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his face, during the space of thirty years, that is, during the whole time of Cavades's reign m. Tews ter- They fared still worse under his successor Chosroes the fecund great; whose favour they had endeavoured to gain, by persuadwider ing him to break off his negotiations about a peace with the Chosroes -, emperor Justinian, which was then in great forwardness; by promising to him, that if he would go on with the war, they would furnish him with fifty thousand men, by whose help he might make himself matter of Jerusalem, one of the richest cities in the world. The king had so far given into that treacherous project, that he had broke off all the negotiations A.C.589. wjtn the emperor, and made several preparations towards putting it in execution, when word was brought to him, that those persons who had been employed in it had been seized and put to death, after having made a full discovery of the design. He pursued his war however, and with success his frequent inroads into Syria and Palestine f: but that did not hinder him from making the Jews share in the common calamities of the war with the rest; nor from shutting up all their academies in the east, which quite extinguished their love of learning, whilst their present prince, being forced to go into Judea, and to exercise a function vastly beneath him, the eastern Jews were quite destitute of chiefs". restored They did, however, recover their liberty before the year

by Hor- Was at an end, under Hormisdas III. (and the academy of Punmisdas, debita was again opened under the famed R. Chanan MehijA.C.589. cha, who became chief both of that and of the new' set of doctors called Caons, or excellent) and enjoyed it during the 12 years of his reign; when that prince was murdered by his son Chosroes II. as we have seen elsewhere *. This last did not, however, quietly enjoy the fruits of his parricide J his son Varames declared himself against him, as he had before done against his father, and soon after defeated, drove him out of Persia, and-obliged him to seek for succour from the emperor Mauricius, who lent him some fortes and generals. These had many a bloody contest with Varames, who _ . , had got a strong party in the kingdom, and the Jews likewise t Chos- *n k'S interest. These last, whom the Creek historian stiles0, a roes II faithless, unquiet, imperious, turbulent, and implacable nation, A.C.6ic. king then powerful enough in Persia to stir tip the subjcBs against their princes, and virulent enough to strengthen tin

m Seder Olam Zuta cum. not. Meieri, rid. 8c Imbon. Bibliot. Rabin, torn. v. p. 46. Bajnac. ub. sup. 1. viii. c. 9. f See Anc. Hist. vol. xi. p, 122. nTheophan Chronogr. p. 1 52. * See Anc. Kist. ibid. p. 124, & seq. ° Theophyl. Simocat. in Maur. lib. v. c. 7. Vid. Bainac. ub. sup. $ 7.


rebels against them. At length Cbofroes having the upper hand

over Varames, made them pay dear for their perfidy. Those

of Antioch were the first that felt the dire effects of his resent- Butchered

ment, when that city (P) was taken by Mebodes the Roman at u"

general, who immediately put vast numbers of them to the och*

sword, and many more to the most cruel deaths, reducing

the rest to the most deplorable slavery p.

CHOSROES, however, was no sooner seated on the Reconciled Persian throne, but he was reconciled to them, and received to Chossome signal services from them; especially in the war which roes, he waged against Phocas, the murderer of Mauritius, wherein he made a most dreadful havockof them both in Syria and Palestine, andtook the city of Jerusalem f. They seem even to have acted in concert with him, seeing he was no sooner master of that metropolis, than he delivered up all the Christians prisoners into their hands, though he could not but know that they only bought them with a design of satiating their 9?'°°? implacable hatred against them, as they accordingly did, info- j" "^'""J much, that no less than ninety thousand of them were un- » . mercifully butchered by them q.

This is farther confirmed by what Elmakin, and other Attempt on Arabian authors add of the Jews attempt upon Tyre, at the the city of time when Cbofroes was besieging Constantinople, and all the Tyre/r*/i forces of Syria and Judea were drawn out to succour thattratcclcapital. They, taking the advantage of that juncture, had combined to murder all the Tynans-, on Easter-day, and to seize upon that important place, and were actually come to the walls of it, but were stoutly repulsed by the inhabitants, who had had timely notice of their design. Upon this disappointment, the Jews dispersed themselves about the country, fell foul on the churches of the Christians, and burnt a vast number of them; but Were at length cut off by the Tyrians, who sallied out against, and made a terrible slaughter of them r. This shews that they were doing the Persian king's work, if they were not really hired by him to it. We have seen his fad catastrophe in a former chapter *.

We are now come to the 7th century, the beginning of Jews which was signalized not only by the transactions above-nam- der Mo

t Id. ibid. •}■ See Anc. Hist. vol. xi. p. 138, & seq. 1 Theo

PHAN. lib. sup. p. 252. r ELMAK. p. 271. PATRICEDBS.p. 236.

Hotting. Hist.- Orient, lib. i. c'. 3. • See Anc. Hist. ibid, p. 139, & seq.

(P) Not the metropolis of the inhabitants brought away

Syria, but a new city of that from the old one could hardly

name; and so exactly built after believe but it was the fame, its model, by Chosroes I. that

Mod. Hist. Vol. XIII. P ed,

hammed ed, but much more by the appearance of Mohammed on tht in the yth stage of the world. We have given the life and actions of that century. grand impostor in a preceding volume *, and shall only examine here, what (hare the Jews are said to have had in it; who, Theophanes tells us, seeing him appear in so splendid a manner, began to look upon him as the Messiah; insomuch, that many of them exchanged their religion for his; tho* they were soon after much offended at his eating of camels flesh, which is forbid by the Mosaic law ' (Q_J. However, the fear of appearing inconstant, or rather their hopes of receiving some considerable advantages from him, and of having it more in their power to injure the Christiasns, made them overlook, that nicety, and continue in his interest, as we observed in the last note. What assistance they gave him in the forming of his new religion, we have already shewn in the volume

* Vol i. pass p. 30, & seq. l Vid. Levitic.'xi. 4. Deut. xir. 7. See before, vol. iii. p. 155, & seq,. & (D).

Turn to andajstst him.

(Q_) It seems somewhat sur-
prising, thatthey, who scrupled
not to abandon their old law
for this new one, should be so
squeamish at's trans-
gressing in so inconsiderable a
point; tho' it is no strange
thing to meet with such con-
trasts in mankind, especially
aiinoflg the Jews. But, as the
fame author tells us, that they
dared not renounce this new
religion, it is likely that their
conversion to it was rather po-
litical than real; sor in sticking
'still close to him, they not only
fided with the strongest and most
'prosperous, but had thereby an
opportunity to four and exas-
perate that impostor against the
Christians, and bring freuY per-
secutions against them-; accord-
ingly our author adds, that they
hft close to him till he ivas viur-
tiered (10).

This last expression hath in-
deed shocked most readers;
since it is well known that Mo-
Huwmcj did not die. a violent

death. Some have therefore suspected it to be some error crept into the text of the historian^ and if so, it must be os old date, since Cedrenus hath said the very same thing aster him. But whatever the mistake is," most people think it to be meant of his flight, and not of his death. For it is not improbable, that they who had promised themselves such great advantages under him, might, when they saw hrm so reduced by the opposite faction, as to be forced to sty, be induced to abandon him. And accordingly, the Arabian authors boast that they did, on hit first appearing, fend him twelve of their doctors, to assist him in the compiling his Alcoran (11);' which if true, doth plainly shew that they were far enough from believing him to be the Messiah, whatever they might outwardly pretend, and whatever helps they might afford him in the carrying on his design.

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above.quoted: and shall only observe here, that it appears from his Koran, that he had read their books, and was not unversed in their religion and customs; and as .they were then very numerous and powerful in several parts of Arabia ^\, and had there many strong castles and fortresles, and maintained armies under their princes, when he:began to lay the foundation of, his new religion, it is more than probable that he took all proper means to engage them in his interest, whilst they, always intent on their worldly advantage, were as easily induced by his caresses and promises to assist him in all his views. But whatever cause they might afterwards give „ ,, him to. dislike them, it is plain, from the tenor of his writings, . ■" e * that he hated and despised them ; he calls them betrayers and,murderers of the prophets, and a people justly cursed of God, for their violation of his sabbaths and laws, and for their obstinate unbelief both of the ancient prophets, and of himself; for which he hath cursed them in many places of his Koran, and did at length declare open war against them.

This war was at first began by one of the principal Jews, Makes named Cajab, who opposed all his measures, for which reason w«r aMahammed had given orders to some of his men to lay gai»Jl for, and kill him; upon which he appeared at the head of his them. nation. Mohammed began with besieging them in the fortresses they held in Hegiasa ;. and having obliged them to furrender at discretion, banished them, and gave their wealth to his Me/lems. After this Cajab attacked him near Kaibar, a place about four days journey from Medina, in the third year after, the Hejra, and was totally routed by him, and With great difficulty saved his life by flight, whilst his troops were unmercifully butchered by the Mofavis. This did not hinder them from trying their fortune more than once against ^im; but they still met with the fame ill success: so that they were forced at length to submit to his superior force, and to » become tributary to him, in order to enjoy what they had. This yoke, however, proved so grating to the Jewish nation, that one of their women resolved to rid them of it, by poisoning him with a joint of mutton; but the prophet smelt the poison out, and eseaped the snare. Many other hostilities, the

(R) Particularly in that which to either. The Greek geogra»as known by the name of He- phers, who have joined it to the t'asa j which word signifies fe- latter, had neither rightly cotiparation, because it was situat- sidered its situation nor barrened between Arabia Deserta and ness; and it is to that canton Arabia Ftlix, without belonging the city of Mecca belongs.

P 2 Arabian

Arabian authors mention, between the Jews and Moslems*, not worth mentioning; and the former, being convinced to their cost of the great success of that false prophet, as well as of the severity of his yoke, they have applied to him the vision of Daniel's statue w, whose feet were partly iron, and partly clay; whence they inferred that the Messiah was not to appear till after the foundation of that empire, since he is there prefigured by the stone cut-out without hands, which was to destroy and put an end to it ". All which shews that there could be no such combination between the Jews and Mohammed and his disciples, as they have been charged with. Let us now fee how they fared under his successors, during the rest of this 7 th century. Tews un- After the conquest ot Persia by Omar II. Khalif after Modertbe bammed, the Jews under that monarchy not only became Califs, subject to the Saracens, but very often changed their masters, both by the swift succession of those monarchs, and the rapidity of their conquests in the east, and yet we do not find that their condition was at all altered for the worse, except that they shared in the common misfortunes which those conquerors brought into every province they subdued. We even find them making great rejoicings upon Omar's having overthrown Isdegert, and seized upon his dominions (S), as well as at every success which either he or his successors had against the Christians; especially as they found these new conquerors more mild and friendly towards their nation, so that they soon began to enjoy the full liberty not only of

u Set Vattier. Hist. Mahometan, lib. i. p. 6, & seq. De General Machumet lat.edit, ab Herman Dalmata. Suffrata. 49. p. 265. Hotting. Hist. Orient, lib. ii. c. 2. w Daniel ii. 31, & seq. x Ibid vers. 34.

(S) And well they might*, if and the demolishing of their

that prince, the last of the Per- Churches, could not but flatter

fian kings, had, as they pre- their hopes of seeing them in

tend (12), either began or car- time reduced. They have been

ried on such a bloody persecu- moreover accused of having in

tion against them, and had stigated the Moslems against

caused all their academies to them (13), by which they To far

be shut up, as we have lately ingratiated themselves to those

hinted. But this was not the new conquerors, as to recover

only occasion of their joy; the all the privileges they had lost

vast success of those princes, under the Persians.
great enemies of the Christians,

(12J Vii. Solemn Be*. Virg. f. 5. (r 3) PaulDintan, Hist. lib. urii.p. 3.1a. Rtda in Luc. 33.

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