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greater portion of the poisonous juice hand, and is immediately ready for use. is expelled, then placed over a fire or It is poured over moulds of clay, to in a heated oven, where it is stirred which a thin coating adheres, which is continually till all the poisonous moist- exposed to fumes of smoke, rendering ure is evaporated, when its appear- it harder and giving it a deeper color. ance is white and beautiful, though its . Coatings are thus added until the shoe particles are rather coarse. From the or bottle has attained the desirable fine substance deposited by the juice of thickness. The export of shoes only the mandioc is made the tapioca of amount to some three or four hundred commerce, a substance in general use thousand pairs annually. among us, and which is becoming an The mineral region lies deep in the article of considerable export from interior, being contined to the provinces Brazil.

of Matto Grosso, Goyaz and Minas The accounts with which we have Geraeg. Goyaz and Matto Grosso long been familiar, respecting the rich- abound in gold, diamonds and precious ness of the soil and the luxuriance of stones ; but their distance from the seathe vegetation, have not, according to shore, and the lack of suitable means of Mr. Kidder's observations, been exag communication, are great obstacles to gerated. On the borders of the Ama- the full development of their resources. zon the forests appear in their greatest The few inhabitants with which they strength and beauty. Some of the are peopled have been lured thither in trees are decked from top to bottom their pursuit of gain. The gold was with the most splendid flowers, and formerly procured with such great faothers are interlaced with innumerable cility, that each slave was required to parasites, or creeping vines, which return three or four ounces per day ; twist around the trunks, and climbing and so greedy were the adventurers in to their tops, drop again to the ground, their eagerness to secure the golden where they take root, spring up again, harvest, that they braved the dangers and crossing from bough to bough and of a desolating pestilence, and even from tree to tree, spread themselves, neglected the ordinary provisions of till the whole woods are hung with comfort and subsistence. They soon their garlanding. In the great pro- found, however, that food was more vince of Para, along the waters of the precious than gold, and tbat mountains Amazon, thousands, and perhaps mils of this precious metal could not purlions, of acres of the most fertile land chase exemption from disease or death. in the world lie as wild and almost as A pound of gold was often given in exuseless as the sandy deserts of Africa. change for a bushel of corn, and an

It is in this region that the caout ounce and a half was at one time the chouc, or gum-elastic, flourishes. The price for a pound of meat. The disuse of this plani was learned from the coverer of all this vast wealth fell a Omaguas, a tribe of Brazilian Indians. prey to his avarice, and with many The improvements in its manufacture others, laid his bones in the wilderness, have, however, vastly extended its use, cut off prematurely by privation and and made it essential to the health and disease. comfort of the whole enlightened world. Villa Bella, one of the principal It now enters largely into the com towns of Matto Grosso, is in a direct merce of the country.

line from the city of Para, at the mouth The tree from which this valuable of the Amazon, about one thousand gum is produced, grows to the height of miles. But so difficult is it of access, eighty or a hundred feet, being quite that not less than two thousand five straight, and without branches for half hundred miles must be traversed in that distance. Its top is spreading, making the usual passage by water.and ornamented with thick and glossy The Amazon and Madeira are navigfoliage. On the slightest incision the able in this direction for 1500 miles, to gum exudes, having at first the con- 'the Falls of St. Anthony, above which sistence and appearance of thick, yel- there is a succession of falls and rapids low cream. The trees are tapped in for two hundred miles, around which the morning, and about a gill of the the canoes and their burthens must be Auid flows from each incision during carried with immense labor by gangs the day. It is caught in small cups of of Indians or slaves. This portion of clay, moulded for the purpose with the the route is seldom passed in less than

four months. For the remainder of Asiatic cholera have never desolated the distance (700 miles) the navigation Brazil, and that although many causes along the Mamora and Guapore is un exist in its cities to favor pestilential interrupted. But the ascent through diseases, yet the general salubrity of the whole distance is slow and toilsome the air and its equable temperature have on account of the strong flowing cur- proved a steady protection. rent.

Brazil is not well advanced in the The trade is carried on by companies, arts and improvements of modern and vast numbers of Indians and ne times. Even in its large cities cargroes are required as oarsmen and riages are but little in vogue, and the bearers of burdens.

roads are not constructed for their use. The first printing-press in this pro- Maranham, Mr. Kidder thinks, is betvince was established in 1838 by the ter built than any other city of Brazil, government. The state of education, yet the rise and descent of the streets both in Goyaz and Matto Grosso, may are very abrupt, and there is but one be inferred from the fact, that in the good carriage road in the place. Lalatter country there are only eight dies in goivg about the city are usually primary schools, and in the former carried by slaves in a rede or hammoc. eighteen, two of which are for girls. Even at Rio a horse and dray are very

But these are the most neglected unusual, most of the drudgery being portions of the empire. The other performed by gangs of negroes. Docks mining province, Minas Geraes, is are also wanting, and the loading and much nearer the coast, and much unloading of vessels is a work of double more cultivated. Its name signifies labor, performed by the intervention of the general or universal mines, which small boats, which ply between the very well designates its inexhaust- shore and the ship. Rail-roads, stageible mineral wealth. Gold, silver, coaches, and all other vehicles for pubcopper and iron are all found within its lic conveyance, are entirely unknown, borders, besides a great variety of pre- and all who do not walk must be concious stones. The most valuable of veyed on horses or mules, and have these mines are wrought by an English their baggage transported by the same company; and the improvements which means. they have introduced, and the enter The religious state of Brazil, as preprise and intelligence which they have sented by Mr. Kidder, is well worthy diffused through this portion of the to be studied by the Christian philanempire, have shed new lustre on the thropist, and demands the attention of Anglo-Saxon race. This province the whole Christian world. That the takes the lead in education as well as religion of a country has a deep influin other improvements. There are ence on its prosperity and well-being, about one hundred primary schools for no intelligent man can doubt. When boys, fifteen for girls, and twenty-six the mind is fettered by superstition Latin schools, with enrolled pupils and bound up in the chains of religious amounting to about eight thousand, in- bigotry, it is not to be expected that it dependent of those schools which have should act with the directness and enbeen established by private enterprise. ergy which it manifests when freed

Notwithstanding the great extent of from such embarrassing restraints, and Brazil, the temperature of the different left to the full swing of its inherent portions appears to be pretty uniform. powers. In the city of Para, at the mouth of The religion of Brazil was introducthe Amazon, and nearly under the ed contemporaneously with the settleequator, the thermometer ranges from ment of the country, several centuries 75 to 93. At Bahia, 13 degrees south, ago. Portugal and Spain, which were the changes of temperature are still then among the most enlightened and less, the extremes being 74 and 86. At enterprising nations on the globe, have Rio de Janeiro, which is located near since that time fallen into a state of the tropic of Capricorn, the temperature degrading apathy, and have suffered in the course of the year varies from the meanest of their neighbors to out54 to 108. If we except the far inte- strip them in the race of improvement. rior, the whole country must be regard- Brazil, bound up in colonial chains, ed as remarkable for its salubrity. Mr. and since her emancipation, shut off Kidder observes, that the plague and as it were from the rest of the world,

in consequence of speaking a strange tised, save in “ buildings having the exlanguage, has continued to lean on the terior form of a temple.” This is the parent country, imbibing quite too more remarkable when it is remembermuch of the apathy and inertia which ed, that for three centuries the Roman has so long governed its destiny. Catholic form of worship has held un

Since the revolution of 21822 she disputed sway, and that no other faith has, however, made much progress to- has sought admittance to the Brazilian wards casting off her dependence; and mind ; " and yet,” says Mr. Kidder, her present condition in regard to re “it is my firm conviction that there is ligion, shows the effect produced on her not a Roman Catholic country on the population by the new position which globe where there prevails a greater she has assumed. Having taken an degree of toleration, or a greater liberhonorable post among the nations, she ality of feeling towards Protestants." cherishes à praiseworthy ambition to The truth of this proposition was be their equal; she desires improve- abundantly established by Mr. Kidment; she directs an inquiring eye to- der's experience. He travelled openly wards other nations ; she compares in the character of a Protestant mistheir state with her own, and is willing sionary; distributed tracts, Testato profit as far as possible by their ments and Bibles in the Portuguese knowledge and experience.

language; made known his errand to She has already discovered that a statesmen, Church dignitaries and the religion ingrafted on the state is ex- lower grades of priests; and yet, though ceedingly defective, and that the lives he thus openly visited every province, of its chief apostles and teachers but except the three mining provinces of poorly correspond with the sacredness the interior, he is not sure that a maof their profession. In consequence jority of the priesthood did not maniof this state of public feeling, religion is fest towards him and his work both fagradually yielding to infidelity; churches vor and friendship. are falling into ruin ; parishes are de Some of the Bibles which he disserted by their spiritual guides ; eccle- tributed from the mission-house at Rio siastics are turning into politicians, and he afterwards met with at San Paulo, monasticism is wearing out, while there 300 miles distant; and during his visit is nothing better to take its place. to that province, he, a Protestant mis

In Para nearly all the churches are sionary in a Catholic country, was engoing to ruin ;-out of 96 parishes only tertained by one of its most distinguish37 are supplied with priests. In Mar- ed ecclesiastics with marked hospitality, anham 25 churches had been adver- and invited to leave with his host cotised as open for applications, without pies of books for distribution, with the securing a single candidate. In the view of counteracting the manifest tendiocese of Cayaba not a single church dency of the people towards infidelity. is provided with a settled curate ; and Another evidence, equally striking, in the rich bishoprick of Rio, embracing that the Brazilian mind is becoming four provinces, only five or six priests loosened froin the shackles of that suare ordained annually. President perstition which has so long bound it, Caelho declares that the clergy are ig may be found in the fact that a proponorant, depraved in their habits, cor sition to annul the order prohibiting the rupt in their morals, involved in the marriage of the clergy was discussed concerns of the world, and totally for- and received with marked favor in the getful of their heavenly mission. A House of Deputies at Rio. distinguished ecclesiastic assured Mr. This last movement was headed by Kidder that Brazil was in darkness, and no less a personage than Feijo, at one altogether behind the age. Feijo, Re- tine Regent of the Empire, and one gent during a portion of the Emperor's of the most remarkable men of his minority, himselt a priest, asserted that time. He was educated to the priestthere was scarcely a priest in the pro- hood, but laid aside his “

holy garvince of San Paulo who did his duty ments" for the more exciting theatre of as the Church prescribed it.

political life. He had been a member The constitution of Brazil provides of the Cortez of Lisbon, from which that the Roman Catholic religion shall body he withdrew in disgust at the inbe the religion of the state, while it dignities cast on the Brazilian members; allows all modes of worship to be prac- and having published a solemn protest

one.

against the conduct of Portugal, re one ; Ceará four ; Piauhy one ; Marturned to America. After the estab- anham two ; Para one ; Minas Geraes lishment of the independent govern- ten ; Goyaz one, and Matto Grosso ment he became a prominent member of the House of Deputies, where he These senators are representatives made his masterly report in favor of of provinces, but it is not required that clerical marriages. Such a report, they should be residents of the procoming from an ecclesiastic of bigh vinces so represented. When a senastanding, excited a great deal of atten- tor is to be made, the people choose a tion. But that it was not prejudicial certain number of persons who are to his standing or popularity is evident styled electors. These electors prefrom the fact, that he was afterwards sent to the Emperor three free-holders, appointed Minister of State, Regent of either of whom they are willing to acthe Empire, and Senator for life. He cept as their senator, and the Emperor was, moreover, elected by the imperial selects one of them, who being regugovernment Bishop of Moriana, a dig- larly installed, holds his office for life. vity which he saw fit to decline. He Every citizen having a revenue of $250 died in 1843.

is qualified to vote for senatorial elecThe government of Brazil is a mon tors, deputies and members of the proarchy, limited in its powers by the pro- vincial assemblies, and is also qualified visions of a written constitution. The to be a senatorial elector. empire is divided into eighteen pro It is a gratifying circumstance in the vinces, each of which has a separate recent history of Brazil, that every local government. The governor or change which has been made in the president of each province is appointed government has tended towards a more by the Emperor, and holds his office at enlarged liberty. Since the commencehis pleasure. Each province has a ment of the present century Brazil legislative assembly consisting of one has passed from a state of abject colohouse only, the members of which niel dependence to be the centre of are elected by the people, and which is Portuguese power and the residence authorized to pass such internal local of the royal court. Then, abandoned laws and regulations as the wants of the by her sovereign, she assumed her poprovince may require.

sition as an iudependent empire, and The legislative power of the empire adopted a constitution which secured is vested in a Senate and House of to her citizens a liberal share in the Deputies, which hold their sessions at conduct of their government. But this Rio de Janeiro. The deputies are the constitution, since its first adoption, representatives of the several provinces, has also undergone several changes, and their number is graduated by the all of which have been in favor of popupopulation. They hold their seats for Jar liberty. Formerly the deputies four years unless dissolved by imperial were elected for an indefinite period, authority. It is not, however, neces- and the house continued, as in England, sary for a deputy to be a resident of ihe till it was dissolved by the Emperor; province which he represents, but he but by a recent change the term has may be chosen from his own or any been fixed to four years, by which other province. The House of Depu means the representative is made reties, as at present constituted, consists sponsible to the people, rather than to of one hundred and three members. Its the sovereign, and is bound by his popresiding officer is elected from its own sition to advocate the rights and liberbody.

ties of his constituents. The Senate is a more aristocratic We may, perhaps, safely say, that body, the members holding their ap- for the last twenty-five years Brazil pointment during life. It consists, as bas made as rapid advances as any naat present organized, of forty-nine mem tion on the globe. Much, however, bers, distributed according to popula- still remains to be done; and we trust tion as follows :--Rio Grand do Sul that she may continue to go on, acquirsends one ; Santa Catharina one ; San ing additional strength, and light, and Paulo four ; Rio de Janeiro four ; Es- vigor, and that her statesmen may seek pirito Santo one ; Bahia six ; Seregipe the glory of the Empire"-not in givone ; Alagoas two ; Pernambuco six ; ing * all possible splendor" to the cereParahiba two; Rio Grande do Norte monies of religion, or the insignia of

power-but in diffusing intelligence, provinces be united together by ties enterprise and happiness among the stronger than “hooks of steel," and people, and in securing to them the she will take her place among the full advantage of a free and unfettered richest and most powerful nations on condition. Then will her different the globe.

THE CONFLICT OF THE SPIRITS.

I.
The great Earth swung in air,

A floating speck in space;
Fierce storms were crowding there,

And Spirits left their place.

II.
First the chill Death-spirit woke,
· And out the curling darkness broke ;
Loudly through mad whirls of smoke
In ringing accents it outspoke :-

“ I hold the world in my hand,

And all of stirring breath ;
Man, brute, and stream and land,

Are all the heirs of Death."

Away fast Aed earth's bloom
'Neatk shadow-clouds of gloom ;
Mankind kad heard its doom,
The end-all is the tomb !

III.
Then the Life-spirit descends,
And through rainbow sparkles wends ;
Softly in mystic love it bends,
And cheerly radiant good hope lends :

* I hold the world in my hand,

And all of peace or strife ;
Man, brute, and stream and land,

Are all the heirs of Life.”

Pale death loud shrieked and fled,
And through deep storm-glooms sped;
Its last doom had been read,
E'en Death is to be dead! ·

IV.
There is life in the sablest death,

Not soulless sleeps the clod-
The bier is the cradle of heaven,"
The grave the bosom of God.

T. S. D.

+ Jean Paul

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