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Latin expression uttered by one combatant over another whom he has mortally wounded. haec melior: cf. V, 483.

299. Ebuso: perhaps an Etruscan who has come to the war under Mezentius. The Etruscans wore the beard long.

326. Poscit: Turnus summons his charioteer, Metiscus, but in his cagerness seizes and handles (molitur) the reins himself. superbus : 'audacious '; assuming new spirit.

331. Hebri : see note on I, 317. Mars was the god of Thrace. See III, 35. 338. quatit: for incilat. miserabile: for miserabiliter. 351, 352. alio pretio : i.e. death.

370. adverso curru: a causal ablative; the car running against the wind makes his crest wave.

371. Non tulit: did not endure.' Phegeus threw himself against the horses of Turnus, and attempted to turn them aside by seizing the rein; but he is himself borne along with them.

383-499. Iapis in the meantime strives in vain to extract the arrow from the wound of Aencas. He is relieved at last through the interposition of Venus, and, aster embracing Ascanius, hastens from the camp to the field, fol. Icwed by Antheus, Mnestheus, Achates, and many heroes. His captains engage at once in the fight, while he seeks Turnus alone.

But Juturna, assuming the appearance and office of the charioteer, Metiscus, skillfully keeps her brother's chariot beyond the reach of Aeneas.

386. ‘Supporting each other step with his long spear.' gressus with nitentem is an extended use of the cognate accusative.

388. auxilio viam : 'the means for (of) relief.'
389, 390. secent, etc.: the subjunctives depend on poscit.
394. dabat: for dare volebat. Cf. lenibat, VI, 468.

395. ut — parentis, etc. : 'that he might postpone the fate of his dying parent.' depositi: a man dangerously sick was sometimes, as a last resort, laid down by the side of his door, that passers-by might have an opportunity of suggesting any remedy.

398. acerba: adverbially. Cf. IX, 794, and VI, 467.

401. Paeonium: a trisyllable. “The Paeonian custom' was that of phy. sicians, the servants of Apollo, who were wont to gird up the pallium or cloak in order the more easily to examine wounds and apply remedies.

408. pulvere: see note on VI, 300

413. Puberibus : 'mature';. neither too old nor too young; neither dry nor milky.

414. non incognita capris: the wild goats of Crete, when wounded with poisoned arrows, were said to be healed by eating the dictamnum, which caused the arrow to fall out of the wound.

417, 418. hoc, etc.: 'with this she stains the water (amnem) which had been poured (fusum) into the shining vases.' Running or river water had been placed in vessels near at hand. labris : is the dative for in labra.

422. Quippe : for certe. 432. habilis : 'fitted to.'

433. fusis circum: for circunfusis. armis : i.c. with arms and hands bearing weapons; with armed embrace.'

437. inter praemia ducet: ‘shall lead thee to the rewards (the glorious prizes of my conflict).' Inter implies here both 'to' and 'amidst '; as if Ascanius were surrounded with the prizes of his father's victory, and passing along from one to another,

438–440. facito (ul) Sis, et excitet: cf. III, 343. 450. rapit: “swiftly leads on.'

451. abrupto sidere: for abrupta nube; a bold figure suggested by the notion that storms are occasioned by the influence of the stars. Cr. IV, 309. 465. pede aequo: 'with equal foot'; in fair encounter, as opposed to aver.

ferentes : for inferentes. 469. media inter lora: i.e. while he is in the midst of his task or duty of managing the reins. Some understand between the reins,' which are wound about his body.

481. legit: 'traverses.'
491. Se - arma: see note on X, 412.
495. equos, currum: refer to the horses and chariot of Turnus.

500-613. While Aeneas and Turnus in different parts of the field are slay. ing all those they encounter, Aeneas conceives the idea of attacking Laurentum. Accordingly he leaves the Etruscans and Arcadians to occupy the enemy, and, forming a phalanx of his Trojans, advances to the assault. The Latins in the city are terrified and distracted, and in the midst of their panic are still more agitated on learning that the queen, Amata, in her despair, has hung herself.

Cf. VI, 704.

501. Diversas : “in different places.'
508. crates pectoris : another term for costas.
513. Ille: Aeneas.

522. virgulta sonantia lauro: ‘shrubbery crackling with laurel,' for crackling laurel shrubbery.'

532, 533. hunc — rotae: the rushing chariot (rotae) threw Murranus for. ward under the reins and horses (iuga); i.e. under the horses while he was held entangled in the reins. crebro pulsu: join with proculcat.

534. nec: is equivalent to an emphatic non, not at all.' 535. Hyllo: retains the final o unelided.

546. mortis metae: 'the goal of death. A genitive of definition or apposition. H. 440, 4; LM. 569; A. 214, f; B. 202; G. 361, 1; (H, 396. VI).

548. adeo : limits Totae. Cf. III, 203. conversae : 'wheeling about.' 565. hac (parte): 'on this,' i.e. ‘on our side.'

566. ob inceptum subitum: on account of the suddenness of this measure some might distrust the prudence of it. mihi: ethical dative.

568. victi: by the constructio ad sensum (synesis); refers to the people in the city, instead of agreeing grammatically with urbs. H. 389; LM. 477; A. 182, 9, 187, d; B, 235, B. 2, (; G. 211, R. I; (H. 636, IV, 4).

572. caput, summa: Laurentum, as the chief seat of the Latins, is the bead and center of the war.

589. trepidae rerum: see note on I, 178. 593. haec fortuna : 'this (additional) misfortune'; the suicide of the queen. 600. crimen : 'the guilty cause.'

614-709. Turnus is alarmed by confused noises from the distant city, and, recognizing Juturna in her disguise, he mourns the slaughter of his friends unsuccored by him. Saces brings news of the attack of Aeneas on the city, and Turnus hastens to challenge his enemy once more to single combat. The heroes prepare at once for battle, while both armies cease fighting, and all eyes are fastened on the two leaders.

621. diversa: ‘remote'; as in III, 4. 630. numero: i.e. caesorum.

34. fallis dea: 'thou hidest thy godhead, lit. 'thou dost escape notice being a goddess,' an imitation of the Greek construction.

639. superat: as in II, 643; III, 339. 640. Cf. X, 84%.. 646. Manes: the souls of the dead were invoked as gods by the Romans.

648. inscia culpae: his soul is unconscious of the disgrace of saving life by flight at the sacrifice of friends and country.

655. Deiecturum: sc. se, as in l. 762, below.

657. mussat: 'silently questions'; 'hesitates.' Latinus dares not yet openly express his doubts.

659.. tui fidissima: 'most faithful to thee.' The genitive is used by poetic license, perbaps, as analogous to the genitive with amantissimus, or studiosissimus.

664. deserto: remote from the actual scene of the conflict. Cf. 1. 614. 667. Uno, etc. : cf. X, 871 sqq.

672, 673. flammis vertex, etc. : 'the whirling column (vertex) of eddying Aame (flammis volutus), between the platfo:ms (of the tower), was streaming toward the sky. Flammis is an ablative of manner with volutus. The cuwer in question was one which Turnus himself bad caused to be constructed

on wheels within the walls, ready to be stationed at any point where it might be needed for defense.

679. Morte: = per mortem. I am resolved to suffer in death whatever bitterness there is in death.'

680. furere furorem: 'to give vent to fury,' ante: 'first'; i.e. before death, or before I die.

681. arvis: dative for in arva. 686. aut: for seu. sublapsa vetustas: 'the imperceptible lapse of time.'

687. mons: 'a vast rock,' montis pars. improbus : vehementissime conci. tatus.

694. verius (est): 'it is more just.'

710-790. The heroes hurl their spears, and then attack with the sword. Turnus, in his haste, having armed bimself with the sword of his charioteer instead of his own, is now deceived by the treacherous weapon, which breaks at the first blow. He is pursued by Aeneas round and round, though the latter is retarded by his wound. While Aeneas in vain struggles to release his spear from the root of a tree into which it had struck, Juturna, in the guise of Metiscus, brings to Turnus his own sword. Then Venus, indignant at the interference of the nymph, loosens the spear of Aeneas from the root, and the battle is renewed.

727. Quem, etc.: '(to ascertain) whom the struggle (labor) condemns to death, and which weight (whether that which represents Aeneas or that which represents Turnus) is carried down to death'; lit. with which weight death sinks down,' The latter clause more fully expressed : cui pondus vergens letum destinet. Pondere is the ablative of cause.

728. impune: sc. se facturum.
729. in ensem : cf. IX, 749; XI, 284.

733. Ni subeat: the apodosis is implied in the foregoing deserit: leaving him to perish, unless,' etc.

762. See note on 655. 769. Laurenti divo: Faunus was the tutelar god of Laurentum. See VII, 47.

779. fecere profanos: ‘have profaned.' Cf. defensum dabit for defendei, 1. 437. The Trojans have profaned the honors of Faunus by cutting away the tree, and removing the tokens sacred to him.

785. dea Daunia : Juturna.

791-886. Jupiter forbids Juno to exercise any further influence in the contest, but consents, in answer to her prayer, that the Trojans shall lose their name, and that the Latins shall give theirs to the united people. One of the furies is sent in the form of a bird of ill omen to terrify Turnus; and Juturna, giving up all hope, plunges into the Tiber.

794. Indigetem: Aeneas was destined to be borne to heaven as a deus, indiges, or deified hero, and this Juno well knew,

801. et: continues the negation; translate 'nor.'

805. Deformare domum: 'to clothe the house in squalid mourning. The house of Latinus has been sorrow-stricken most of all by the suicide of Amata.

811. Digna indigna: for digna atque indigna; i.e. all things, whether seemly or disgraceful; all fortunes.

817. superstitio: 'fear-inspiring oath.'

835, 836. commixti - Subsident: ‘mingled in population only (corpore antum, 'in the body of people, not in name), they, as Trojans (i.e. in respect to their national name of Trojans), shall disappear.

845. geminae Dirae: Alecto and Tisiphone. These two are supposed here to await at the gate of Olympus the commands of Jove, while Megaera remains in Hades.

854. in omen: 'as an omen.'

877. fallunt: escape (me) '; the will of Jupiter under this omen is clear to me.

880. Possem: 'I should have been able'; i.e. had I not been rendered immortal.

887-952. The heroes taunt each other, and Turnus lifts a huge stone and hurls it at Aeneas, but comes short of his mark. Turnus is wounded by the spear of Aencas, and sinks to the ground. The Rutulians

groan,

and Turnus submits himself to the will of the victor, who is about to spare him, when he observes on his shoulder the belt of the slain Pallas, and, maddened at the sight, drives his sword to the heart of the slayer.

896. circumspicit: ‘he looks round and sees.'
898. arvis: dative.
901. torquebat: 'tried to hurl.' The imperfect has a conative force.

903. neque se cognoscit : ‘nor does he know his old self'; he is conscious of not possessing his wonted strength and agility. currentem: when running to seize the stone. euntem: when advancing with the stone against Aeneas.

921, 922. Murali Tormento: "by the mural engine'; by the ballista, with which walls are shattered.

942. bullis: 'with the (golden) studs.'

944. inimicum insigne: “the ornament of his adversary'; an ornament which had been worn by his enemy.

From other accounts of the traditional history of early Rome, we learn that Aeneas, immediately after this victory, received Lavinia in marriage, united bis Trojans in one nation with the subjects of Latinus, under the common

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