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sonous when taken into the stomach. To the wash some aloes is added, with the view of preventing this by the bitter taste of the drug, but though it has this good effect partially, there is nothing like a wire or leathern muzzle kept constantly on, except when feeding, at which time of course the tongue is otherwise engaged. All applications must be rubbed well into the roots of the hair.
Ointment (or dressing) for virulent mange :
skin, every other day, for a week; then wait a week, and dress again. Take care to leave no superfluous ointment.
Red mange is quite of a different nature to either of the above forms, being evidently a disease of the bulb which produces the hair, inasmuch as the colouring matter of the hair itself is altered and, if white, the hair looks of a pale brickdust colour, almost as if the dog had been sprinkled over with this material. It first shows itself almost invariably at the elbows and inside the arms, then on the front and inside of the thighs, next on the buttocks, and finally on the back, which is only attacked when the disease has existed for some weeks or months. The health does not seem to suffer, and the skin is not at all scabbed, except from the effects
of the scratching, which is very frequent, but not so severe as in the virulent or foul mange. It appears most probable that red mange is contagious, but it is by no means a settled question, as it will often be seen in single dogs which are in the same kennel with others free from it entirely. Of its exact nature I know nothing, beyond the theoretical belief, founded upon analogy, that the disease is in the blood, and is not caused by any parasite. Dogs which are highly fed, and which are allowed to lie before the fire, are the most subject to it, while the poor half-starved cur becomes affected with the foul or virulent forms. The treatment consists in lowering the diet, giving aperients (12) or (13) ; following these up with the addition of green vegetables to the food, and at the same time using one or other of the following applications every other day. In obstinate cases arsenic may be given internally (see page 418).
Dressing for red mange :
Green iodide of mercury, lj drachm.
Lard, l} ounce.
Carbolic acid, 1 part.
Use as a wash.
Canker of the ear has been alluded to under the disease of that organ at page 396.
Irritative inflammation of the skin is produced by fleas, lice, and ticks, which are readily discovered by examining the roots of the hair. Dog-fleas resemble in appearance those of the human subject. The lice infesting him are, however, much larger, but otherwise similar in appearance. Dog-ticks may easily be recognised by their spider-like form, and bloated bodies, the claws adhering firmly to the skin, so that they are with some difficulty removed from it. These last are of all sizes, from that of an average pin’s head to the dimensions of a ladybird, beyond which they seldom grow in the dog. They suck a great quantity of blood when they are numerous, and impoverish the animal to a terrible extent, partly by the drain on the system, and partly by the constant irritation which they produce. The remedies are as follows:
To remove fleas and lice :
Mix soft soap with as much carbonate of soda as will make it into a thick paste, then rub this well into the roots of the hair all over the dog's body, adding a little hot water so as to enable the operator to completely saturate the skin with it. Let it remain on for half an hour, then put the dog into a warm bath for ten minutes, letting him quietly soak, and now and then ducking his head under. Lastly wash the soap completely out, and dry before the fire, or at exercise, if the weather is not too cold. This, after two or three repetitions, will completely cleanse the foulest skin.
Dry remedies for lice and ticks :Break up the lumps of some white precipitate, then with a hard brush rub it well into the roots of the hair over the whole body. Get rid of the superfluous powder from the external surface of the coat by means of light brushing or rubbing with a cloth. Put a niuzzle on, and leave the dog with the powder in the coat for five or six hours. Then brush all well out, reversing the hair for this
purpose, and the ticks and lice will all be found dead. A repetition at the expiration of a week will be necessary, or even perhaps a third time.
Or, use the Persian Insect-destroying powder, sold by Keating, of St. Paul's Churchyard, and other druggists, which seems to answer well.
Or, the following wash may be tried :
Acetic acid (Pharm. Lond.), 31 ounces.
Distilled water, 4 ounces.
DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY WANT OF POWER.
Chorea.—Shaking Palsy.-Fits.-Worms.- General Dropsy or Anasarca.
As inflammation is attended by increased action of the heart and arteries, so this class of diseases is, on the contrary, accompanied by a want of tone (atony) in these organs, as well as by an irritability of the nervous system, which arises from the same cause. None of them require lowering measures, but, on the contrary, tonics and generous living will almost always be demanded. I have included worms among them, because these parasites produce a lowering effect, and seldom infest to any extent a strong healthy subject, preferring the delicate and half-starved puppy, to the full-grown and hardy dog.
Chorea, or St Vitus's dance, may be known by the spasinodic twitches which accompany it, and by their ceasing during sleep.