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miraculous conversions with which this century abounded, and only observe, that the Christians having then accustomed themselves to make some considerable presents to those new converts, induced many cheats, not only to become Christians with that view alone, but even to run privately from one 9iongthem.{^ ;nt0 another of them, and be baptized in them all, for the fake of gaining fresh tokens of their liberality.

A Remarkable instance of this our author gives us of a Jew, who went through all the sects then at Conjlantinoplc, but was at length discovered in a miraculous manner by the Novatian bisliop there, and owned, that he had been baptized by every one but that f. These cheats could not but render the Jews obnoxious to the Christians; but there was still another thing that made them more so, viz. the several arch-heretics, such as the Novatians, Nestorians, be. who, by borrowing some of the Jeviijh tenets, were stiled Judaizers and Jews. But }t is time to fee how they behaved and fared inotner countries. Jews raise Thosu of Alexandria, who are computed to have amounte tumult at ecj t0 about ioo,Ooq at the time that they raised a bloody uproar against the Christians, had had many skirmishes against them before, which seldom ended without bloodshed (Fj.

f Cod. TjjEODos.l. xxi.c. v.p. 342.


(F) The Jews, it seems, were by this time grown not only so bold, but dissolute, that, instead of assisting at the duties of their synagogues on the sabbath, they chose rather to be present at the public diversions and (hews, which were commonly exhibited on that day; Which seldom failed of producing those bloody skirmishes we mentioned above, and which the magistrates were seldom able to suppress. This put the prefect upon making some wholsome regulations against those disorders. But, whilst he was one day at one of them, and was giving some orders for the more peaceably exhibiting those shews, he found himself surrounded with a croud of the pa

triarch's creatures, who are supposed to have been sent for no other end, but to exasperare him against the Jttvs; one in particular, named Hierax, an admirer and great favourite ot' Cyril, bchav> d on that occasion in such a manner against them, that they loudly complained of him to the prefect; who thereupon, without any other ceremony, ordered him to be publicly whipt upon the stage. This was a sensible affront to the patriarch, who failed not to resent it as such: so that, instead of uniting their authority in promoting the public tranquillity of the city, they only strove to thwart each other's measures to the manifest disturbance of it (49). .

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Cyril, then bisliop of it, and lince fainted, was thought as much too zealous against them, as Orestes, the then- prefect, was partial to them; and, at length, carried it so far as to infringe upon his office, and to threaten them with ecclesi-A.C.415. astical execution. This however they despised, knowing the governor to be on their side; and grew to such an height of insolence as to resolve to fall foul upon them in the middle of the night. To this end, they hired some of their own people BiJhopCyto run about the street of the city, crying out, that the great ril arms church was all in flames; which immediately brought all the against Christians out unarmed, to go and save that noble building; tl-'emwhilst the Jeivs, who had taken care to distinguish themselves by some peculiar mark, fell upon, and killed great numbers of them. Cyril, as soon as he was apprised of it, staid not to be righted by the civil power, but, putting himself at the head of a sufficient number of Christians, entered their synagogues, and seised on them to the use of the church. He then abandoned their houses to be plundered, and obliged them to march out of the city almost naked. This failec} not to exasperate the prefect, who could not brook such an infringement on his authority, and the city to be stript of so vast a number of its inhabitants, without making the severest complaints against the bisliop, who, pn his part, sent several bitter accusations to court against him. Here the people, having declared for the prefect against the patriarch, would have obliged the latter to submit to the former, but he absolutely refused to do it.

Instead of that, he went to him with the Cospel in his Odd bchahand, and threatening in his words and looks, tried to <viovr to frighten him into a reconciliation. But, finding him inflexible, thepre/ia. he ordered a regiment of his monks, to the number of fifteen hundred, to come down from the mountains, and to assault Affaults him in his chariot with volleys of stones, which wounded him j1. '"■'?""<*' in the head, and covered him with blood; so that he must have been killed inevitably (hU guards having been forced to abandon him) had not the people come to his assistance, and rescued him out of their hands. The tumult being appeased, Ore/les caused one of the ringleaders of thole monks, named Ammonius, to be executed, and sent an account of the whole affair to court. The patriarch did the fame; and not only justified the proceedings of his monks, but, in his next sermon, declared Ammonius a martyr. This behaviour produ- Hypatia ced a new tumult soon after; in which, among many others murdered that lost their lives, was the deservedly celebrated Hyfiatfa, at a **f a young heathen lady, of great sense, learning, and virtue, tumti'twho was hurried by the bishop's mob before one of their

0 4 churches,

churches, and there cruelly butchered. The untimely zeal and presumption of the Alexandrian patriarch, which is so visible in all these transactions, hath been justly blamed by all impartial persons; even Socrates himself observes %, that she death of the amiable Hypatia reflected no small dishonour on him and his clergy. And it is plain, that the Alexandria ans were highly offended at his proceedings, since they all along sided with the prefect against him. Though it must be owned, that he betrayed such a spirit of opposition against him, and such a partiality for the Jews, as was as inconsistent with the character of a Christian prefect, as his was with that of a Christian bishop. f

Jewish pa- The Jewish nation received a more universal blow in this triarcbs centurV) ;n the total suppression of their patriarchs. We f"tPr'Me have formerly shewn, that they lived upon certain levies, • - • 4 9- wnich they made on those of their nation, and which used to be collected by their officers, or, as they affected to call them, apostles. These became at length to grow so exorbitant, that the people, weary of them, applied to the civil power, from which however they received no other redress than the mortification of seeing that tribute converted to the emperor's use, and their patriarch deprived of it. Theodofeus and Valentinian were the two monarchs who appropriated that income to their own treasury, by which means the patriarchal dignity was more effectually suppressed, than any edict could have done it; and, for want of a proper income to support it, was forced to dwindle away. Photius pretends, that the primates which succeeded the patriarchs, were charged with it, and answerable for it, and obliged to see it conveyed into the emperor's coffers (G). Western Let us now pass over to those of the west, where we shall Jews, Uk- find them enjoying indeed the full exercise of their religion, der Hono- unc)er Honorius, who had enacted a law, much to his honour, *?u!^ 'importing, that the glory of a prince consists in allowing all 412- his subjects the full and peaceable enjoyment of all their privi

■ * Socrates, ub. sup. lib. vii. c. 13, & seq.

(G) Some will have it in- ever is not quite so credible, seedeed, that Theodofius did ex- ing that high dignity, expenprefly abolish it; and others five as it was, did not a little think, that the people, weary contribute to the ease and creoP paying it, and maintaining dit of the ycwijh nation, as it so high an office at so vast an kept up, as it were, a center of expence, let it drop of their unity among them through the «wn aeccord. Thf last how- whole Raman empire.

leges, even whea their religion is not such as he can approve h. Pursuant to which, he expressly forbad the pulling down, or appropriation of their synagogues, or even to oblige them t» violate their Sabbath, on account of the public service, for which, he said, the other six days are sufficient. On the other hand, to prevent their abusing their liberty, he forbad them to build new synagogues, and making proselytes, and stripped them of some posts and offices which they had enjoyed before (H); particularly that of furnishing the army with provisions. He caused also a severe edict to be published against an upstart sect in Asric, called Calicola, or worshippers of Heaven; at the end of which is a clause forbidding the Jews to make proselytes; upon which account the Calicola have been thought by many to have been a Jewish sect, tho' without Cælicolæ any foundation, as the reader may fee by what we have sub- not Jews, joined in the margin (I).

h Cod Theodos. torn xvi. lib.xx.

(H) These chiefly related to the militia and agency. These agents had a threefold employment; 'viz. ift. Levying of imposts in the provinces; zdly, the providing and transporting of corn and other provisions for the use of the army; and 3dly, the serving as couriers and spies in all the provinces of the empire, and to fend a faithful account of all that passed. And on this last account they had the care of the public carriages (50).

(I) The famed lawyer Godfredius had long ago distinguished between that part of the edict which related to the Caelicola, and that which related to the Jews, notwithstanding they have been absurdly confounded, and the former supposed to have taken that specious name, to conceal that of

Jews, which was more odi-
ous (1): some have taken it to
have meant the Samaritans, who
had a temple at Naploufi, open-
ed on the top like an amphi-
theatre; others, the Effinians,
a very strict and contemplative
sect among the Jews, spoken
of in a former volume %, and
long since abolished: both which
suppositions are absurd, seeing
those two sects were of very old
date, and sufficiently known,
and could not therefore be call-
ed, as in the edict above-men-
tioned, a n»w and upstart sect.
And the clause which obliges
them to return into the bosom
of the Church, plainly shews
that they must have been 'a
sect of Christians, or, as is com-
monly believed, a spawn of th«
Donatists, whose tenets tallied
with^theirs (j).

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Minorcan In this century happened likewise the much celebrated, tho' Jews con- no less questioned, miraculous conversion of the Minorcan •verted, sews. That island had then two considerable towns, the 428. One the episcopal residence, and interdicted to the Jews, who were commonly punished with some sudden and miraculous death, if they ventured to set foot into it. The other, called Porto Mahone, was chiefly inhabited by Jews, who there enjoyed very considerable titles and posts, tho' subject to Honorius; insomuch that Theodofius, the chief of their synagogue, and a doctor of the law, was the chief man in the ■whole island. Severus being become bisliop of it, was easily persuaded by Orojius, (lately returned from Jerusalem, loaded with miraculous relics, which he was carrying into Spain) to undertake the conversion of the Jews. They began with private conferences, and proceeded to public ones ; the last of which was held in their synagogue, where finding that some Jewish women had armed themselves with stones to pelt them, they provided for their own defence. The consequence was, that the synagogue was pulled down, and nothing saved out of it but the books and plate: but the bisliop plied them with such numbers of miracles, that their greatest men began to releht, and in about eight days time, the greatest part of them were converted, and the synagogue turned into a church. Many, however, who remained obdurate, went and hid themselves in caverns, till hunger forced them out; and others leaving all they had behind them, went and sought an asylum in foreign countries; all which shews that there was some violence used against them by the bisliop and his clergy; and Baronius seems to own as much, and adds, that his example would have been followed in many other places, had not the Crowned heads put a stop to it. under the Upon the irruption of the Vandals into the empire, one Vandals, woold have thought that the Jews would have met with the worst of treatment from that fierce nation ; but yet we do not read that they fared worse than the rest, or were deprived of any of their privileges under them. They only shared in the common misfortunes, which are the usual concomitants of such great revolutions; but, in other respects, were still allowed the free exercise both of religion and commerce, only they were obliged to pay a tribute for it, and were moreover denied the enjoyment of titular dignities, and high posts, either civil or military'; which is no more than what they were under the Roman emperors. Theodoric in particular protected

l-Vid. AJtercat. Eccles. & Synagog, ap. Aucvst. in Appen. ad torn. yJii.


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