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need not be attached to them. The only evil of such books is that they find their way into the hands of inexperienced persons, who are easily imposed on by bold assertion. Surely no animal has suffered more at the hands of his would-be historians than the dog, the books on him being composed, one half of improbable stories of his exploits, and the other of silly conclusions from them. Most writers, whether political or otherwise, are fond of dilating on the “ Bulldog courage” of Englishmen, yet, in the same breath, they vilely asperse the noble animal from whom they draw their simile. The bulldog has been described as stupidly ferocious, and showing little preference for his master over strangers; but this is untrue, he being an excellent watch, and as a guard unequalled, except perhaps by the bull-mastiff, a direct cross from him. Indeed, he is far from being quarrelsome by nature, though the bull-terrier in many cases undoubtedly is so, and I fancy that some writers have taken their description from this dog rather than from the pure bulldog, which has been at all times rather a scarce animal. If
breed is allowed to drop, the best means of infusing fresh courage into degenerate breeds will be finally lost, except with the addition of extraneous blood which may not suit them; for I believe that every kind of dog possessed of very high courage owes it to a cross with the bulldog; and thus the most plucky greyhounds, foxhounds, mastiffs, pointers, &c., may all be traced to this source. Though bull and badger baiting may not be capable of extenuation, to them we owe the keeping up of this breed in all its purity; and though we may agree to discontinue
these old-fashioned sports, yet, I am sure, my brother-sportsmen will see the bad taste of running down a dog who, with all his faults, is not only the most courageous dog, but the most courageous animal in the world.
The points of a well-bred bulldog are as follows. The head should be round, the skull high, the eye of moderate size, and the forehead well sunk between the eyes, the ears semi-erect and small, well placed on the top of the head, rather close together than otherwise, the muzzle short, truncate, and well furnished with chop; his back should be short, well arched towards the stern, which should be fine and of moderate length; many bulldogs have what is called a crooked stern, as though the vertebræ of the tail were dislocated or broken. I am disposed to attribute this to in-breeding. The coat should be fine, though many superior strains are very woolly-coated; the chest should be deep and broad, the legs strong and muscular, and the foot narrow and well split up like a hare's.
There is every reason to suppose that this is an indigenous breed, like the bulldog, for though the Cuban mastiff closely resembles it, yet the latter is to all appearance crossed with the bloodhound (see cut).
The English mastiff is a fine noble-looking animal, and in temper is the most to be depended on of all the large and power
ful dogs, being extremely docile and companionable, though possessed of the highest courage. When crossed with the New
foundland or bloodhound they answer well as yard-dogs, but the produce is generally of a savage nature, while the pure breed is of so noble and mild a nature that they will not on any provocation hurt a child or even a small dog, one of their most remarkable attributes being their fondness for affording protection. Mr. Lukey of Morden, Surrey, has a very fine breed of the pure mastiff, an engraving of one of which accompanies this article, together with his account of the mode in which he obtained the blood.*
The English mastiff is a most useful watch dog, and is so capable of attachment to the person of his master, and so completely under control, that he makes a most excellent nightguard to the game-keeper, for which purpose he is much used in this country, especially crossed with the bulldog, to give extra courage. This cross is, however, not to any great extent, and many true mastiffs are used for the purpose. The well-known
*“In 1835 I bought of the late Geo. White, of Knightsbridge, a brindled mastiff bitch, at a high price (402.), from the Duke of Devonshire's stud. I bred from her with a fawn black-muzzled dog, "Turk,' the property of the late Lord Waldegrave, a splendid high-couraged dog. I kept two brindled bitch pups; and with great interest and considerable cost I obtained the use of • Pluto,' the Marquis of Hertford's well-known mastiff dog, considered by judges the finest and best-bred dog of his day, and valued immensely by the Marquis. I have not had any other cross but the Turk' and 'Pluto' breed, having kept bitches from the one and dogs from the other. • Wallace, the grandsire of the dog engraved, was an immense animal, standing 33 inches at the shoulder, 50 inches round the body, and weighed 172 lbs. The Nepaulese Princes bought his brother and sister at eight months old, and gave
1051. for them. The late Pasha of Egypt for five successive yeårs had two pair of whelps (brindled) sent spring and autumn from Southampton.-T. L.”