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865. Difficiles quondam : 'once dangerous '; when former voyagers, such as Ulysses, passed them; but no longer so, at least, on account of the
Sirens, as they had disappeared before the arri. val of Aeneas in these waters; for, according to the myth, they cast themselves into the sea and perished because they were outwitted by Ulysses.
866. Tum: refers to the time when Aeneas sailed by the rocks. rauca : proleptic, may be translated as an adverb.
sale sonabant: they were will in.
no longer sounding with .the music of the Sirens.
867. Cum: relates to iam subibat.
869. Multa gemens:
see note on 1, 465. ani. Fig. 49. — Ulysses bound to the Mast successfully
mum: see note on I, 228. passes the Sirens (Il. 864, 865)
871. Nudus, ignota: to die away from one's native land was a great misfortune, but the greatest of all was to be deprived of burial. Palinurus, soun after his death, meets Aeneas in Hades, and gives him the particulars of his fate. For these, see V1, 347 sqq.
1-155. Aeneas lands at Cumae, and immediately proceeds to the temple of Apollo, on the Acropolis, to consult the Sibyl. Deiphobe, the Sibyl, who is also priestess of Hecate, informs him of his future wars and hardships, and instructs him how to prepare for his proposed descent into the lower regions.
1. Sic fatur lacrimans: these words closely connect the narrative of the Fifth and Sixth Books. immittit habenas: 'loosens the sheets.' Cf. immittere funes, VIII, 708.
2. Euboicis - oris: Cumae, a city situated on the coast of Campania, a little north of Naples, was founded in very ancient times by a colony from Cyme, in Asia Minor, and from Chalcis, in Euboea.
Beneventum Hence the terms Eubocan and Chalcidian are applied
capna to the city of Cumae and to objects connected with it. Traces only of the ancient city remain to-day. Beneath
gulaneuve the Acropolis, on which stood the temple of Apollo, are very
S. Cumanus many subterranean passages.
3. Obvertunt: on landing, the prow of the ship was turned toward the water, and
Sinus Paestanus the stern toward the shore.
Prestige 8. Tecta rapit, etc. : 'part
Fig. 50. — Map of the Vicinity of Cumae quickly penetrate the thick forests, the habitations of wild beasts, and point out the discovered streams.' densa belongs logically with silvas. Rapit, like Corripuere, I, 418, is equiva
Fig. 51. – View of the Vicinity of Cumae lent to cursu rapit, and means here ‘hurries through. Their first object is to find fuel and food. Cf. I, 174.
9. arces : for the singular, which is used in l. 17; "the Acropolis.' altus: seems to have reference here to the lofty site of the temple, though alrus Apollo, in X, 875, can mean only 'exalted Apollo.'
10. horrendaeque procul, etc. : 'and seeks at a distance the solitary abode of the awe-inspiring Sibyl.' 11. cui, etc.: 'in whom the Delian prophet breathes mighty intelligence
13. Triviae : i.e. Hecate. Cf. IV, 511. aurea tecta : 'the golden temple.'
14. Daedalus: according to tradition, Daedalus was an Athenian, and the pioneer of Athenian art, but he is sometimes called Cretan, on account of his resi. dence in Crete under King Minos, for whom he built the celebrated Labyrinth. Having offended Mi. nos by aiding Pasiphaë in the commission of an unnatural crime, he was imprisoned with his son Icarus in the Labyrinth. He effected their escape by contriving artificial wings of wax and other materials. Icarus flew too near the sun, so that the heat melted his wings, and he fell into that
part of the Mediterranean called, Fig. 52.- Hecate (1. 13)
after him, the Icarian Sea. Dae.
dalus, Alying toward the north (ad Arctos), according to one tradition. landed safely in Sicily; according to another, which Virgil adopts, he first alighted on the Acropolis of Cumae.
15. pennis: ablative of the instrument. 17. Chalcidica: see note on l. 2.
18. Redditus : 'returning '; reaching the earth again first at this point. Redux, reddere, and kindred words are used of objects coming back from the air or water to the land, at whatever point the land is reached again. Cf. I, 390. Sacravit: devoted.' He suspended 'the oarage of his wings' in the temple of Apollo as a thank offering for his preservation.
20. On the folds or valves ( foribus) of the door, Daedalus had represented in raised work, or bas-reliefs of gold, some of the most striking events in the history of Theseus. Each of the two folds of the door was divided into
panels, adorned with these designs; those on one side representing scenes in Athens, those on the other (contra) in Crete. letum: sc. cral. Androgeo : Greek genitive ('Avopóyew), from 'Avdpbyews. Androgeos was the son of Minos, king of Crete, who, on a visit to Athens, was murdered by the Athe. nians (Cecropidae) through envy of his success in the public games. Minos made war upon the Athenians and compelled them to sue for peace, which he granted on condition that seven of their young men and seven of their maidens (1l. 21, 22) should be sent to Crete every year to be devoured by the Minotaur. tum, etc.: ‘then (as the next design) there were (represented) the Athenians. poenas: 'as a penalty.'
21. miserum: see note on I, 251. septena : the poet mentions the seven sons only, as this is sufficient to suggest the well-known story of the seven of each sex.
22. stat urna: the lots had been drawn from the urn in order to decide who, among the Athenian youth, should be the victims; and these, with their parents and friends, were represented in attitudes expressive of agony. tibus : ablative absolute.
23. Contra : 'on the opposite side '; i.e. on the other fold of the door.
24. Hic: on this side of the door; or in Crete, which is represented on this side. crudelis amor: 'cruel passion '; because cruelly excited by Venus in Pasiphaë. tauri: objective genitive. supposta : for supposita. furto: refers to the artifice of Daedalus, who, according to the story, constructed the image of a cow, in which Pasiphaë concealed herself.
25. mixtum genus: the Minotaur, or progeny of Pasiphaë, half man and half bull.
26. inest: 'is carved' or represented on'the door. Veneris — nefandae: 'a memorial of unnatural lust.' monumenta: poetic plural for the singular is in apposition with Minotaurus.
27. Hic: ‘here' (too); on this same valve of the door is also another scene in Crete; namely, the Athenian hero Theseus, after slaying the Minotaur, tracing his way out of the Labyrinth by the guidance of a thread, which had been prepared for him by Daedalus at the intercession of the princess (regina) Ariadne, daughter of Minos, who had become enamored of Theseus. domus: genitive. error: cf. V, 591.
28. sed enim: see note on I, 19.
31. sineret dolor : ‘had grief permitted.' On the omission of si, see H. 573, N; LM. 777; A. 310, 6; B. 305, 2; G. 598; (H. p. 281, footnote 2); on the imperfect subjunctive for the pluperfect, H. 579, 1; LM. 939; A. 308, a: B. 304, 2; G. 597, R. 1; (H. 510, N. 2).
32. conatus erat: sc. ille, referring to Daedalus. 33, 34. Quio protinus Perlegerent: ‘indeed, they would have examined
successively. For the tense, see note on 1. 31. omnia: is here a dissyllable, om-nya. praemissus : “who had been sent forward,' while Aeneas remained in front of the temple. From this it would seem that the Sibyl's cave was at some distance, procul, from the temple of Apollo.
36. Deiphobe: the name here given to the Cumaean Sibyl. Glauci: '(the daughter) of Glaucus.' Glaucus was a marine divinity gifted with prophecy.
38. intacto: ‘untouched '; not yet brought under the yoke.
39. Praestiterit: “it were best '; potential subjunctive to express a modest assertion, instead of the indicative of direct statement. H. 552 and 554, 2; LM. 718; A. 311, a; B. 280, 2; G. 257; (H. 486, I). bidentes : see note on IV, 57.
40. sacra Iussa : 'the rites commanded.'
41. alta templa: the lofty or vast cavern of the Sibyl; the same as the Antrum immane, I. 11, and the ingens antrum of the following line. This sacred grotto, or holy place in the depths of the hill, was probably connected with the temple of Apollo (aurea tecla, l. 13) by a passage in the rear, and thus was related to it as an adytum (1. 98).
42. in: 'into'; i.e. 'so as to form'a cavern.
43. aditus : ‘passages '; not all necessarily foot passages, but channels, natural or artificial, communicating with the grotto, or antrum, - the adytum, whence is heard the oracular response (1. 98). centum: for a number indefinitely great.
44. Unde: 'out of which '; whenever the Sibyl gives utterance to her prophecies.
45. ad limen: 'to the threshold' at the inner end of a corridor, leading into the antrum. Poscere fata: i.e. to pray for responses, which are reve. lations of the fates.
46. deus! the priestess, while before the entrance, is already under the influence of the god.
47. fores: the same as limen above. non - unus: 'did not remain the same.'
48. Non comptae: ancient soothsayers wore the hair unbound. That of Deiphobe now becomes disordered.
49. rabie : join with tument. maior videri: 'greater in aspect'; lit. greater to be seen. Videri is an explanatory infinitive dependent on maior. H. 608, 4, N. I; LM. 952; A. 273, d; B. 333; G. 421, (c); (H.533, II, 3, N. 2).
50. mortale : accusative; 'a human sound.' See note on 1, 328. Her whole frame expands, and her voice assumes an unnatural elevation and strength of tone.
51. lam propiore : already selt, though not even yet in his greatest power. Cessas in vota : .dost delay to begin thy prayers ?'