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the future course of the government. eralist rulers began in 1838 that wasteElections have now, however, again ful policy by which a large state debt, taken place in 13 states, and in four of great injury to public credit, and direct these there has been a federalist gain taxation, were entailed upon the peoin members of Congress, while in the ple of the state. Approaching insolothers there has either been no choice vency was avoided only by a prompt or po changes.

change of policy. The projection of These ephemeral triumphs have, public works, involving an expenditure however, given an impetus to the opposi- of $50,000,000 of public money, in adtion, and awakened hopes in party dition to the then existing debt, could leaders, that the object for which the not, however, but enlist in favor of the great battle of 1844 was fought and won, projectors a numerous array of partimay now be defeated. Scarcely have sans. The owners of property, the the returns of the state elections as contractors, brokers, builders and exsumed a definite shape when we find pectants of all classes, crented naturally Mr. Webster, from Boston, Mr. Clay- a formidable coalition in favor of the paton, from Wilmington, and Mr. Clay, tronage of government as administered from Kentucky, fulminating decrees by federalists. The insolvency of surfor a great federalist's rally, in an attack rounding states, and the immediate upon the measures ratified by the peo- danger of New York, with gross and ple at the elections of 1844. Mr. growing corruption on all sides, afforWebster, at Boston, points with tri- ded an opportunity to check the career umph at the recent elections of New- and change the policy of the governYork, Pennsylvania and Ohio, as indi- ment. Although the policy of 1842 cative of a renunciation, by the people apparently fixed the future course of of those states, of the principles estab- the state in relation to public works, it lished two years previously. The as did not destroy the hopes of those who sumption is not borne out by the facts. bankered after the “flesh pots.” Their That the three states mentioned, dis- upseen, but effective influence, passed play a temporary federalist ascendancy the bill in 1845 to revive partially is clear, but that the character of the those works, and it was vetoed by election can in any way be supposed the firmness of the Governor ; but the expressive of opinion upon national po- ramifications that produced it, reniained licy, is not the case. The state of as the channels through which federalNew-York presents a condition of af- ism might form a coalition of all the disfairs not unlike that in which the cordant elements that had grown up in Union found itself in the contest of the state, as the fruits of a long season 1840. A corrupt money power had of prosperity. The evils which grew produced numerous interests at war out of the continuance of feudal tewith a sound policy, and a regular gov- nures, engrafted upon institutions inernment. The easy virtue of

compatible with their existence, were pulous leaders, combined hordes of skilfully exaggerated, and from antineedy adventurers in one tumultuous rentism the transition was easy to the mass, whose eager onslaught gave tri- denial of all individual right in real proumph, but not success. Victory was perty. "Vote yourself a farm," was more fatal than defeat to the ill-assorted readily substituted for · vote yourself factions that achieved it. The hope of no rent,” by those in possession of no reward was an admirable stimulant in property, leased or otherwise. The the struggle, but a dangerous substitute advocates of the abolition of rents, and of for principle, when possession brought the community of property, were reawith it its responsibilities. Disappoint- dily pledged to support him who should ed was the charm which dissolved the pawn to them the pardoning power, party strength into its original ele- for the use of the violators of the law ments, and 1844 witnessed the re- and the inurderers of its officer while cognition of sound principles by the peo- in the execution of his duty, in the deple. It is ever the case, that where fence of property. Influences the federalism gains a hold, it plants those most unseemly conspired to produce dragon teeth which, in after times, bear nominations the least to be desired, and armed men to the jeopardy of public while federalism, backed by aggrarianrights. In the state of New-York fed- ism, anti-rentism, andall whom the hope


of reward drew to an adventurer's flag, new tariff. There were 12 democratic furiously assaulted the polls ; the evil members, and of these but 4 were re influence of disappointed pensioners elected ; one of these voted for the new upon public money, ran like a leprosy tariff, and he is the only one of the numthrough the state, paralyzing exertion, ber reëlected by an enhanced majority. dissipating strength, dividing consti- Mr. Wilmot, of the 12th district, comtuencies, and aiding the treacherous ef- posed Tioga, Bradford and Susqueforts of disappointed nominees. The hanna counties, received 5,599 votes, result could not, under these circum- and his opponent 4,857. The federal stances, have been otherwise than it member of the 3d district, who voted was. Amidst this mass of intrigue against the new tariff, has been superthere was no great principle at stake, seded by a democrat. If these results or important question of national policy grew out of the tariff, it could only have to draw people to the polls ; and the been in consequence of the wilful miswhole number of votes cast for Gover representations of the people, and not nor was 100,900 votes less than in 1844. the iron-masters of Pennsylvania ; and The successful candidate of federalism those who voted against the new tariff, and its allies, received 40,462 less than have met their rebuke at the ballot the defeated candidate of the federalist box. party in 1844.

Of the congressional In Ohio, similar causes have promembers, federalism gained 13, and duced like results ; and the federal mathese 13 successful candidates received jority, which was 24,000 for Harrison, 70,208 votes, while the defeated feder- and reduced to 5,940 for Clay in 1844, alist candidates for the same districts in has not been brought lower than 2000 1844 obtained 88,+91. The democra- for the Governor. This grew out of tic vote in these districts in 1844 was divisions in Pickaway, Starke and 98,536, and in 1846 but 69,686, a di- Wayne ; and the absence of 2,500 paminution of 28,850 votes by bolting triots with the army in Mexico, giving and treachery. But say the federal a practical support with their blood and leaders in their late edicts, these are treasure to that war which the absence the indications that the new tariff is of their votes is supposed to condemn. unpopular. Then a majority of 13, These are the triumphs that have 000 for Gardiner indicates that it is called forth loud vauntings on the part popular. It appears, however, that of the federalist leaders, and induced even if the tariff could in any way have them to rally under the cry of the rebeen connected as a test question, six peal of the new tariff, ere its beneficent members who voted against the new operation in promoting trade shall have tariff, or in favor of that of 1642, were too firmly fixed it in the affections of defeated by members of opposite poli- the people. The federalist party, in tics. Three federalist allies, who voted relation to the tariff, are precisely now against the new tariff, have been suc where they stood in relation to a naceeded by democrats, and democrats tional bank in March, 1841. . It will be who voted with the federalists on that remembered that when the late nationquestion, have been superseded. If al bank resumed its payments for the this is expressive of public opinion, it is last time, in January, 1841, most of pot in favor of the assumptions of fede- the banking institutions at the south ralist leaders.

and west were in a state of suspension, Pennsylvania was not exempt from and therefore, the internal exchanges, the disorganising influence of local poli- as expressed in their depreciated paper tics, where there was no absorbing promises, used as local currencies, exnational question to take precedence. hibited great confusion and very high A diminution in the aggregate vote,

The revolution of 1840 was to however, there, as in other states, bring back federalist patronage to the marks the apathy of the electors. United States Bank; and a strenuous From the singular results of the re effort was made to whitewash its diturns of the congressional members, it lapidated credit, in order that, on the would appear, however, that the tariff advent of the new government to powquestion did influence the votes, and er in March, the federal deposites the effects of that iufluence are seen in might be restored to its vaults, and the the almost universal condemnation of credit and means thus bestowed upon those democrats who voted against the it by government patronage, were to be


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the means of giving the expiring insti- its own advantages apparent, in order tution a new lease of life. Fortunately to save the theory of protection, that for the country, however, it was too induces the eager and reckless baste of far gone, and six little weeks saw it federalist leaders. Mr. Webster, in his pass finally into the hands of assignees, late speech at Boston, lays great stress and 14 days before its patrons were to on the result in New York ; and said, take possession of power, it expired. as reported in the Boston Courier, as All the banks south and west followed follows: its example, and exchanges, as repre

“ Mr. Webster contended that what had sented in their bills, stood as follows:

brought about the changes there, was a Philadelphia,

7 a dis. general dissatisfaction with, and want of Richmond,

confidence in the general government, Mobile,

124 a 13 New-Orleans,

64 a 7

under its present administration. The Nashville,

.14 a 141

change had been wrouglit by considerate St. Louis,

and reflective men, not as individuals, but Cincimati,

in masses and troops, voting for the whig This state of exchanges was disas- candidates; they had taken the wbig trous to commercial interests, and long showing their disapprobation of the war

ground as the most effectual mode of and loud were the lamentations sent and the tariff of 1846, and had given up up in relation to the want of a national their adhesion to third parties, and had bank, to regulate them. The great become whigs out and out. federalist leaders proclaimed that, with “. While the governor was elected by out a bank. exchanges would never some eleven, twelve, or, perhaps, fifteen again be uniform and low. They had, thousand majority, the whigs have elected

two-thirds of the whole number of memhowever, some suspicion that exchanges would regulate themselves, the vote for those members run far ahead

bers of Congress, and in every district unless they made haste to do it by law; of the vote for governor.” and an extra session was called, mostly for that purpose. The discordant ele Now, if we compare as above the ments that placed federalism in power votes cast for the successful federalist were not, however, sufficiently adhesive Congressmen, we find them 12,000 votes to perfect its victory; and the bank less than those obtained by the defeated not being created, exchanges regulated candidates of the same party in 1844. themselves; that is to say, as bank Where, then, are the masses and after bank was compelled to resume troops” that have become federalists? its payments in specie, its promises be- Again, Mr. Webster states, that in evcame worth as much as individual bills ery district the vote for Congressmen drawn against produce, and the depre- exceeded that for Governor. In 12 disciation, falsely called the difference of tricts, the reverse is the case. In the exchange, disappeared. From the three districts, 10th. 13th, 25th, the date of this resumption until now, the vote for federalist Congressmen was rates have been-Philadelphia par, 21,375, and for Mr. Yoang. 22,404. Richmond 1 per cent., Mobile , New- In the 19th district, where a democrat, Orleans par a d, Nashville 24, St. Lou- who voted against the new tariff, was is 11, Cincinnati 2. The same hot beaten by a whig, the vote for the fedehaste which then urged the sudden ral Congressman exceeded that for Mr. creation of a new bank, Jest the quack- Young 115. But the democratic candiery of its alleged regulating powers date, who voted against the new tariff, should be made manifest through the received 424 less votes than Governor operations of trade, is now apparent in Wright, who received a majority over relation to the new tariff. It has not Mr. Young in this district. yet began to operate, and already the To opposition to the tariff alone has cry of repeal is raised by federalist not been ascribed the alleged change in leaders, Jest its operation should, popular sentiment. The Independent through the prosperity with which it Treasury and the Mexican war are will be attended, dispel the illusion un- special objects of attack under the new der which many labor in relation to the impulse derived from the late elections. profits of taxation, and the benefits of By some mysterious agency, these restriction. It is the necessity of al- great national measures are supposed tering the new tariff before it makes to be connected with anti-rentism and

its affiliated federalist schemes; and Mr. tracts of land belonging to the state of Webster, at Boston, has propounded a Maine, but no actual warfare existed. problem in relation to the former, diffi- The army and navy afforded no aid in cult of solution, as follows:

the settlement, nor were military ex“ Mr. Webster said, that he had been at penses increased. In 1846, an invasion some trouble ascertain, from correct

of the southern frontier of the United sources, the expenses of the war, and he States involved a war, which has been read a paper on which was written a conducted, if we take into view the statement of the resources and the expen- extent of territory and its vast resourditures of the government for the last five ces overrun and annexed to the Union, months, by which it appeared that the with a success greater than ever before expenditures were about sixty millions of attained in so short a time for so little dollars per year, or double the resources, without taking into account the outstand. have shown, the actual expenditure for

expense of blood and treasure. As we ing claiins. And this immense debt must be met. He asked how ? And showed

the three quarters is but $3,217,957 that by the operation of the Sub-Treasury,

more than in the same period of 1841. 8 government measure, the treasury will The expenditures of the army proper be cramped, and the treasurer will be in a were $8,143,659 for the

ist quarter, situation of great distress. The operation and 5,041,762 for the previous one, of the new law will draw all the specie being together ten millions more than out of circulation, and leave nothing for the usual peace expenditure for the the public use. He said that by the old mode of doing business, allowing the Se- ster's speech leaves the inference that

same length of time. Yet Mr. Webcretary of the Treasury to draw bis when he wanted it, there would have the annual expenditures are vastly exbeen less trouble."

travagant, even for a time of war; but

while making this display of what the The expenses of the government are government must expend, he asserts taken, probably, from the official report that the "Independent Treasury will for the quarter, ending September 30, draw all the specie out of circulation.” which gives an aggregate expenditure of We apprehend, if the government $14,038,661 for the quarter, which is pays out sixty millions per annum, and Dearly at the rate of 60 millions per pays in specie, according to the Indeannum, including the war and the pub- pendent Treasury law, that very considlic debt. For the six months, ending erable sums of specie must be put into Sept. 30, 1846, $23,469,400; and for the circulation. If the government receives three quarters, ending Sept. 30, 1846, $60,000,000 in specie, and retains it the whole expenditures of the United on hand, it will, of course, draw it out States government, war and debt inclu- of circulation; and this is the only view ded, is $27,953,297, and for the same of the case taken by the federalist leadthree quarters of 1841, when Mr. Unfortunately, however, the Webster was Secretary of the Treasu- other side presents an egress of specie ry, and during the retrenchment and from the treasury vaults, rather more reform fever of the newly installed rapid than the ingress. The differgovernment, they were $24,734,346. ence is, that the people are receiving That is to say, the war with Mexico on one side, and banks are paying on has been supported four months, the the other, an operation by no means victories of Palo Alto, Resaca de la agreeable either to corporate instituPalma and Monterey achieved, and tions, or their speculative borrowers. California, Chihuahua, and Santa Fe, The chief attack is, however, made three large empires, added to the Union, on the war itself, a war that doubtless and the whole expense, in addition to emanated from the over confidence of the regular disbursements of the gove the Mexican leaders in European aid, ernment, have exceeded those of the and in the encouragement they received same period of 1841, but $3,718,953. from the tone of federal papers throughBoth periods, viz: the 1st three quar- out the Union. As an indication of ters of 1841, and the 1st three quar- the manner in which the war is to be ters of 1846, were periods of border attacked at the coming session, difficulties. In the former case, a quote from the speech of Mr. Webster: powerful neighbor was dealt with, and the results were a surrender of large The first that was heard of it was from



the assertion of the President that the war Independence of Texas, leaving the existed. Texas had become a part of the boundary open for future arrangeUnited States, and the boundary that had ment. At this point the United States been claimed up to that time was the river assuming the place of Texas, sent a Nueces ; all beyond that was actually in Minister to treat for the boundary. possession of Mexico, had never even been claimed by Texas. But

the President bad, Mexico refused to receive him! and for by a great violation of duty, ordered the the very novel reason that he had too United States army to push forward be. niuch authority," viz. that he was emyond it, and in so doing he had committed powered not only to treat of the bounwhat Mr. Webster considered as an im- dary but of all other matters. Mexican peachable offence. The President had it wisdom, however, decided that unless in his power to do such a thing, but had his other powers were taken from him, po right to do it. By the constitution ho they would not treat about the bounwas authorized to repel invasion, but he dary. Now, the boundary on the Atwas not authorized to go beyond the territory, and invade another country."

lantic was never other than the natural

one, the Rio Grande. We have seen The “ first that was heard of it"

an atlas published in London, in 1843, was the attack by the Mexican invading by Arrowsmith, whose reputation as a army on the troops of the United States.

geographer entitles him to respect, The only pretence of opposition to the notwithstanding the propensity of war is the shallow one in relation to the English to make " red lines," the boundary, and to make that pre- not only where they control, but tence, the river Nueces is assumed as the where they intend to dictate, assigning true boundary. Why it is so assumed the Rio Grande as the boundary of cannot be shown, unless that it was

Texas, and the northern limit of because the United States troops hav- Mexico. Moreover, M.Culloch's Geoing occupied it unmolested for a length graphical Dictionary, which enjoys deof time, that circumstance constituted

servedly a large reputation, describes it a boundary. In no manner was the Texas as follows: river Nueces ever mentioned or assigned as the limits of Texas. On the other hand, all the intercourse which took place lic of North America, between the United

Texas, a new and independent repubbetween Mexico and Texas recognized

States and Mexico, extending from 26 to the Rio Grande as the boundary ; as 40 deg. N. lat., and from 90 to 108 deg. W. thus, a specific condition of the articles long. It is separated from Mexico on the after the battle of San Jacinto, was the W. and S. by the Rio Grande, or Bravo del evacuation of Texas to a region beyood Norte, &c. &c." the Rio Grande. The Legislature of Texas always impliedly and often spe Again, the Nueces is but a small cifically embraces the district between stream, extending only to the 30th deg. the Nueces and the Rio Grande. In North latitude, while the Rio Grande 1842 the Hon. Ashbell Smith, acting as runs 10 degrees further, continuing to Secretary of State, made two Empre- form that western boundary described sario contracts for the settlement of the by M'Culloch, and which would not country, on the Rio Grande, including exist if the Nueces only were the bounits immediate banks. One contract dary. was with a British subject and the The United States having annexed other with a citizen of France. By the Texas, proceeded to legislate for the act of annexation the United States district between the Nueces and the adopted the position and relations of Rio Grande. It became a CongresTexas towards Mexico. If, then, we sional district, and was represented in examine what those relations were, Congress when news of its invasion we find that preliminary treaty of arrived. It was a collection district of peace had been signed by the Texan the United States, which was bound Secretary of State, and by the Mexic to defend it. But, say the federalists, can Minister for foreign affairs, under Mexico never acknowledged Texas the express sanction of the Mexican south of the Nueces! Did she ever Congress, and it was then waiting the acknowledge Texas north of the Nueces? action of the Texan Congress. It was No doubt was ever raised as to the perin itself a treaty of peace, based on the fect title of both Texas and the United

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