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courtship; whether the tables were turned afterwards, and the dog was enlisted in her service, we know not. Both breeds are good water dogs and bear immersion for a long time, but the large variety having a more woolly coat is superior in endurance of wet and cold. Hundreds of anecdotes are told of extraordinary escapes from drowning by means of these dogs, their tendency to fetch and carry being doubly useful here. Children and light small women may be intrusted to them with safety in the water, if they are not bewildered with fear, when they will sometimes cling round the dog's neck, and frustrate all his efforts to restore them to the land by swimming; generally, however, in cases of recovery, the person has fainted, and being then powerless is towed ashore readily enough. The speed with which the Newfoundland swims is very great, his large legs and feet enabling him to paddle himself with great force. From their great size and strength they are able to beat off most dogs when they are attacked, and their thick coats prevent the teeth of their assailants from doing much damage; but in offensive measures they are of little use, being rather unwieldy, and soon winded in a desperate struggle. Hence they are not useful in hunting the large kinds of game, nor the bear, wolf, or tiger. The nose is delicate enough to hunt any kind of scent, but as they soon tire they are not used in this way, and it is solely as retrievers on land or water that they are useful to the sportsman, being generally crossed with the setter for the former, and the water spaniel for the latter element.
The characteristic points of the Large Newfoundland are, great size, often being from 25 to 30 inches high; a form proportion
ally stout and strong, but loosely put together, so that there is a. general want of compactness, especially about the loins, which are long and very flexible. The head is not large in comparison to the size, but wide across the eyes; muzzle of average length and width, and without any flews, as in the hounds and pointers; eye and ear both small, the latter falling, and without much hair on it; neck short and clothed with a ruff of hair; tail long, curled on itself slightly, and woolly ; legs very strong, but not feathered ; feet large and rather flat, bearing the road badly; coat on the body long, hairy, shaggy, and shining, without any admixture of wool; the colour should be black, but it is sometimes black and white, or white with little black, or liver colour, or a reddish dun, or sometimes, but rarely, a dark brindle not very well marked.
The Large Labrador is a more loosely-framed animal, and is never entirely black, being more or less mixed with white. The coat also is longer, more woolly, and curly.
The St. John's, or Smaller Labrador, or Newfoundland, the three names being used indiscriminately, is seldom more than 25 inches high, and often much less. The head is larger in proportion to his size, and the ear also slightly fuller; neck longer; body far more compact, and clothed with shorter hair, shining, and without any woolly texture ; tail similar in shape, but the hair less woolly; legs and feet also better adapted for work; colour almost always a jet black, rarely liver-coloured. This dog is now generally more or less crossed with the setter. The specimen which is here engraved is not particularly well marked, but I have been unable to obtain a better, and therefore give it as the nearest approach
to the true breed, which is now very scarce. The dog was bred by the celebrated “Bill George,” of Kensall New-town, who considers him to be a pure Small Labrador; but according to my own opinion his coat is too curly for perfect purity of blood, and he
is probably crossed with the setter, or perhaps with the spaniel. I have lately been shown several of these dogs which were said to have been recently imported, but all were evidently crossed with other breeds, and were therefore rejected.
This dog is the only beast of burden in the northern parts of the continent of America and adjacent islands ; being sometimes employed to carry materials for hunting, or the produce of the chase, on his back; and at others he is harnessed to sledges in teams varying from 7 to 11, each being capable of drawing a hundredweight for his share. They are harnessed to a single yoke-line by a breast-strap, and, being without any guide-reins, they are
entirely at liberty to do what they like, being only restrained by the voice of their master, and urged forward by his whip. A single dog of tried intelligence and fidelity is placed as leader, and upon him the driver depends for his orders being obeyed. In the summer they are most of them turned off to get their own subsistence by hunting, some few being retained to carry weights on their backs; sledges are then rendered useless by the absence of snow; and, as there is a good subsistence for them from the offal of the seal and the walrus which are taken by the men, the dogs become fat at this season of the year. The Siberian and Greenland dogs are nearly similar to those of Kamtschatka, but somewhat larger, and also more manageable, all being used in the same way. The Esquimaux dog is about 22 or 23 inches high, with a pointed fox-like muzzle, wide head, pricked ears, and wolflike aspect; the body is low and strong, and clothed with long hair, having an undercoat of thick wool; tail long, gently curved, and hairy ; feet and legs strong and well formed; the colour is almost always a dark dun with slight disposition to brindle, and black muzzle.
ICELAND AND LAPLAND DOGS.
These are nearly similar to the Esquimaux, but rather larger, more wolf-like, and far less manageable.