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1700. 1800. 2,029,800 2,670,337 .1,113,900 2,528.773

partially manufacturing counties, and for food, even if the latter could con19 exclusively agricultural counties. tinue to supply the demand. The landThe official returns show that the rural owners must now reduce their profits population of England has not increased to enable England to maintain her marsince 1700, a period of 140 years, du- kets. The manufacturing greatness of ring which the other classes of society the British islands has outgrown their have increased near 300 per cent. capacity to feed the operatives. The

The population of the several divi- Anglo-Saxon race in England, like a sions of England that we have named hot-house plaat, is confined in too small are as follows:

a vessel; it has become restricted in its

growth, and requires to be transplanted POPULATION OF ENGLAND.

to a broad and genial soil. This has been Counties. Agricultural.

done. The climate and soil of the Uni

4,059,114 Manufacturing

5,310.472 ted States were peculiarly suited to the Metropolitan... .2,002,700 3,130,054 5,587,560

development of their vigorous growth. 5,146,400 8,331,164 14,957,146 On this continent the breadth of terri

tory and its resources are as limitless The returns of the population of the as the untiring enterprise of the peotowns and cities show that the increase ple. Their escape from the restrainof the agricultural counties has been ing limits of the narrow islands and unprincipally in the towns, so that the just laws of Britain, has been followed rural population of England, as in the by a vigor of growth never before agricultural counties of Scotland, ap- equalled by any people; and this propears not to have increased at all since gression has been marked by an acces1700, at least not materially. The sion of territory in a ratio nearly as same number of the tillers of the earth, great as that in which their numbers the productions of whose industry fed have multiplied; that is to say, the 5,146,400 persons in 1700, is now re- white inhabitants of the United States quired to feed 14,957,146, without have increased 10,271,509, while Great counting the increase of cattle, which Britain has added but 8,192,713 to her is probably equal to five millions more population since 1800. In this period, persons. This excessive demand has the land brought into cultivation in been supplied by pressing into the ser. Great Britain has been 3,621,770 acres, vice every possible tillable piece of as returned by the inclosure bills before ground, and calling the highest science Parliament. On this continent the to aid in its cultivation (the latter has area of the states in 1800 was 473,770 mainly compensated for the small in- square miles. There has since been crease of manual labor.) The traders added, exclusive of Texas, 814,810 and manufacturers have increased seven square miles, making an area of remillions since 1700, and five millions presented states at this time equal to since 1800. These have produced that 1,288,580 square miles, or 15 times the manufactured wealth which has laid the area of Great Britain. Nearly all the world under contribution to British in- land so occupied and settled is, in its dustry. The physical well-being of the natural state, of a description more fermasses of the people has not, however, tile than any which the high culture of proportionably improved. The master England can exhibit. Prairies containmanufacturers have divided with the ing millions of acres of rich black loam land-owners the whole profits of the several feet deep are but entered upon, industry of these people. What little and still waiting the physical force money the former have paid for labor, which is yet to accumulate for the culthe latter have demanded for the food tivation of vast spots, most of which, supplied from their lands. This col- after an annual succession of 200 lusion of interests worked well, as long crops, yield wheat as rankly and vigoras the manufacturers did not experience ously as in the first few years of their in third markets any active opposition. subjection to the service of civilization. But European competition has so re The people of the United States are duced the money prices of goods, that essentially agricultural in their pursuits, manufacturers can no longer pay suf- and the unrivalled advantages which ficient wages to feed their workmen at nature has afforded have by no means the old prices demanded by land-owners been neglected. The most invaluable

tracts of land have been spread before Not only has the demand for food a fearless, enterprising, and energetic increased with the progress of manurace, almost without money and with- factures and the extension of railout price. The choicest lands of the roads throughout Europe, but the apwestern valleys have been at the com- plication of capital and science to agrimand of every man; and they have culture, and the improvement in imflocked thither to enjoy them, not only plements, have been insufficient to from our own Atlantic states, but the compensate for the decay of the land. islands of Britain and the distant coun —The constant and long cropping of tries of Europe have poured forth their the best lands in the wheat districts of thousands to occupy and subdue the Europe has, united to a barbarous sysprairies of the west. The census re tem of culture, reduced them to a turns of the United States show, that state of comparative sterility. It has of the increase of the population since long been known that the continued 1820, 80 per cent. are agriculturists; exportation of corn from any country the remaining 20 per cent. are engaged will exhaust the soil, unless there is in commerce, mining, manufactures, imported in return articles which may and trades. This is the reverse of that be converted into manure in some deprocess which has been going on in gree to compensate for the injuries so England, and also in Europe. The inflicted. Many parts of the north of same causes which have operated so Africa and of Asia-Minor that were powerfully in England to cause the de- formerly depended upon by Europe for mand for food to outrun the local sup- large supplies of grain, are now irreply, have also been actively at work in trievable deserts.

The system purdiminishing that surplus supply in Eu- sued in Prussia and Poland, of raising rope to which England formerly looked two crops of corn in succession, adminto make good her own occasional de- istering nothing to refresh the soil but a ficits. These causes are the power- fallow, will ultimately exhaust the best ful impulses that have been given to land. For near two centuries Poland manufacturing industry, by which the has continued to export large quantities number of agricultural producers has of bread-stuffs, without receiving from been diminished and the consumers abroad anything that could be converted increased. The former have also been into nutriment for the soil. The quanlessened by the number of agricultural tities exported, for periods of 25 years emigrants who leave the worn-out each, with the price at the close of lands and the profitless servitude of each period, in Dantzic has been as noble owners in Europe to tread their follows: own prolific farms in the western valleys of America. The countries of

Rye. Europe during the past year, which has

$ cts.

$ cts. 1651-1675...,14.397,384

36,049.976 indeed been one of bad harvests, have


45,416,464 not yielded more than sufficient for 1701-1725...12,159,064 their own wants. The surplus of one


1751-1775...27,087,328 section has not more than sufficed for 1776-1800...30,059,840

21,608.976 the deficit of another; and, although the



1825-1846...20,000,000 demands of England, which subsequent to 1837 were annually large, were last Total....176,859,576 209,793,856 year small, the price of grain throughout Europe has been higher than per

The natural effect of this constant haps ever before, and grain is now drain of corn from a district, is manifest much cheaper in the United States in the exhaustion of the soil. Accordingthan in any other country; that is to ly, Jacobs, who was sent by the English say, in the great grain markets of the government to investigate the capacity north of Europe for May, the price of of the countries of Europe to supply wheat averaged $1.40 per bushel, and grain to England, reports that in every in New-York 90 cents. At Odessa, the part of his journey through Poland the great centre of the Black Sea grain fields, whether with growing crops, in trade, it was $1.00 per bushel, and the stubble, or under the operations of the demand good to supply the wants of plough, presented the appearance of Italy and the Mediterranean.

so exhaustion from excessive cropping."





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About three-fourths of the exports of so deteriorated in quality that nearly Dantzic are to England, the remainder one-fourth is unmarketable. This is goes to the other countries of Europe. the manner in which one-half the EnThis is the point whence one-half the glish supply from Europe is conveyed imports into England have been drawn to the points of exportation. The mode in the last 20 years. The wheat ex of culture is not more praiseworthy, ported from Dantzic, forming one-half being of a rude and primitive descripof the English supply in years of defi- tion. The fertility of the lands of cient harvest, is delivered there from Prussia, under the care even of skilthe river Vistula and its tributary the ful, affluent, and productive proprietors, Bug. The former rises in the Carpa- was not equal in the best localities to thian mountains, and flows 450 miles seven-fold the seed, and in very many through Poland and West Prussia, portions three-fold; that is, six bushels joining the Baltic at Dantzic. The reaped for two bushels sown per acre. stream becomes navigable at Cracow, In Poland the product may be seven and thence the wheat is conveyed to fold in some cases. As an instance of the sea in open flat boats, which hold the cost of producing grain in Prussia 1,200 bushels. These boats are, in and Poland, a paper prepared by Mr. seasons of leisure, constructed on the Rothe, president of government of banks of the Vistula, above the reach Dantzic, and laid before Parliament, of the water, of fir, rudely put together states, that in a year of favorable sales and fastened with wooden tree-nails. of grain, the produce of an estate of When the rains of Autumn, or the ver- 2,018 acres, of which 1,040 acres were nal sun melts the snows of the moun- cultivated with grain, sold on the spot at tains, the river rises, and the boats are 72 cents per bushel, by which a loss of easily floated. A large tree running 20 per cent. was sustained, besides along the bottom and roughly cut forms rent. The actual cost of that wheat the keelson, to which timbers are se- delivered in London is $1 29 cents per cured; it rises some ten inches from the bushel, without yielding any profit floor; across this and extending to the whatever to producers. In France the sides, hurdles are laid, covered with mats average yield of wheat per acre is 14 of rye straw, which serve for dunnage. bushels, according to the returns of the The space below receives the water Minister of Commerce. In England it which rains or leaks in above and below. is about 20 bushels. The wheat is thrown in on these mats, The countries of Spain, France, Belgipiled as high as the gunwale, and um, and Great Britain, are corn-imwithout further ceremony proceeds on porting countries. In France the its voyage, carried along by the force of excess of import over export, which the stream. A small boat precedes, last was mostly to Algiers, averaged, with a man in it, sounding to avoid shift- for eight successive years, 681,266 ing shoals. In this way the barge, bushels grain per annum, and in some conducted by six or seven men, occupies years the import is much larger. No several weeks and sometimes months country in Europe approaches France in its passage. The rain falling upon in the extent of surface appropriated to the exposed wheat soon causes it to the wheat culture. More than twogrow, and the shooting fibres form a fifths of the tillable surface of France is thick mat that serves as a protection to cultivated with wheat ; that is to say, the remainder of the cargo. When the of every 100 cultivated acres, 10 are wheat is delivered at Dantzic the boat sowed with wheat. The quantity of is broken up, and the men return home land thus employed is greater in the on foot. The grown covering of the south-western departments than at the wheat is removed, and the bulk spread north ; yet the acreable product is greatout on the land to dry, being thrown er in the latter sections, a result ascribin heaps as often as necessary to pro- able both to superior cultivation and tect it from falling rain. After the greater fertility. In the aggregate, the lapse of some time and frequent hand- quantity of wheat produced in France is lings it becomes fit for storing in ware- greater than that produced in Belgium, houses well constructed for that pur- Spain, Holland, Prussia, Poland, Swepose. The wheat, however, becomes den and the British islands. The crop


is usually to the seed as 64 to 1. The pretending to ordinary intelligence, consumption of wheat is alsố greater much less to the government of a great than in any of the other countries. The nation. All the countries of Europe internal transportation is so costly enacted similar laws on the same plea. and difficult, that prices vary very con- Whence, then, would the corn necessiderably in different sections, being sary to produce that ruinous effect be dealways higher at the south than at the rived, if all those saga cious laws were north, from the circumstance of greater repealed or suspended, as is now the fertility. The operation of rail-roads case in Belgium? Which of all the counwill probably equalize the prices while ries that now raise grain under protecit will enhance the consumption of the tive laws, would be endowed with such whole. Notwithstanding the great prolific crops through the repeal of laws fertility of France, and its great pro- by various countries ? According to a duction of wheat, aided by protective resolution of both houses of Parliament, corn-laws, it is generally a wheat-im- communications were made from the porting country. Its agricultural re- British consuls residing in the corn sources, by the aid of science and countries, respecting the quantity of industry, may be developed almost corn that might be exported from each. indefinitely meet its increasing The result, from all the countries of Euwants, if enterprise is stimulated by rope, north, south and east, was 2,222competition instead of being smothered 464 quarters, or 17,179,712 bushels. with parchment laws. To effect this, The consumption of wheat in Great Brihowever, a great social revolution in the tian for food and seed, has been estimated rural districts is first necessary. Belgi- at 9 bushels per head. In France probum and Holland suspended their corn ably it is not more than 5 bushels. At laws in October last, to allow of the this rate, if the whole quantity, as stated free import of food to supply the deficit by the consuls, could be regularly furoccasioned by her late bad harvests. nished, of good quality and at present priThe Russian country bordering on the ces, it would supply but two weeks conBlack Sea, bas of late years sent forth sumption to France and England alone considerable quantities of grain, and the at this moment, without taking into contrade in that article has made Odessa sideration the wants of other countries. a place of importance. This year, how- Yet statesmen will declare that the reever, Italy and the Mediterranean moval of heavy duties will create sufficountries require all that it can spare cient wheat to throw out of cultivation at very advanced rates. Throughout the maritime shores of fertile countries. Europe, therefore, the general features The whole export from Dantzic, as are decreasing productions of the land, given in the above table, for 196 years, and an increasing consumption of food, is equal only to 12 months consumption by which double operation the surplus for the present population of England. of the most agricultural countries is The increase of the population of Great yearly diminishing, while the wants of Britain in the last ten years, has been the corn-importing countries are annual- 2,300,000 souls, which requires 20,700, ly becoming greater.

000 bushels more wheat per annum, to It is not a little singular that, while feed them. While this increase has such is the actual state of affairs, each taken place, the exports from the wheat country has made laws prohibitory of the countries of Europe has diminished insport of corn from others, on the plea, and the prices advanced, until they as expressed by the report of a commit- are now not materially less than tee of the French Chamber of Deputies, in England. The quantity of wheat that " if wheat were introduced without which can be exported from Europe, is duty from the Baltic or Black Sea, our best tested by the effect which a modermaritime shores would remain unculti- ate demand produces upon prices. The vated, and the affect of a ruinous effect of high prices for any continued competition would effect more and period, is to stimulate production and more nearly the whole of our agri- produce a reaction and fall in prices, cultural population.” It is difficult to even although the demand which first conceive how absurdities so gross can occasioned the advance should be conbe gravely put forth by a body of men tinued. When, therefore, a demand to

a given extent springs up, and being per bushel in the five years ending with continued for any number of years, is 1837, to an average of $1 20 in the five pot followed by a decline in prices, but years ending with 1842, had ceased, yet rather the contrary, that circumstance the price continued and continues to furnishes almost irrefragable testimony advance. Russia has suspended her that the demand is more than can corn-laws, and Holland and Belgium readily be supplied. This evidence is have remitted theirs, and the average furnished in the case of the English in Europe is now $1 43 per bushdemand and its effect upon European el! against an average of 60 cents in the prices during the last 16 years, a period United States, and $1 67 in England. sufficiently long to test the full effect The improvement in the business of alternate good harvests and deficits of Europe, which has facilitated an in England upon the European trade. increased consumption of food generalDuring the four years ending with 1832 ly, and that of wheat particularly, the harvests of England were bad, and appears to have resulted from two she imported annually 9,326,390 bush- primary causes, viz: the construction els of wheat. During the whole of of rail-roads, by which rapid and cheap that four years, the price ruled at the communication has been effected in the five leading corn-markets of the conti- mining and manufacturing districts, and nent, at an average of 35s. per quarter, in the extension of internal trade by or $1,05 cents per bushel. From 1832, customs unions, thereby removing artithe five consecutive years ending with ficial barriers to intercourse at the 1837, were of good harvests, and same time that the natural ones are England imported 341,695 bushels per overcome. annum only. The average for wheat The states comprising the Zollverein in those five years at the same ports on or Customs Union and Belgium, in the the continent, was 23s. per quarter, or official statistics, afford the most pos70 cents per bushel. In the year 1838 itive and marked indication of this imEngland imported 14,550,624 bushels, provement. The population of all the and the average of the continent rose to states now composing the Customs Un385. per quarter, or $1 14 cents per ion, in 1834, was 23,476,120. In 1845, bushel. Now it is fair to infer that the the population of the same states was low prices of the five years ending with 25,534,321, being an increase of nearly 1837, must have ruined many corn one per cent. per annum. The revenue growers, bankrupted many estates, and of the Customs Union rose from 14, reduced the quantity of corn produced. 515,722 thalers in 1834, to 26,471,591 The 14,550,000 bushels taken by in 1845, having nearly doubled in ten England, however, appear to have ex- years. This expresses of course the duhausted the stocks in the warehouses, ties upon articles imported into the Gerand raised the price 80 per cent. all man states, and at the same level of duties over Europe. That stimulus would would indicate a doubling of the trade naturally again enhance the production. in ten years. But inasmuch as that In the next year, 1839, England took the duties have repeatedly been modinear 22 million bushels, and the aver- fied, the ratio of increase in the actual age price in Europe rose to 425. per trade must be much greater. A new quarter, or $1 26 cents per bushe). impulse was last year given to this That price was continued down to 1843, trade by means of a treaty between and the average for the five years end- Belgium and the German Union. ing with 1842, was 40s. or $1 20 per The benefits which each nation has debushel, throughout Europe. The pur- rived from their mutual concessions in chases of England during that time had favor of commerce, is already manifest reached 19,148,268 bushels per annum. in the trade of Belgium, according to In the three last years the purchases official reports. When Belgium sepaof England have averaged but five mil- rated from Holland, in 1830–31, her hon bushels per annum, and in 1845 manufacturing industry underwent a they were less than three million bush- great reverse, inasmuch as that preels. Nearly all the demand for account vious to that time, she had to supply of Great Britain which had raised the Holland and her colonies with those level of prices from an average of 70 cts. productions of mining and manufactur

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