« AnteriorContinuar »
I. Salt made by solar evaporation at weaker they become, and that sinking Geddes and Syracuse, average of five them to à lower depth invariably of Dr. Beck's analyses.
strengthens them. II. Salt made by boiling at Salina, 20. Dr. Beck has offered another, common barrel salt, average of three of and to our mind, more plausible theory Dr. Beck's analyses.
-one which, if we mistake not, is genIII. Turk's Island salt, from sea wa- erally entertained. It is, that there ter by solar evaporation.
exists in that portion of the state, IV. Liverpool fine salt.
abounding in salt springs, large beds of V. Cheshire crushed rock.
fossil salt. His position is fortified by A more extended collection of analy- several considerations, to which we ses confirms what this limited table may be allowed to refer. He objects shows; that the solar salt of Syracuse to the other theory as insufficient to and Geddes is the purest salt manufac- account for the fact, and as poorly sustured in the world. Of seventeen of tained by observation. He contends the principal kinds of salt of the mar- that a similarity of geological position kets of the world, the “ Liverpool fine with the beds of salt, of various parts salt” ranks next to the one already re- of the world, confirms his idea; and ferred to; and but two of the seven moreover, urges in behalf of his opinion, teen, except the ones already referred the existence of what are called sink to, are so much as one per cent. better holes," which have been observed to be than the salt made by boiling at Salina, suddenly formed, and which are seen the ordinary barrel salt, numbered two already formed in great numbers about in the table of analyses, and six are the borders of Onondaga lake. These found inferior to this species. Indeed, “ sink holes" funnel-shaped it is evident that with proper precau- cavities of various sizes, from four tions this salt might be made equal to or five feet wide, to ten or twelve, any. The process of manufacture is and from sixteen to twenty or more good enough—it only needs reasonable deep. These are claimed to be care in carrying it out.
caused by the solution of blocks, or Respecting the origin of these, and masses of some soluble mineral as salt, other salines, there are two prevalent thus leaving cavities, which are filled theories.
by the subsidence of the earth above. 1st. It is supposed they derived These “sink holes," or brim slips, as their salt from quantities of that min- they are called in England, exist very eral disseminated through the marly similar in appearance in Cheshire, and other soft rocks, which form to the England, where beds of salt have been depth of as many as six hundred feet, discovered, and they are there, as here, the geological strata of the whole re known to be occasionally formed. gion in which the salt springs occur. Other arguments are adduced on How the existence of these sma both sides of the question, and it is alpatches or particles of salt, dissemina- together impossible to decide wbich is ted through the rock, is explained, is correct. If the latter supposition be not easy to be understood. Still some true, doubtless some future boring will very plausible arguments are adduced reveal the existence of these beds, as in favor of its truth. For instance, it similar ones did in Cheshire, and in is a fact, that throughout the strata Washington county, Virginia, where a which constitute the Onondaga salt boring of 235 feet revealed a bed of group, there are found numerous cavi- fossil salt of fifty or sixty feet thickness. ties of a hopperform shape, and also It need not be objected to the value of marly crystals of the same form. Now, such a discovery, that the cost of sinkthis is a form in which salt sometimes ing a shaft and raising the mineral salt, crystalises, and it is contended that would make it worthless; water might from the solution of the once contained be let down upon it, and when saturasalt, these cavities have their origin; ted with salt, pumped up. The value when these cavities became filled with of such a method of procedure may marl, there were formed the hopper- be partially estimated, when it is unshaped marly crystals just alluded to. derstood that the strong Syracuse It is urged, too, that the longer these brine lacks from 25 to 30 per cent. of and other salt springs are worked, the saturation. It may be mentioned as a
fact, also, that similar means are re- of the geological portion of the sursorted to at the Cheshire mines, where vey. more salt is manufactured than at any The New-York geologists have diother salines in the world. We may vided the rocks of the state into 29 to add, that deep borings may reveal, as 31 divisions, the names and super-posithey already have revealed, the exist- tion of which are exhibited in the folence of stronger brine, if not such lowing table. We attempted, at conbeds as those of which we have spo- siderable labor, to append to our table ken. At any rate it seems to us, as it the thicknesses of the various rocks. does to Dr. B., that it might be well to The truth is, however, that it is altoprosecute a system of improvements, gether impossible to state them with which has already resulted in so much any degree of accuracy. Many of the benefit to the springs.
strata, which, at the Helderberg MounWe cannot take leave of this branch tains, possess considerable thickness, of our subject, without bearing to the have disappeared at the Niagara river ; report of Dr. Beck the strongest testi- and others, still, which do not exist at mony of our high opinion of its merits. all east of Oneida county, have likeWhether valued for accuracy and co wise disappeared at the Niagara. The piousness of description, or fullness of names of these groups of rocks, comdetail
, it is the rade mecum of the stu- mencing with the lowest, are as foldent of New-York mineralogy.
lows : But we pass to a brief consideration
Name of Groups.
1. Primary class. 2. Potsdam sand-stone. 3. Calciferous group. 4. Black River lime-stone. 5. Trenton lime-stone. 6. Utica slate. 7. Hudson River group. 8. Gray sand-stone. 9. Medina sand-stone. 10. Oneida Conglomerate. 11. Clinton group. 12. Niagara group. 13. Onondaga salt group. 14. Water lime 15. Pentameras lime-stone. 16. Delthy in shaly lime-st. Hall here inserts two other 17. Orisk. sand-stone. 18. Candagalli grit. 19. Scobarie grit. 20. Onondaga lime-stone. 21. Corniferous 22. Marcellus sbale. 23. Hamilton group. 24. Tully lime-stone. 25. Gen. slate. 26. Portage groupe. Vanuxem here inserts the 27. Chemang group. 28. Catskill group.
Loter stratum of Carboniferous sys- tenary system, composed of, 1st, transtem follows.
ported materials, and 2d, local mateUpon the surface of all lies the Quar- rials.
[To be Continued.]
UPWARD! CEASE your wild fluttering, Thoughts that fill the soul !
Silence awhile, 'tis but the hour of birth ! Spurn not impatiently the mind's control,
Nor seek the clouds ere ye have looked on earth! Still your strung beating till the day has gone
And starry ove comes on ! Why would ye sweep so proudly through the sky,
With fearless wing the snow-crowned bills above, Where the strong eagle scarcely dares to fly,
And the cloud-armies thunder as they roveMake in the solitude of storms your path
And tempt the lightning's wrath ? Will ye not linger in the earth's green fields
Till the first feebleness of youth is o'er, Clasp the fresh joy that young existence yields
In the bright present, and desire no more? Lulled among blossoms, down Life's morning stream
Glide, in Elysian dream! Throb not so wildly, restless spirit, now!
Deep and undying though thy impulse be, Would not the roses wither on thy brow,
When from thy weary chains at last made free ? In such hot glare, would not the proud crest stoop,
And the scorched pinion droop? I pause. In might the thronging thoughts arise :
Hopes unfulfilled and glory yet afar,
And back in flame come like a falling star.
A voice wherewith to speak. “Say, can the children of a loftier sphere
Find on the earth the freedom they desire ? Can the strong spirit fold its pinions here
And give to joy the utterance of its lyre ? Can fledged eaglet, born where sunbeams burn, !
Back into darkness turn ? “ Must not the wing that would aspire to sweep
Through realms undarkened by the breath of sin, Dare in its earliest flight the trackless deep,
Nor faint and feebly on the earth beginMount as a soaring lark, in morning's glow,
And leave the mists below! “ We feel, in heaven's own ether, calm and high,
A god-like strength, the storms of earth to stem; The volleyed thunders from our pathway fily
We twine the lightning for a diadem ! Far, far below, the clouds in darkness move
The sun is bright above ! “No soul can soar too loftily, whose aim
Is God-given Truth and brother-love of man ; Who builds in hearts the altars of his fame,
And ends in love what sympathy began. Spirit, ascend! though far thy flight may be,
God then is nearer thee !
THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF GOETHE.*
We regard this work as one of the or atheist, or nothing at all ?-behind his most valuable contributions recently age or in advance of it !-the most immade to English literature ; and it is, novable of conservatives or the deepest indeed, surprising, as the editor re- of radicals !-one who lived exclusively marks in his Preface, that a Life of for his own selfish glory, or who bad himself, by the most eminent of Ger- some touches of humanity in him? Was man poets, should never before have that majestic calmness the calmness of been rendered into English. It is true, the dead marble statue, or of the serene that a work purporting to be a version sunny sky which embraces all in its of the famous " Truth and Poetry" warm bosom? And finally, what effect was once put forth, but it was such a is the Goethean literature yet to have wretched and disgraceful affair that it on the destiny of mankind or the world? deserves no further mention. The per These are the questions which the sons, therefore, who have undertaken critics to whom we have referred anthis new translation are the first to put swer so variously. They have fought us in possession of the real thing. But battles over his remains, with the vigor before speaking of their success, we and ferocity of religious fapatics. It have a few remarks to make on the has been estimated that what has been subject of the autobiography, viz. written about him these last fifty years John WOLFGANG GOETHE.
would of itself form no inconsiderable In approaching a contemplation of library. Anecdotes, conversations, bi
the two things that strike one ographies, essays, criticisms, reviews, are, first, the exceeding diversity of the lampoons, poems and elegies are pouropinions men, every way competent to ed forth with frightful profusion. Sinjudge, hold concerning him; and second- gle dramas of his have been made the ly, his singular impassiveness to the basis of whole courses of lectures. Only external influences of his age, and at Shakspeare has been more voluminthe same time his singular fidelity to ously discoursed of, and only Dante the deeper spirit of that age.
the occasion of fiercer controversies.The critics, both learned and small, Between Menzel ard Riemer, or Heine are sorely puzzled what to make of and Carlyle, how wide the difference ! Goethe, either as an author or a man. Yet it does not appear that the general That he has talent of a very high kind mind has arrived at any clearer conceppone of them deny ; that he was able tion than it had at first. In the face of to influence his fellow-men in a way all attempts to elucidate him he excites that few ever have done, is a fact of as much doubt and dispute as ever he history which they are as little disposed did ; and in spite of all detraction he to deny. But what troubles them is, sits aloft, sublime and luminous as ever. to assign him his true place in the lite- There is surely something in a nature rary Olympus—to measure the height which can arouse such never-ending of his throne, and to lay down the metes admiration and aversion to justify the and bounds of his rightful jurisdiction. ado of the world. Was he a god, a demi-god, or only a Then, again, there is a most perplexwell-dressed and specious-looking de- ing mystery in his very aspect. He vil ? Was he a poet in the true sense ? seems the hardest and yet the most susWere his conceptions of art of the lof- ceptible of men. He strikes some as tiest kind ? Had he any meaning in the perfect embodiment of his times, those clear yet enigmatical-those tran- and others as one most selfishly indiffersparent but most profound fifty volumes ent to his times. He lived during the of his? And above all, what manner most tumultuous period the world has of man was he-a good man or a bad ? ever seen, and he stands out as the -a Christian, or only a gigantic Hea- calmest and most steadfast object that is then ? Was he sensualist or pantheist, to be met with in that whole period.
* Truth and Poetry: from My Life. Translated from the German of Goethe. Edited by Parke Godwin. Wiley & Putnam's Library of Choice Reading. New-York. 1846.
Consider only what great men and what say that Lope De Vega, with his thougreat events moved before him on the sand plays, with his ceaseless literary field of Europe and America, and then fertility, with his mechanical method of consider how few of them are so much turning off books, as the spinner will as even mentioned-not dwelt upon- turn you off bobbios, was a writer: we in his half hundred volumes of various should say that Kotzebue, who once writings! His lifetime saw the seven filled the world with his dramas, novels years' war of Germany, so fruitful in and voyages, was a writer ; or to take a disastrous incidents and bitier hatreds; higher instance than either of these, it saw the portentous eruption of the that Sir Walter Scott, with his bunfirst French revolution, when the dred volumes of verse, essay, history, whole of European society was shaken biography, criticism and romance, every to its centre, as the begrimed giant of page of which once held thousands enmaddened Democracy shook its blood- tranced, was a writer, (though Scott red fists in the face of Oppression; and too was not without a touch of the poet it saw, also, the last French revolution, and artist.) But Goethe takes rank the “ glorious three days" so dear to high above these restless and all-acFrenchmen; it saw the calm triumph complished penmen. He would have of the American patriots, and a mighty been great, had the goose-quill never nation spring up in the deserts, almost been invented-great with the pencil of in a single day; and at the same time the painter, or with the eye-glass of the it saw many of the grandest achieve- naturalist, because in his inmost soul ments of modern science, with the he was formed for the loftiest walks of wondrous growth of German literature, intellectual action. His place is in the from its puling infancy to its com same region with our Dantes, Calde. plete and noble manhood. During rons and Shakspeares.
He was that lifetime, too, the greatest cele- born poet and great man, whose flight brities of the nineteenth century, was among the stars of the clearest in war, in intellect, in action, made empyrean. their entrances and exits. Frederick Let us, however, speak more accuthe Great, Napoleon, Wellington, rately, and say, that in our view, Goethe Washington, Cuvier, Byron, Schiller, was the ARTIST OF HIS AGE. We do Kant, Lessig, Herder, Wieland, Man- not mean by this that he was not a zoni, Swedenborg, and a host of simi- thinker, for art always implies thought. lar men, were all contemporaries, and He was, too, a ripe scholar, a statesin one sense, familiar friends of our man of no mean capacity, a philosopher poet. He was an attentive watcher of of patient research and profound gepertheir doings and sayings in this world. alizations, a man of various and general He professes to have been signally in- ability, and of the noblest character; but fluenced by most of them in his own we cannot, by considering him in any developement. It is clear that their of these lights, explain his whole being, lives affected the destinies of man or get at the inmost central principle kind strongly, either for better or of his enigmatical and manifold life.
Yet when we look through When, however, we regard him as the many writings of the German, we “the artist of his age," the contradicfind scarcely a distinct trace of their tions of his career become plain; the existence. A character so singular in riddles of his works are solved; the peits position, and so variously judged of, culiar characteristics of his conduct as is worthy of our study.
a man are justified. Mr. Emerson, in a recent series of Yet why do we call him an artist? lectures on great men, is reported to Because he in any way enlarged the have spoken of Goethe, not as a poet or original domains of art ? Because he artist, but merely as the Writer. This, has discovered new principles by like all the other literary judgments of which the results of art can be prothis accomplished talker, is novel, but duced ? Because he has hit upon a superficial and adequate. There is philosophy of art which lays bare the that in Goethe which places him infi- wondrous secrets of that enchanted renitely above one who can skilfully gion, and explains to man the highest handle his pen. If we might refer to of his natural gifts—his power to cremen who better illustrate Mr. Emer- ate? By no means : for, in these reson's notions of the writer, we should spects, Goethe is not in advance of