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the first two are colorless, the peroxide of Having stated these general facts, the latter is a light brown, and imparts to the work proceeds with an historical white goods a buttor nankeen color, which and minute detail of the different morin many cases affects, to a considerable ex- dants and their effects as discovered tent, the color of the cloth, a circumstance which must also be attended to by the dy down to the present time, and proceeds er. Indeed, the principal partof all dyeing with the most approved method of dyeoperations is the proper choice and appli- ing each color. In relation to Turkeycation of mordants, there being a chemical red, we have the following :union between them and the coloring matter; a new substance is formed, not only
“In 1808, Reber, at Mariakirch, furnishdiffering in properties but differing in co- ed the finest yarns of this dye, and M. lor from any of the originals; consequent- Kæchlin became celebrated for his Tarkly, a very little alteration in the strengthey-red cloth. This gentleman has immoror quality of a mordant gives a decided al- talised his name in the annals of calico teration in the shade of color, However, printing, by the discovery which he made it gives the dyer a much wider field for in 1811. It consists in printing upon variety of shades ; at the same time a less Turkey-red, or any dyed color, some pownumber of coloring substances is required; erful acid, and then immersing the cloth in as, for example, logwood alone gives no a solution of chloride of lime. Neither of color to cotton worthy the name of a dye; these agents singly affects the color, but yet by the judicious application of a few those parts which have received the acid, different kinds of mordants, all ihe shades
on being plunged in chloride of lime, are from a French wbite to a violet-from a speedily deprived of their dye, and made lavender to a purplefrom a blue to a white by the acid of the liberated chlorine. lilac-and from a slate to a black, are ob. This is one of the beautiful facts in the tained from this substance."
chemistry of calico printing, * If a white piece of cotton be put " For this process a patent was obtained through a dilute solution of chloride of tin in England, by Mr. James Thomson, of (red spirits,) and from this put through a Primrose, near Clitheroe, in the year 1813 ; weak decoction of logwood, the coloring and the same gentleman, in 1816, took out matter of the wood will be immediately a second patent for a very useful and happrecipitated, changing its hue to a violet py modification of the principle of the forcolor, very little of it combining with the
mer one, namely, for combining with the cloth, and probably very unequally; but acid some mordant, or metallic oxide, capaif the piece be thoroughly washed from ble, after the colors were removed, of havthe chloride of tin previous to putting into ing imparted to it some other color. This the logwood, the coloring matter of the laid the foundation of that series of prowood will combine with the cloth, or cesses, in which the chromic acid and its rather the metallic base which is on the combination have since been employed cloth; and provided the logwood solution with such great success.' corresponds with the strength of the mordant, the liquor will be left colorless; but the piece will be a light brownish shade.
We are necessarily confined to short If a little of the chloride of tin be now
extracts on the different branches; but added to the liquor, its effects upon the
we extract the following interesting logwood will be the same as if the piece sketches of the origin of some dyes; first, nad been put into it without being wash- in relation to Lac-dye. ed, but with this difference, that the coloring matter is in combination with the “Stick-lac is produced by the puncture of clo h, upon which it is not only changed a peculiar female insect, called coccus-lacto a violet color, but is rendered insoluble ca or ficus, upon the branches of several in water, and sufficiently permanent to plauts, which grow in Siam, Assam. Pegu. constitute a dye.. The substances thus ad- Bengal and Malabar. The twin becomes ded to the colored liquor to change and thereby incrusted with a reddish mamfix the colors are termed alterants, in the melated resin, having a crystalline-looking technical language of the dye-house rais- fracture. The female lac insect is of the ing : because it brightens ihe col r. Al size of a lonse; red, round, flat, with 12 terants and mordants are often spoken of abdominal circles, a bifurcated tail, anten. as two distinct substances; but the only næ, and six claws, half the length of the distinction is the mode of applying them. body. The male is twice the above size, lo some instances distinct substances are and has tour wings; there is one of them used. In the process detailed above, a lit- to 5000 females. "In November or Decemtle alum would do as well as the tin ; or ber the young brood makes its escape from if a particular bluish shade were wanted, the eggs, lyiug beneath the dead body of a little pyrolignite of alumina; but in al. the mother; they crawl about a little way, most all cases the mordant may also be and fasten themselves to the bark of the used as the alterant."
shrubs. About this period the branches
often swarm to such a degree with this Romans used it as a paint, under the name vermin, that they seem covered with a red of Indicum. Its value, as a dye-stuff, was dust; in this case, they are apt to dry up, not known in Europe till nearly the close by being exhausted of their juices. Ma- of the sixteenth century, when it was imny of these insects, however, become the ported from India by the Dutch; but English prey of others, or are carried of by the legislators, for a long time, prohibited its feet of birds, to which they attach ihem use in Great Britain under severe penalselves, and are transplanted to other trees. ties. These prohibitions continued in They soon produce smail nipple-like in- force till the reign of Charles II., and the crustations upon the twigs, their bodies be- reason consisted in its being considered a ing apparently glued, by means of a trans- corrosive substance, and capable of des. parent liqnor, which goes on increasing to troying the fibres of cloth. and therefore ihe end of March, so as to form a cellular calculated to injure the character of the texture. At this time, the animal resem- dyers. This opinion, no doubt, sprung bles a small oval bag, without life, of the from the strong and interested opposition size of cochineal. At the commencement, a given to its use by the cultivators of the beautiful red liquor only is perceived, after woad, which was then regarded as an imwards eggs make their appearance; and in portant branch of national industry.*" October or November, when the red liquor gets exhausted, 20 or 30 young ones After describing some chemical opebore a hole through the back of their mo- rations, the work proceeds :ther, and come forth. The empty cells remain upon the branches.
“Some practical dyer may indeed be composed of the milky juice of the plant, inclined to ask, what those already noticed which serves as nourishment to the insects, have to do with dyeing? We are sorry and which is afterwards transformed or ela. that with respect to some of them, we borated into the red coloring matter that cannot give any satisfactory answer to the is found mixed with the resin, but in question ; but the same question was askgreater quantity in the bodies of the in- ed, when chemists first intimated that sects, in their eggs, and still more copious- chromic acid produced yellow salts when ly in the red liquor secreted for feeding combined with lead; yet this simple hint the young. After the brood escapes, the has completely revolutionized various decell contain much less coloring matter. partments of dyeing, as we shall have ocOn this account, the branches should be casion to notice, when we come to treat of broken off before this happens, and dried the mineral coloring matters in next chapin the sun. In the East Indies this opera- ter; and the action of chromic acid upon tion is performed twice in the year; the indigo, as already observed, has been both first time in March, the second in October. a source of annoyance and advantage to The twigs incrusted with the radiated cel. the dyer. Previous to the use of alkaline lular substance constitute the stick-lac of substances with the salts of lead, dyers sel
It is a red color, more or less dom could get an evenly chrome green; the deep, nearly transparent, and hard, with chromic acid being set at liberty acted upa brilliant conchoidal fracture. The stick- on the indigo which was upon the yarn, des lac of Siam is the best."
troying in part the blue color, after which
the green was all light yellow blotches.Next in relation to indigo we have a
These annoyances are still felt where the curious historical anecdote, beautifully
new process of working the lead solution illustrative of the manner in which with an alkali is not practised. But this government protection has aided manu- has been taken advantage of by calico
same action of chromic acid upon indigo facture.
printers, when they want a white pattern
on a blue ground. The pattern is printed “Of the early history of indigo little is upon the cloth with the oxide of a metal known, neither is it known when it was which yields its oxygen easily to other first used as a dye-stuff. The Greeks and substances, such as copper and zinc; the
"“When Indigo was first introduced, only a small quantity was added to the woad, hy which the latter was much improved ; more was afterwards gradually used, and at last, the quantity became so large, that the small admixture of woad served only to revive the fermentation of the indigo, Germany thus lost a production by which farmers, merchants, carriers and oibers acquired great riches. lu consequence of the sales of woad being so much injured, a prohibition was issued against the use of indigo by Saxony, in the year 1650. In the year 1652, Duke Ernest, the Pious, caused a proposal to be made to the diet by his envoy, that indigo should be entirely banished from the empire, and that an exclusive privilege should be granted to those who dyed with woad. This was followed by an imperial prohibition of iodigo, on the 21st of Aprll, 1654, which was enforced with the greatest severity in his dominions. The rame was done in France; but in the well-known edict of 1669, in which Colberi separated the superior from the inferior dyers, it was stated that indigo should be used without woad; and in 1737, dyers were left at liberiy to use indigo alone, or to employ a mixture of indigo and woad."
goods are afterwards dyed blue by passing knowledge, while doing his best to retain them through the vat; but the parts upon them in ignorance. While such narrow which these metallic salts are priuted, re- views are prevalent we may regret, but sist the dye, by a process which will be cannot wonder, that years have been spent presently described, so that the piece, we should rather say wasted—in perwhen finished, is a blue ground with a severing and costly efforts to discover what white pattern.'
was long before well known to all who
thoroughly understood the scientific prinWe have made extracts as far as our ciples of the art. This same ignorance of limits will allow, in order to illustrate principles often renders both masters and the varied and interesting matter con
workmen the dupes of a class of impudent tained in the volume. We have, how- knaves, who hawk about valuable secrets ever, not alluded to the chapters des
at so much apiece." criptive of the late inventions in the
Nothing can be more true; and at the machinery for imparting colors to designs. We have before stated that it is him against others that do know the
same time, he asks Congress to protect only very recently that more than one
secret. color could be imparted by one opera
The day for those follies is
“ obsolete." rapidly becoming
The tion. Chapter IV. contains a descrip- time will come, when manufactures tion of a machine patented in 1843, for will be pursued for the mere sake of the printing five or more colors at once, by pursuit. as chemistry is now studied a most ingenious method. When we
philosophically. reflect upon the results of science, the
The advance of manufactures dues multitudinous elements called from all quarters of the world, and combined with large capital, that may deal out
not exist in the creating of monopolies with wonderful skill, according to the learned experience and triumphant ge- workmen, while the lucrative offices
small wages to a dependent class of nius of the citizens of all countriesthe heart sickens at the gross folly joint stock capital form the means of
created by the concentration of large what should lead legislatures to that those results are in any degree to providing for the needy relatives of in
fluential directors, at salaries which be attributed to the absurd restrictions imposed by them on trade. The true cannot be paid by a fair business. The encouragement to manufacture is the large profits necessary to the support spread of knowledge. Our author has of the expensive establishments of the well remarked in his preface as fol- chartered corporations can only be de
rived from the labor of many persons, lows:
in the same manner in which splen“Dyers
achieve the distinction of did governments are supported only by good workmen are accustomed to estimate the excessive taxation inflicted upon an their abilities by the contrast which exists unrepresented population. The quesbetween themselves and the newly initiat- tion arises, are they necessary ? and ed journeyman; they rarely or never con common sense answers, no. Dissemtemplate ihe wide field which lies unimo inate knowledge among the people, proved if not unexplored before them.— and, throwing the trade open, give the Indeed, some of them are so injudicions as industrious with small capitals a chance to boast of their capabilities, their expert equal to that of corporate monopolies. ness and their knowledge; and it is not uncommon for such to indulge in petty
The spirit of these monopolies is opjealousies, and to endeavor to conceal the posed to advance in science, because secret of their mode of producing a certain with every improvement their large in. result. Follies of this sort bave not been vestments in machinery, &c., become confined to journeymen; an employer has depreciated, and their profits endanbeen known to complain that liis' work. gered. On the other hand, where the men are inefficient, when at the same time genius and enterprise of individuals he was stealing, as it were, from one part have free scope in all the subdivisions of the dye-house to another with the very of the different branches of the busimaterials which it is their business to understand and use, in covered vessels, lest
ness, the whole improves with an acsome one should learn what is the nature celerated movement. The new invenof the process whereby be produces, tions supersede the old, and the public through their labor, a desired result. He come promptly to profit by the success thus exacts of them the advantages of of the individual.
THE BROKEN HEART.
A TALE OF HISPANIOLA.
By S. ANNA LEWIS, AUTHOR OF “RECORDS OF THE HEART."
"Ed èra 'l cielo all' armonia sì' 'ntento,
The Dying Alchymist.
A step, once in her native dells
Far lighter than the young Gazelle'sFull many a tale of wo is thine,
A smile with more than Hebe's spellBright Island of the Southern Sea,
A voice soft as the Syren's shell,
Or tones, to Hourie's harp-strings given,
To welcome warriors brave to Heaven. The pangs of sorrow's ruthless dartsThe hecatombs of trusting Hearts :
She wears the wandering Gipsy's dress, Thou hast no mighty names in song,
She sweeps the wandering Gipsy's luteNo famed recorders of thy wrong
But those who gaze on her distress
Sorrow so eloquently mute, No Tweed-no storied Helicon
Know they behold no Gipsy maid, Colossus-neither Moslem Pile,
In those habiliments arrayed. Nor gilded Temple of the Sun,
The tiny foot her garb exposes,
And crimson slipper close encloses
Her fairy hand and jewelled fingers, Nor spirit-stirring Chivalries ;
Her brow, where pensive beauty lingers
Her modest mien and movement free, But thou hast Records of Despair, And tales of deep, enduring Love,
Betray too well her high degree. As ever minstrel’s fancy wove.
Beneath :he solemn Yew all day
She pours some melancholy lay, Oh! what is there like that deep grief,
Nor raises once her peusive eye That finds, nor seeks on earth relief! To greet the lingerers passing by ;That stands from sympathy apart,
Nor heeds the needful, glittering pelf, Unto its own fond broodings wed,
That at her fairy feet they throw,Feeding npon the writbing heart,
Her thoughts seem never bent on self, As the Promethean Vulture fed !
She only thinks and sings of wo'Tis as the Aspic's poisonous stings Of sighs, and tears, and slighted trothPiercing into the heart's fine strings— [ing,
Steru Fate's irrevocable darts, [wrathThe loathsome death-worm o'er us creep. And woman's worth, and wrong, and Ere we withiu the tomb are sleeping.
Love's faithless yows and broken heartsThese best befit her mournful lute,
Which on all other themes is mute. The zephyrs sleep in Nieva's Vale
Young dark eyed maidens from the hill On wave and wold each rougher gale
Come down and sit by moonlit rillWhile every ear along the grove
Hidalgos from rich donicil Bends down to drink the notes of Love,
Linger along the balmy lea, And the low warblings of Despair,
To list her love born minstrelsy ;
And when on violet bed reposing-
Kind slumber her soft eyelids closing
They slowly, solemuly draw near, With delicately moulded form,
And pitying view the sleepless tear, As ere was wrought by Grecian Master That o'er her cheek unbidden flows Dark eyes through which the soul beams from the perennial fount of woes.
Kind-hearted damsels seek her there, A cheek of purest alabaster
And bid her to their cots repar
To flee the noontide's burning ray ; Some guess she is the Spirit pale,
Of maiden murdered in that vale,
When vesper bells are tolling loud, Or aught save guardian Nymph or Gnome; She seeks the Temple with the crowd, The Tempest even shuns her form
And strives to chant the holy creed-
But rightly never can succeed-
When to the Virgin she would pray?
The crystal tear
When he is near,
And steals adown her cheek unbid, Opine that she hath followed over As if it sought from the dark fount, The dangerous sea for some faithless lover. Where it so long had been confined, Some ween Count Gamba, to whose gate
Above the troubled brim to mount, At midnight she is seen to gu,
Some clime of sunnier light to find ? And weep, and murmur strains of wo, She's ever at Confessional, Hath some part in the maiden's fate; Yet lingers-falters in the hall, And some frown on this foul suspicion, And turns away without confessing, And prate about her low condition, As something on her soul were pressing, As lofty souls could only be
Which she would tell to Priest nor Heaven, Found clad in garbs of high degree. Tho' sure by both to be forgiven,
Oh! if there 're moments in this life
When guardian Angels hover nigh,
Fill the breast with stainless Purity-
Or by some soothing water-fall,
And blend thought, fancy, feeling-allIn the Omnipotence of Love.
'Tis eve-soft lies the Indian sky,
Not as this cold, bleak, Northern clime
E'en in its most congenial time
As Heaven had centered all its smiles
Within those soft aerial isles,
To breathe the breezy, balmy air,-
With pearly flowers,
From fragrant bowers,
And smile beneath seraphic care.
Who silently along the glades,
The footsteps of responding maids,
And wan the mournful maiden now
Across the balmy valley flies,
The hot tears trickling from her eyes-