. By mercy and truth iniquity is purged, fast; and they come and say unto “him” and by the fear of the Lord men depart from (“ Jesus"), Why do the disciples of John and evil. Pr. xvi. 6. Wilt thou set thine eyes of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast upon that which is not? For riches certainly not ? Mar. ii. 18. I fast twice in the week make themselves wings; they fly away as an (said the Pharisee to Jesus). Lu. xviii. 12. eagle toward heaven. Pr. xxiii. 5. Ged
17 Anoint thine head.] Wash thyself (said giveth to a man that is good in his sight, Naomi to Ruth), and anoint thee, and put thy wisdom, and knowledge, and joy; but to the raiment upon thee, and get thee down to the sinner he giveth travail, to gather and to heap floor, but make not thyself known unto the up, that he may give to him that is good be man, until he shall have done eating and fore God. This also is vanity and vexation drinking. Ru. iii. 3. David arose and walked of spirit. Ec. ii. 26. He that loveth silver upon the roof of the king's house, and from shall not be satisfied with silver ; nor he that the roof he saw a woman (Uriah's wife) loveth abundance with increase. This is also washing herself, &c. 2 Sa. xi. 2. Let thy vanity. Ec. v. 10. When goods increase, garments be always white; and let thy head they are increased that eat them; and what lack no ointment. Ec. ix. 8. In those days good is there to the owners thereof, saving (of Cyrus king of Persia) I, Daniel, was the beholding of them with their eyes? The mourning three full weeks; I ate no pleasant sleep of a labouring man is sweet, whether he bread, neither came flesh or wine in my eat little or much; but the abundance of the mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till rich will not suffer him to sleep. There is a three whole weeks were fulfilled. Da. X. 2, 3. sore evil srhich I have seen under the sun,
18 Appear not unto men to fast. Where- namely, Riches kept for the owners thereof to fore we labour, that whether present or absent their hurt. Pr. v. 11, 12, 13. Neither their we may be accepted of him. 2 Co. v. 9. For (“Judah's") silver nor their gold shall be not he that commendeth himself is approved, able to deliver them in the day of the Lord's but whom the Lord commendeth. 2 Co. x. wrath. Zep. i. 18. So is he (like the rick 18. Servants, obey in all things your masters fool in the parable) that layeth up treasure for according to the flesh; and whatsoever ye do, himself, and is not rich toward God. Lu. xii. do it heartily as to the Lord, and not unto 21. Yet lackest thou one thing (said Jesus men, knowing that of the Lord ye shall re- to the ruler, who said that he had kept all the ceive the reward of the inheritance ; for ye commandments); sell all that thou hast, and serve the Lord Christ. Col. iii. 22, 23, 24. distribute unto the poor, and thou shalt have Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man treasure in heaven. And when Jesus saw for the Lord's sake. 1 Pe. ii. 13.
that he was very sorrowful, he said, How Shall reward thee openly.] See verses 4. 6. hardly shall they that have riches enter into Thinkest thou that thou shalt escape the the kingdom of God. Lu. xviii. 22. 24. judgment of God? Who will render to every Having food and raiment, let us be therewith man according to his deeds. Ro. ii. 6. Ye content. 1 Ti, vi. 8. But they that will be greatly rejoice (by the power of God through rich, fall into temptation and a snare, and into faith unto salvation), that the trial of your many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown faith, being much more precious than of gold men in destruction and perdition. For the that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, love of money is the root of all evil; which might be found unto praise, and honour, and while some coveted after they have erred from glory, at the appearing of Jesus Christ. I the faith, and pierced themselves through Pe. i. 7.
with many sorrows. Charge them that are 19 Not up for yourselves.] If I have made rich in this world, that they be not highgold my hope, or have said to the fine gold, minded, nor trust in uncertain riches; but in Thou art my confidence; this were an iniquity the living God, who giveth us richly all things to be punished. Job xxxi. 24. 28. Surely to enjoy. 1 Ti. vi. 9, 10. 17. Let your conevery man walketh in a vain shew ; surely versation be without covetousness, and be conthey are disquieted in vain : he heapeth up tent with such things as ye have: for he hath
and where thieves break through and steal :. But lay up for your- 20 selves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal: For where 21 your treasure is, there will your heart be also. The light of the 22 body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body
said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee. which are seen are temporal, but the things He. xii. 5. Go to, now, ye rich men, weep which are not seen are eternal. 2 Co. iv. 18. and howl for your miseries that shall come There will your heart be also.) O generaupon you ; your riches are corrupted, and your tion of vipers (said Jesus to the Pharisees, fc.) garments are moth-eaten ; your gold and sil- how can ye, being evil, speak good things? ver is cankered, and the rust of them shall be for out of the abundance of the heart the a witness against you, and shall eat your flesh mouth speaketh. Mat. xii. 34. Keep thy as it were fire; ye have heaped treasure heart with all diligence, for out of it are the together for the last days. Ja. v. 1, 2, 3. issues of life. Pr. iv. 23. O Jerusalem, wash Love not the world, neither the things that thine heart from wickedness, that thou mayest are in the world; if any man love the world, be saved. How long shall thy vain thoughts the love of the Father is not in him. For all lodge within thee? Je. iv. 14. Thine eyes that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and (speaking of Shallum, son of Josiah) and thine the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is heart are not but for thy covetousness, and not of the Father, but is of the world. I John for to shed innocent blood, and for oppression, ii. 15, 16.
and for violence, to do it. Je. xxi. 17. Thou 20 Lay up for yourselves.] See preced. com. hast neither part nor lot in this matter (said If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou Peter to Simon the sorcerer), for thy heart is hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have not right in the sight of God. Ac. viii. 21. treasure in heaven. Mat. xix. 21. Wisdom When we were in the flesh, the motions of the and knowledge shall be the stability of thy sins which were by the law did work in our times, and strength of salvation : the fear of members, to bring forth fruit unto death. the Lord is his treasure. Is. xxxiii. 6. The But now we are delivered from the law, that life is more than meat, and the body is more being dead wherein we were held ; that we than raiment. Lu. xii. 23. Sell all that thou should serve in newness of spirit, and not in hast (said Jesus to the ruler), and distribute the oldness of the letter. What shall we say unto the poor; and thou shalt have treasure then ? is the law sin? God forbid! Nay, I in heaven. Li. xviii. 22. Ye had compas- had not known sin, but by the law; for I had sion (said Paul) of me in my bonds, and took not known lust, except the law had said, Thou joyfully the spoiling of your goods. He. x. shalt not covet. Ro. vii. 5, 6, 7. Many are 34. By faith Moses refused to be called the the enemies of the cross of Christ, whose end son of Pharaoh's daughter, esteeming the is destruction, whose god is their belly, and reproach of Christ greater riches than the whose glory is in their shame, who mind earthly treasures in Egypt; for he had respect unto things. Phi. iii. 19. If ye then be risen the recompence of the reward. He, xi. 26. with Christ, seek those things which are Hearken, my beloved brethren, Hath not God above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand chosen the poor of this world, rich in faith, of God. Set your affections on things above, and heirs of the kingdom, which he hath not on things on the earth ; for ye are dead, promised to them that love him. Ja. ii. 5. and your life is hid with Christ in God. Col. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord iii. 1, 2, 3. Take heed, brethren, lest there Jesus Christ, which, according to his abun- be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, dant mercy, hath begotten us to an inheritance in departing from the living God. He. iii. 12. incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth 22 Light of the body.) The light of the not away, reserved in heaven for you. I Pe. body is the eye : therefore, when thine eye is i. 4. When the chief Shepherd shall appear, single, thy whole body is full of light: but ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth when thine eye is evil, thy body also is full of not away. 1 Pe. v. 4. I know thy works, darkness. Take heed therefore that the light and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art which is in thee be not darkness. If thy rich ;) and I know the blasphemy of them whole body therefore be full of light, having which say they are Jews, and are not, but are no part dark, the whole shall be full of light, the synagogue of Satan. Fear none of those as when the bright shining of a candle doth things which thou shalt suffer. Re. ii. 9. give thee light. Lu. xi. 34, 35, 36.
21 Where your treasure is.) See preced. Single.] And they (the disciples) concom. Where your treasure is, there will your tinuing daily with one accord in the temple, heart be also. Lu. xii. 34. While we look and breaking bread from house to house, did not at the things which are seen, but at the eat their meat with gladness and singleness things which are not seen ; for the things of heart. Ac. ii. 46. I fear lest by any
23 shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body
shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee 24 be darkness, how great is that darkness! No man can serve
means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through ing to this word, it is because there is no light his subtilty, so your minds should be cor- in them. Is. viii. 20. My people is foolish; rupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. they have not known me, they are sottish 2 Co. xi. 3. Servants, be obedient to them children, and they have none understanding; that are your masters according to the flesh, they are wise to do evil, but to do good they with fear and trembling, in singleness of your have no knowledge. Je. iv. 22. How do ye heart, as unto Christ. Ep. vi. 5. Servants, say, We are wise, and the law of the Lord is obey in all things your masters according to with us? Lo, certainly in vain made he it ; the flesh; not with eye service as men pleasers, the pen of the Scribes is in vain. The wise but in singleness of heart, fearing God. Col. men are ashamed; they are dismayed, and iii. 22.
taken : lo, they have rejected the word of the 23 Thine eye be evil.] These (evil thoughts, Lord; and what wisdom is in them? Je. viii. murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false 8, 9. Unto you it is given (said Jesus to his witness, blasphemies) are the things which disciples) to know the mysteries of the kingdefile a man; but to eat with unwashen hands dom of God; but to others in parables, that defileth not a man. Mat. xv. 20. They seeing they might not see, and hearing they (idol-makers) have not known, nor under- might not understand. Lu. viii. 10. For stood; for he (the Lord) hath shut their eyes, judgment I am come into the world (said that they cannot see, and their hearts, that Jesus), that they which see not might see, they cannot understand: and none considereth and that they which see might be made blind : in his heart, neither is there knowledge nor And some of the Pharisees which were with understanding to say, I have burned part of him heard these words, and said unto him, “it" ("the tree") in the fire ; yea also, I have Are we blind also ? Jesus said unto them, baked bread upon the coals thereof; I have If ye were blind, ye should have no sin; but roasted flesh, and eaten it, and shall I make now ye say, We see; therefore your sin rethe residue thereof an abomination ? shall I maineth. John ix. 39, 40, 41. Professing fall down to the stock of a tree? He feedeth themselves to be wise, “they" (" who kacu on ashes; a deceived heart hath turned him God, yet glorified him not") became fools. Ro. aside, that he cannot deliver his soul, nor say, i. 22. Behold thou art called a Jew, and Is there not a lie in my right hand ? Is. xliv. restest in the law, and makest thy boast of 18, 19, 20. Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, God, and knowest his will, and approvest the deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, things that are most excellent, being inpride, foolishness; all these evil things come structed out of the law, and art confident from within, and defile the man. Mar. vii. that thou thyself art a guide of the blind, 22, 23. Walk not as other Gentiles walk, in a light of them which are in darkness; an the vanity of their mind, having the under- instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, standing darkened, being alienated from the which hast the form of knowledge, and of life of God, through the ignorance that is in the truth in the law; thou therefore which them, because of the blindness of their heart. teachest another, teachest not thou thyself? Ep. iv. 18. Ye were sometimes darkness, Thou that preachest a man should not steal, but now are ye light in the Lord. Walk as dost thou steal ? Thou that makest thy boast children of light. Ep. v. 8. He that hateth of the law, through breaking the law, dishis brother is in darkness, and walketh in honourest thou God ? Ro. ii. 17-23. The darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, preaching of the cross is to them that perish because that darkness hath blinded his eyes. foolishness; but unto us which are saved, it is 1 John ii. 11.
the power of God; for it is written, I will If therefore the light that is in thee be dark- destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will ness.] 'Woe unto you, ye blind guides (Pha- bring to nothing the understanding of the risees), which say, Whosoever shall swear by prudent. Where is the wise? where is the the temple, it is nothing, but whosoever shall Scribe? where is the disputer of this world ? swear by the gold of the temple, he is a Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of debtor. Mat. xxiii. 16, &c. Seest thou a this world. 1 Co. i. 18, 19, 20. The natural man wise in his own conceit? There is more man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of hope of a fool than of him. Pr. xxvi. 12. God, for they are foolishness unto him ; neiWoe unto them that call evil good, and good ther can he know them, because they are evil; that put darkness for light, and light spiritually discerned. I Co. ii. 14. Let no for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and man deceive himself; if any man among you sweet for bitter. Woe unto them that are seemeth to be wise in this world, let him wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their become a fool, that he may be wise ; for the own sight. Is. v. 20, 21. Seek to the law and wisdom of this world is foolishness with God: to the testimony; if they speak not accord- for it is written, he taketh the wise in their
two masters : for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. Therefore I say unto you, Take no 25
own craftiness. I Co. iii. 18, 19. Because 39. I will cut off them that worship the host thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with of heaven upon the housetops; and them that goods, and have need of nothing, and knowest worship and that swear by the Lord : and that not that thou art wretched, and miserable, swear by Malcham. Zep. i. 5. No servant and poor, and blind, and naked; I counsel can serve two masters; for either he will hate thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that the one, and love the other, or else he will thou mayest be rich; and white raiment, that hold to the one and despise the other; ye thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame cannot serve God and mammon. Lu. xvi. 13. of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourthine eyes with eye-salve, that thou mayest selves servants to obey, his servants ye are see. Re. üi. 17, 18.
to whom yeobey; whether of sin unto 24 Serve two masters.] Get thee hence death, or of obedience unto righteousness ? Satan (said Jesus), for it is written, Thou But God be thanked, that ye were the shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only servants of sin, but ye have obeyed from shalt thou serve. Mat. iv. 10. If it seem the heart that form of doctrine which was evil unto you (said Joshua to the people of delivered you; being then made free from Israel) to serve the Lord, choose you this day sin, ye became the servants of righteouswhom ye will serve, whether the gods which ness. When ye were the servants of sin, ye your fathers served, that were on the other were free from righteousness. What fruit side of the flood, or the gods of the Amorites, had ye then in those things whereof ye are in whose land ye dwell; but as for me and now ashamed ? For the end of those things my house, we will serve the Lord. And is death. But now being made free from sin, Joshua said unto the people, Ye cannot serve and become servants to God, ye have your the Lord; for he is an holy God; he is a fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting jealous God; he will not forgive your trans- life. Ro. vi. 16–22 Do I now persuade gressions nor your sins. If ye forsake the men or God? or do I seek to please men ? Lord, and serve strange gods, then he will For if I yet pleased men, I should not be the turn, and do you hurt, and consume you, after servant of Christ. Gal. i. 10. Therefore we that he hath done you good. Jos. xxiv. 15. both labour and suffer reproach, because we 19, 20. Samuel spake unto all the house of trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of Israel, saying, If ye do return unto the Lord all men, specially of those that believe. 2 Ti. with all your hearts, then put away the strange iv. 10. Know ye not, that the friendship of gods, and Ashtaroth from among you, and the world is enmity with God? Whosoever, prepare your hearts unto the Lord, and serve therefore, will be a friend of the world is the him only, and he will deliver you out of the enemy of God. Ja. iv. 4. Love not the hand of the Philistines. 1 Sa. vii. 3. How world, neither the things that are in the long halt ye between two opinions (said world. If any man love the world, the love Elijah to the people)? If the Lord be God, of the Father is not in him. For all that is follow him ; but if Baal, then follow him in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust 1 Ki. xviii. 21. They (the strange nations of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of which were sent into Samaria) feared the the Father, but is of the world. 1 John ii. Lord, and served their own gods, after the 15, 16. manner of the nations whom they carried Mammon.] See verse 19. Make to youraway from thence; unto this day they do selves (said Jesus) friends of the mammon of after the former manners; they fear not the unrighteousness, that when ye fail, they may Lord, neither do they after the law and com- receive you into everlasting habitations. If mandment which the Lord commanded the ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous children of Jacob, whom he named Israel; mammon, who will commit to your trust the with whom the Lord had made a covenant, and true riches? Ye cannot serve God and mamcharged them, saying, Ye shall not fear other mon. Lu. xvi. 9. 11. 13. gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve 25 I say unto you.] See chap. v. 22. 28, and them, nor sacrifice to them. 2 Ki. xvii. 33–35. com. I say unto you, my friends, Be not So these nations feared the Lord, and served afraid of them that kill the body, and after their graven images, both their children and that have no more that they can do: but I their children's children. 2 Ki. xvii. 41. As will forewarn you whom ye shall fear; fear for you, O house of Israel, thus saith the him which after he hath killed hath power to Lord God, Go ye, serve ye every one his idols, cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him, and hereafter also, if ye will not hearken unto Lu. xii. 4, 5. Also I say unto you, Whosome, but pollute ye my holy name no more ever shall confess me before men, him shall with your gifts and with your idols. Ex. XX. the Son of man also confess before the angels