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water, then their depth at the centre need never be more than from three to five feet, shelving to the sides as before stated; but if only an indifferent supply can be obtained, then they must be twelve or eighteen inches deeper.

It is not, however, desirable to have the ponds so situated that a large quantity of fresh water shall suddenly be able to find its way into them, as it both thickens the whole by moving the mud, and being colder and of other properties, it sickens the store for some time and checks their thriving. A well-regulated supply and co-equal discharge is to be recommended and must be attended to.

Having thus far described the base and positions which the ponds ought to have, I shall proceed to lay down the requisite rules, by attention to which a lucrative rental can be obtained, where an estate is adapted for succession ponds. The first pond should be the smallest of the three, the second next in size, and the third the largest, for the following reasons. At the period of fishing, as before stated, a great portion of the brood escapes with the flood, which cannot be prevented; and as another year must elapse before the water or pond in succession can be fished, too much of the food of the original store would be consumed were not the second pond larger, and so capable of receiving the addition, it would moreover prove extremely detrimental, as I shall afterwards show.

In order to come to the dimensions of the ponds I shall propose the following scale :- No. 1, three acres; No. 2, four acres; No. 3, five acres : making altogether twelve acres of water, which, after the first three years of their stores, will produce an annual income from each pond in rotation.

To stock the ponds with brood the following simple calculation is sufficient for direction; viz., to every acre of water in extent, put in 200 brood carp, 20 brood tench, and 20 brood jack; thus making 10 per cent. each of tench and jack to the carp; the brood must be all of one season's spawn. Therefore to three acres there will be 600 carp, 60 tench and 60 jack, and the succession ponds are to be stocked in like proportions, the second the year following the first, and the third again a year later, so that each pond then comes round in its turn to be fished.

This first outlay constitutes the whole expense, save and except the guarding against poaching, as there will always be a superabundant quantity of brood or store to restore the stews, and sufficient left for sale.

It is a well-authenticated fact that no fish of prey will ever touch tench; so it is also understood that tench act medicinally to other fish, by rubbing against them when wounded or sick. This quality is probably attributable to the glutinous, slimy quality and properties of its skin, for when fish have been wounded by the fangs of another, or struck by a hook, they have been frequently observed and


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taken when in close company with tench, and this gives rise to the presumption for so believing, and is the reason for recommending the introduction of a few tench into the stews. In Germany the fishermen call it the doctor-fish. Some people consider the tench to be of the carp tribe; I do not, as the organs of generation, fins, and other parts of the fish differ materially, and the male shows so marked a difference from the female, that as they swim about they can be selected, but this is not the case with carp; however, tench are particularly delicate, nutritious, and in good repute for the table.

Jack or pike is well known to be the most rapacious fresh-water fish that exists, but with all its voracity it is absolutely necessary to have a sufficient quantity in the carp-stews or ponds, to check increase.

In establishing the stews as before mentioned, the stock is calculated by a friend in Saxony, after forty years experience of real practical results. This same friend possesses one of the finest estates in that delightful and luxuriant country, comprising nearly eight thousand acres, of which nearly one half is forest; and on his estate he has twenty-two ponds, the largest being about twenty-seven acres in extent: but as I shall have occasion to revert to this subject later, I shall proceed.

There are few fish probably that breed so quickly or produce larger broods than carp, of which there are two species to be recommended for store, the one known as the English or round-bodied carp, the other, little known in this country but equally well framed, is called in Germany the Spiegel (Mirror) Carp, from the beautiful blue-mottled scales along the sides, which are much larger than those of the rest of the body; this sort could be easily obtained from Hamburg or any part of Germany, and would well repay the trouble of importation. They are particularly handsome, and bear a similarity to the red-legged compared to the common grey partridge, with the exception that the Spiegel carp is the better flavoured, and invariably fatter than the other. Carp therefore being so productive, require a proportionate check by a given quantity of jack in the stews, otherwise the water would soon become so swarming with brood, that food would be wanting to support the stock, and the result would be a failure in the quality of the fish-draught.

It has been fully proved that a given space of earth can produce only a certain quantity; so only can a given space or quantity of water produce a certain quantity, either of vegetable matter or animalcules: and curious as it

may appear, yet it is as true as curious, that by storing only the proper number of fish adapted to the water, the weight in three years will prove equal to what it would have been had twice the number been placed therein, so that the smaller number produces the same weight as the larger, from a given quantity of water. By overstocking the water the

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fish become sickly, lean and bony; and on the contrary, when the regulations are attended to which I have laid down, the fish will be healthy, fleshy and fat.

By this it will be seen that jack become a useful appendage in well-regulated ponds, tantamount to an absolute necessity, but with the necessity a property, as it will be found that jack, carp and tench thrive and grow in equal proportion after this system.

In stocking ponds it must be strictly observed that the jack, carp and tench be all of the same season or spring spawn; and the period for brooding the pond is towards the end of October, or if the season be open and mild, early in November, for the following reasons.

Carp and tench being fish of the same habits, they slam or mud at the same period, lying torpid through the winter months, so that they keep secure from the attacks of the juvenile jack; the jack at that age finds sufficient food in worms &c. to subsist upon : as the spring advances, when the carp and tench leave their winter lairs, the jack then in turn become sickly as their spawning season approaches, and consequently do not annoy the carp, much less the tench; this brings them through April, when the jack spawn, and they remain quiet from that time until the wet season of July.

In June both the carp and tench spawn, and although in very small casts for the first season, yet they are far

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