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MODERN ARMS AND ARMIES.

In modern times the maturity of the Frenchmen at bay, because they were art military has been productive of better armed, better mounted and better singular effects in the concentration of exercised; but a hundred Frenchmen great power in a small body of men. were a match for a like number of A handful of troops, drilled, disciplined Mamelukes, and 1000 French could and armed according to scientific rules, easily beat 1500 Mamelukes. The and guided by experienced and skilful cavalry generals, Murat, Leclerc, and officers, may be productive of the most Lasalle, formed in three lines ; when important results, and even change the the Mamelukes attacked the first line, destiny of nations. A marked example the second came to its assistance on the of this has been exhibited during the right and left. The Mamelukes wheellast few years in the case of China. ed to turn the flanks of the new line; That nation, some two centuries since, at that moment the third charged them, was overrun by the warlike Tartars of and they were always broken. Such the north, and the Manchow dynasty is the effect of tactics and evolutions. established. Under the policy adopted The difference between tactics and by that government, she remained se- strategics was but indifferently well cluded from the rest of the world down understood until fully developed by to 1843, and the population had reach- Napoleon. The difference between ed 300 million souls ; at that time the them may be stated in saying that the British government having difficulties mixing of colors, preparing canvass and with China, sent 4000 soldiers under choosing brushes, are the tactics of a Sir Gordon Bremer to blockade Canton. painter. Strategics are how to paint. A nation occupying the islands of the The former received great improveNorth Sea, and numbering some 26 ment as connected with modern million of inhabitants, attacked the weapons, from the king of Prussia. ancient nation of China, outnumbering The true principle of the latter was the them 13 times, with a force of a few discovery which Napoleon was born to thousand men, and that little army was make, and he conquered the European sufficient to enable its leaders to dictate continent in developing it. It had terms to so mighty a nation. A small always been assumed that what was polished axe in the hands of a skilful true of the relative position of troops in woodman, will at a few well applied actual combat, was also true of armies strokes bring down the sturdiest oaks. at a great distance from each other. In a similar manner, that small bighly That is to say, since the invention of disciplined band of Englishmen, in a few fire-arms forces have necessarily been weeks shook a power that had been drawn up in long thin lines; therefore, if undisturbed for ages, and by bringing it an army was attacked upon one or both within the intercourse of nations, laid of its fanks it was almost sure to be the foundation of a mighty revolution. defeated. The reason was, that in So great are the results flowing from such a position no effectual resistance the application of science to the direc- could be offered until a change in front tion of force. Nor are all armies alike. was made to correspond with that of We have recently seen an army com- the enemy, and making this change posed of 2000 Americans, utterly de- under the pressure of his attack was feat, in two successive engagements, impossible without disorder. It was three times their number of Mexicans, always assumed, therefore, that an army under skilful leaders. These great between two others, no matter how disresults flow from the superiority of skill tant, was also in a dangerous position. and intellect in the direction of masses. Napoleon saw at once that if the armies Napoleon, in his memoirs, informs us were distant from each other, this centhat two Mamelukes kept three tral position was the strong and not the

weak point. As long as the central victory." The great war minister had army had time to concentrate upon one so arranged the campaigns that the enemy before the other arrived, the armies were of necessity victorious. chances were all in favor of the central The new principles of war illustrated position. This general principle, com- by the French arms, and the terrible bined with other causes, was the source vehemence with which they were exof his success, and he was in the latter ecuted, occasioned many changes in years combatted by the allies in the old notions ; among others, the truth only manner that he could be resisted became apparent that fortified places successfully, which was by systemat- had lost very considerably of the value ically retiring when he advanced upon they formerly held either in the imagiany one force. It was the application nation of mankind or in reality. In of the highest order of intellect to mil- modern war the use of fortresses is itary affairs, at a time when the com- reduced nearly to their simple effects binations of Europe against republican upon communications. A fortress which France offered the broadest field for secures exclusively to the possessor a the developement of genius. The pro- certain passage of a river or a mountain gress of the art of war was illustrated pass, is valuable, as a gate is valuable by the conquest of Europe. It was the which keeps one man out and lets exclamation of Wellington, on hearing another in. In this sense a fort is called of the masterly operations of Napoleon a “key," and like a key is of imporaround Ratisbon, in 1809, that " the art tance only when it is the key to someof war never was perfected until then." thing. The idea that fortresses in an Subordinate to the vast field of strate- open country will check an invading gics are the tactics of armies, or the army for fear of the operations of the organization and preparation of those garrison on its rear, is obsolete. If a different arms which, in a master hand, force retires before a larger one, it will, are the instruments of great results. by throwing garrisons into forts, weaken There are many able tacticians, who itself still further. The effect of forthave but little notion of strategy. resses, in the present state of affairs, is Thus Napoleon remarked of the heroic reduced to the degree in which they Lannes, that “no officer could so may promote operations against men, skilfully handle 20,000 men in the and therefore the importance of them field;" but at the time of his death at has become secondary to the organizaEssling, he was just beginning to have tion of the army. a notion of strategics. Again, the great The countries of Europe have all genius of the French emperor was dis- large standing armies kept up in time played as much in following up a of peace, from the supposed necessity victory as in gaining it. To this end of being always prepared for war, in he extended those branches of military order to avert attack. Whenever diforce that are most efficient in improv- plomacy takes an angry turn, a great ing victory. At one time the French expenditure is usually incurred in cavalry numbered 90,000 men; of arraying and raising men, building ships, these in one instance 30,000 men, after &c. To assist diplomatic bargains, helping to defeat the enemy as infantry, movements of troops and a great clatter were mounted on horses taken from in the arsenals is thought necessary. him, to complete his defeat. This sub- It would appear that a nation is not sequently caused a controversy to spring thought strong unless her people are up among the martinets, tacticians and hept always with arms in their hands, adjutants, as to whether a cavalry re as if those men would be incapable of cruit was better or not for having learned becoming soldiers when occasion calls to act on foot. The great principle by for their services. Thus the United which the best application of force to States have been speered at because suit the occasion was made never occur- their army is small and their governred to them. The success which the ment economical. The leading journals undisciplined armies of revolutionary of Europe scarcely regard us as France obtained over neighboring states power, because there are but 8000 men was not because of the excellence of in the army. Yet recent events have their materials, but because, as Napoleon shown that one-fourth of that army expressed it, “ Carnot had organized was sufficient to protect our southern

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frontier against four times the force, of the United States. It is true that by and to invade the enemy's territory; the use of this force England has acquirthat armies larger than any England ed territory of great value, but scarcely ever had on foot can in a few weeks be sufficient to cover the outlay of the placed at a threatened point; that $1,000,000,000 that her people have economy of money in time of peace paid for it since the peace of Paris. It makes expenditure in time of war was not the military strength that more easily borne ; that the country is France possessed at the outbreak of the full of skilful and well educated military revolution that enabled her to go on and men, sufficient to officer an army of conquer Europe ; it was the concen, 200,000, and the aptitude of the people tration of strength and the development for military exercises will not, we of genius, as she progressed, which enthink, be questioned. In respect to abled her to do it. Nor did her greatmateriel, the resources of this coun est generals improve by experience. try are exhaustless.

With all these Even in the case of Napoleon himself, elements of creating the instrument, he acknowledged that his chef d'auvre and the acknowledged ability of our in. war was his first campaign in Italy. tacticians, we will not doubt that strate. He further remarked that Turenne gical genius will be found when requir. alone appeared to have gained by expeed. In fact, from the progress of the rience, and his talents were the result science of war, it must result that the of study. In this view, the military majntenance of armies will become un- strength of the United States is as necessary ; that the preservation of great as that of England. As to acthe science in its vigor will always tual service, the English troops dursuffice for a nation's wants.

ing the last thirty years have had no The regular army of the United more experience than the United States is now organized as indeed are States militia. The army of England most modern armies, into staff and can have but little advantage, and that administrative departments, and four of a very temporary nature, over that arms of service, viz, infantry, cavalry, of the United States. It is originated artillery and engineers. The numbers and organized in the same manner; as of these are 558, officers and general an instance we may look at the royal staff, two dragoon regiments, 1,205, artillery, of which the royal regiment four artillery regiments, 2,303, eight in- of horse artillery is a corps of preference, fantry regiments, 3,371, and 427 a "crack regiment," in which the unattached, being at West Point and offices are the reward of great merit in elsewhere, making a total of 14 regi- the remainder of the arm. The artillery ments and 8,349 men. The men of arm is nominally divided into regiments. the army are enlisted for three years, Artillery acts by batteries and not by and are mostly foreigners, German and regiments. * The term battery when Irish. The English army has a similar applied to artillery means a certain organization, and is composed of 1,703 number of cannon, with the men, &c. general officers, 22 regiments of cavalry, required to serve them. A battery is 8,303 men ; 91 regiments of infantry, usually six pieces, four of them 6 lb. 85,797 ; 8 regiments of artillery, 7,732, guns, and two 12 lb. howitzers. The and 1200 engineers, sappers and min- royal artillery is composed of 72 com

This large force is composed of panies of 80 men each, one-half of them 51,474 English, 41,218 Irish, 15,239 are in the colonies, from Canada to Scotch. There is a great disproportion New Zealand.

To each company between the number of men actually there are two captains, two 1st lieuts. serving as soldiers under the British and one 2d lieut. The pay is, lieut. government and under that of the colonel £320, captain £220, lieut.£120, United States. But it does not follow, 2d lieut. £100. The men must be 5 feet because England has kept up so large 8} inches in height, of large frame and a force since 1815, at an annual considerable bodily strength, and their expense of $25,000,000, that therefore pay is 1s. 4d. per day. There is no her military strength is greater than that promotion from the ranks except to

* Elements of Military Art and Science ; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactics of Battles, &c. &c.; adapted to the use of Volunteers and Militia. By H. Wager Hallock, A. M., Licut, of Engineers, U. 8. Army. D. Appleton & Co., 200 Broadway.

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quarter-masters and adjutants of invalid ficiency in study, and in an average of battalions, and occasionally commis. 20 years 3 out of 5 obtain commissions. sions in the line regiments are pro- This corresponds very nearly with our moted to the royal artillery. The West-Point system, except that the aproyal regiment of horse artillery, pointments are not confined to nobility, which is the head of the arm, is com and the cadets are paid by government. posed of seven troops of horse of 80 A greater number graduate annually at men each, of which one troop is called the West-Point than at Woolwich. The rocket troop, from being usually prac- West-Point cadets the most ticed with that weapon. These troops thorough, because they have all to live never leave England, except in time of by it as a profession. The Woolwich

Five are usually located in En- cadets being all nobles, and most of gland, with two guns to each troop, them wealthy, and to hold the office and two troops in Ireland, with four when won requiring an annual expense guns each. The war complement is from private means, the chances are, four 6 pounders and two 12 pound that more science is acquired at Westhowitzers. The men for this corps are Point than at Woolwich. The degree selected from the whole arm, and of military knowledge diffused through receive 1s. 6d. per day. They are in- the people of the United States is therestructed in the care of horses and in fore as great as in England. If they field movements. Each troop has two do not incur as great an expense in time captains, three 1st lieuts., two sergeant of peace to keep up the drill of the men, majors, three sergeants, three corporals, they are not, therefore, the weaker. On and four bombardiers. The officers the other hand the nationalwealth, which are selected as vacancies occur, from constitutes the sinews of war, increases the body of the regiment, and always the more rapidly. The expensive orfor their merits and services. The pay of ganization of England would give her alieut. colonel is £400, or $2000, captain greatly the advantage were ihe two £320, lieut. £290. Portions of this corps nations to send out expeditions to any were in every action of the Peninsular given point; as for instance in the case war, and five captains were knighted for of the African coast. Under the Ashtheir services. Napier tells us that one burton treaty the United States underof the most brilliant achievements of the took to keep a certain number of guns war, was by a troop at Fuentes d'Onor. there to attempt to suppress the slave The regiments of the line bave the trade—a useless and most onerous enname of some battle where they most gagement; so much so, that already the distinguished themselves, on the colors; English minister has complained that but the royal artillery having been the required number were not present. always present, they bear the word To send troops to England or off this "Ubique," and the words “Waterloo" continent will probably never be underand China" are now added. taken; and in the present prospect of

All the officers of the Royal Artillery affairs no European power or powers and Royal Engineers pass through the will ever be able to send a sufficient Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. force to this continent with the object They are required to pass a rigid exa- of attacking the United States. The mination in mathematics, fortification, art of war, as matured under the sysdrawing, history, geography, natural tem of Napoleon, can, therefore, have philosophy, French,' and grammar. but little practical application to the They enter between 15 and 17 years United States. The scientific knowof age, and remain 35 years. The Ar- ledge and the understanding of the tillery rank before the Engineers, but higher principles of the art, are all that the latter get the most pay. The ap- it is required of our people; and with pointments to the academy are in the that knowledge they are stronger withhands of the Master-General of Ord- out a standing army than the most nance, Sir George Murray, and are powerful European government resting always given to sons of the nobility, on its military force. It is coming to gentry, or naval or military officers.- be understood that the number of guns Each cadet pays £120 per annum, and owned by a government, or the number the whole expense which each incurs of men it drills daily, do not constitute is about £1200 per annum. All pro- its strength, nor are they a guaranty motion from the academy is by pro- of the national prosperity.

HOWARD'S SPECIAL TERM REPORTS.

* Motion in arrest of judgment that the pyed horses were mares; and thereupon an inspection was prayed-et sur ces le court advisare vulp."- Scriblerus Reports.

There were theological persons in of jurisprudence in many respects unAncient Egypt, good judges probably of fitted to our peculiar institutions ; but their business, who walked in solemn we live on and suffer on under this procession to water dead sticks planted “red-haired” dispensation. If we dare in the sand; thus illustrating the vanity grumble at the palpable inconsistencies of earthly endeavors. We in modern of the Law of Evidence, at the unfair New-York have legal individuals, good and unrepublican system of Bail, at the judges also, no doubt, who eight times folly of maintaining in this country the in each year, in February, March, vestiges of the feudal law of real propApril, June, August, September, Oc- erty, and hint at the expediency of a tober and December, water with their code, the bar, one and all, gray-haired wisdom, and cherish with their pro- counsellor to the scarce fledged attorney, tection, the arid points of practice of the are down upon us with Ignorance ! courts; fully impressing upon suitors Innovation ! Uncertainty ! à System the folly of those who suppose that hallowed by ages !"- Hallowed by Justice is to be obtained from Law. In ages ? The old woman's reason for the second century, in the land of dark- eating peas with a knife—she always ness, and in religious observances, we had done so. If the system needs might look with indulgence upon a quiet amendment, let us at least attempt it. absurdity which merely made the per- What can be more essential to the pretrators ridiculous, and no one un- welfare of a wise people, than the happy, but that in the nineteenth proper adaptation of the rules by which century, a people, who pride themselves all the concerns of life are carried on, upon their utilitarian common sense, to their habits, characters and occupashould permit their judicial officers, in tions ? the business concerns of every day life, We have no idea, however, of strikto listen to arguments, and to make ing at the Common Law as a system. decisions upon points as quibbling and Neminem oportet esse legibus sapientioas empty as the quiddities and eutities rem. Let us return, then, to the pubof our mediæval progenitors, would be lication before us. scarcely conceivable to a stranger who The ordinary points of law arising in was not aware of the centuries it suits, are tried at four general terms in requires to eradicate popular custom or the year by the three judges in bench, opinion, however absurd. “I have as is very well known by our Newoften thought, if the wisdom of our an York readers.

But other questions cestors had excluded all persons with arise in “ Practice," which is a kind of red hair from the House of Commons, law-judge-made. Suitors are stopped of the thousand convulsions it would in limine. There is a word or two occasion to restore them to their patural misplaced in the papers ; the court rights! What mobs and riots would it cannot be trifled with. In the vestibule produce ? To what infinite abuse and of the temple of justice sits a man who obloquy would the capillary patriot examines whether the pilgrim has combe exposed ?"+ The blind devotion of plied with all the ceremonies requisite the English for every thing they to gain his admittance to the shrine. peculiarly possess, has descended upon Wo be to him if he has omitted a genuthe children of their colonists in the flexion or a prayer!

This man is matter of the Common Law-a system holding a Special Term; he does it

New-York Supreme Court Special Term Reports. By Nathan Howard, Jr., Counsellor at Law, and Deputy Clerk of the Supreme Court.

Peter Plymley.

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