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their religion, but of opening their academies, and restoring them to their flourishing condition. They mention indeed some {harp disputes which they had with the Khalif AU, about the many factions into which his sect, tho* of so short standing, was already divided, which that Khalif retorted, by reminding them of their several idolatries, immediately after their miraculous passing of the Red Sea. However, this did not hinder ?that prince from protecting them, as they had taken care J/rree. to secure his favour by the homage they paid to him (T). We jem 0rre. are indeed told that the Jews, who pretended then to deal lighn.&c. in astrology and magic, had promised Tezid, the son of Hasan, then on the throne, and a wicked prince, a forty years leign, if he would destroy all the images within his dominions; but that his accepting the condition raised such a powerful party of saints in heaven, that they obtained a sentence of death against him. Upon which his son was going to revenge the cheat, and his father's death, upon them, but that they retired betimes into the Roman territories, and so escaped his resentment y. But there is a manifest anachronism in that story, to say nothing worse of it, since Tezid died A. C. 683; whereas, according to the author last-named, the edict against images did not come out till three years after, that is, An. 686. Besides, it is so far from probable that the Jewish nation suffered under Tezid, or any of his immediate successors, that, on the contrary, they lived in such liberty and quiet under them, that their prince, or chief of the captivity, enjoyed as great an authority as if he had been their real king (U): and

the

y Bartoi.oc. ub. sup. torn. iv. p. 464. Maimeourg. Hist. Ionoclast. lib. i.

(T) They tell us that R. Isaac, Persian; unless we will suppose one of their most famed Gaons, that our author hath named the who went to pay his homage to one for the other; for Omar was him on his defeat of the Persian no less a favourer of the Jews king, was not only well receiv- than Alt, even by their own aced, but raised by him to some count, tho'heafterwardsobliged high dignity (14), and that the those that remained in Arabia to Khalif bestowed one of the prin- pay him a tribute (15), and upon cesses of Persia, his captives, on their refusal expelled them out Boftenar, the then chief of the of it.

captivity. But there seems to (U) We took notice lately of

be a gross mistake in this; <viz. their academies being again

that it was Omar, and not his opened and flourishing; and we

successor AU, that defeated the are farther told, that the con

(14) Gantx Ttumacb.f. 123. (15) Vati.trHiJi Malm, lib. i.

P 3 course

and like- the same may be said of those that dwelt in Egypt and Sy•vL-i/e those ria'; which was then under the Ommiades, whose family was of Egypt.n0 less friendly to the Jewish nation.

But it is now time to turn our eyes to those in the west,

under the Ronian emperors, at Constantinople, Africa, Italy,

Spain, France, &c. during the 6th and 7th centuries, which

we chuse to join together, to avoid breaking off the thread of

their history, The first cause of complaint which the emperor

Justinian, who affected to judge of most affairs relating to re

Justini- ligion, gave them, was his edict which forbad them to cele

vcCsedia brate their passover according to their own calculation, and

against enjoined them to keep it at the fame time with the Christi

ibem. ans »; This was no more than we are told he did to the latter,

whom he obliged to follow his new calculation, which caused

no less confusion amongst them b; but only the Jews, alwavs

tenacious of their old way, resented it at a higher rate (W),

They

-; * Vid. Basnac. ub. sup. Jib. viii. c. 1©. § 13. »Pnocof. Hist. Arc. 0 28. b Theophan. ad Just. an. 19.

course to them was such, that
for want of masters, they had
been obliged to raise a Weaver,
who had applied himself to the
study of the law, to the dignity
of professor at Sora; soon after
which the Gaons began to re-
store learning to its asicient
lustre. Several of them became
famed for their skill in physic,
as well as divinity; and R- Aa-
ron, a priest of Alexandria, did
then publish his PandetJs, or
Treasure os Remedies, which was
soon after translated into Arabic
by Mnssergiuffe, another Jewish
physiciar., in great repute at the
Xhalis's court.

Some make this last to have
Nourished in the reign os Hera-
tlius, and the khalifate of Msr-
•wan I. j but absurdly j, seeing
those two princes were not coT
temporary, and the latter reign-
ed not till the 68th year of the
titjra, or flight of Mohammed,
which answers to the year of
shrift 68^. However, what

hath been said is sufficient to shew that the Jews were in a flourishing condition under the first KhaWs.

(W) A late critic, often quoted in this work, rightly observes some great mistake in the year and occasion of this edict. as mentioned by Tbeophana and Nicephoras; and thinks that the emperor lengthened the Lent fast by on? week, because Easier on that year fell on the same day with the Christians and Jtfus: so that according to him, he made that change in the former only, to prevent its coinciding with that of the latter: but as his conjecture not only contradicts the two authors abpve.mentioned.but likewise by Procopius'h account, we Jhall leave them as we find them.

There is still another difficulty in the account of that edict, the last-named author, and his annotator, vt«. that it forbad the Jews eating of the paschal ■ ?f ljunb They had soon after a more severe edict against them, by which that emperor deprived them of several privileges; as first, of being admitted by the magistrates as evidence against the Christians. Secondly, of making wills, and bequeathing • legacies: to which some add, that of bringing up their children in their religion, who were, instead of that, to be catechised, and brought up Christians; tho' this last is much to be questioned. He likewise deprived those otAfric of the ex- s„ Asric excise of their religion, at the request of the council of Car~ suppressed, thage; and sent orders to his prefcElus pretoris there to turn A.C. 530. all their synagogues into churches, and to restrain them from performing any religious duties in caverns c (X).

These

* Procop. de Ædif.lib. v.. c. 2.,p. 110, & seq.

lamb on that solemnity, under great penalties; for the Jpws did never eat it out of Jerusalem *. So that it seems to relate only to those who lived in the neighbourhood of that city, or perhaps rather to the Samaritans seated about Mount Garizim, either of which might think they might privately eat it.

(X)' This was more particularly put in execution in the city of Borium, seated at the foot of a ridge of mountains, which make the boundary of Pentagons on the west. Its situation was strong by nature, because the access to it was inclosed by the mountains above-mentioned, which had only a narrow passage to it. It was filled with Jews, who had now made it their retreat, and lived in it unmolested and tax-free. They had there a stately structure which they styled a temple, and pretended to be as old as Solomon, which (hews that they must have.been settled there a consir derable time, and were very po

pulous and wealthy, notwith-
standing their vicinity to the
Moors. However, Justinian's
orders were so punctually exe-
cuted, that l)xtjetvs were most-
ly converted, and their syna-
gogue turned into a church;
after which the emperor caused
the city to be fortified with stout
walls (16).

This century is very fertile
in miracles, which were wrought
for the conversion of Jews and
Heathens; som'eof which are of
too puerile a nature to deserve
a place in a work like this,
such as those wrought by one
Simon, an ideot of the city of
Erne/fa; which yet failed not to
work their effect on those unbe-
lievers, if we may credit the
authors that have recorded
them (17). But we shall men-
tion a very remarkable one
which happened at Constantino-
ple, because it will give alight
to some part of the history of
those times.

It was, it seems, the custom then, after the communion was over at church, to call in the

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These edicts, which were by the Jevis looked upon as .1 kind of persecution, failed not, as usual, to produce a more than ordinary discontent; which by degrees ripened into revolts, as soon as a proper opportunity offered. The first of them was raised accordingly by one Julian, who set up for A false the Mesiiah, and drew after him many of the Jews ot Palestine, rxfflinh in who were in great hopes of him, from the title of conqueror Palestine, which he took, and the great appearance he made ; and who A.C530. having armed all his followers, led them against the Christians. These, being fearless of any hostilities from the oppressed Jews at that time, were flaughtered by them in great numbers; till at length the emperor sent his forces against, and suppressed them; they fighting rather like wild desperadoes than like regular troops. Their leader being taken, was immediately pnt to death, which soon ended the revolt (Y)d.

Much

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children to eat tvhnt remained
of the consecrated bread. A
Jtouifi boy being one day a-
mongthem, wenc in and took
part with them; and being ques-
tioned by his father, about his
not coming so soon as usual, and
baving ownd the true cause of
it, that unnatuial parent threw
him into a burning oven, where
he kept him three days shut up.
At length the mournful mother,
who had sought for him far and
near, happening to name his
name, in a kind of lamenting
tone, near the oven's mouth,
the boy answered to it; and
being taken out, told her that
a fine lady, cloathed in purple,
had saved him both from being
burned and starved. The em-'
peror being informed of it, sent
for the mother and child, who
were both baptised. The boy
was brought up and became a
clergyman, and tac mother a
deaconess; whilst the obstinate

father, refusing to follow their example, was crucified in one of the suburbs of that metropolis. Thus far our author (• 8) : after whom Beda tells much the fame story, only he icmovcs the scene from Conjlantineple to Rome, as well as the time from Justinian to that of Ihcodojius the younger (19).

(Y) This story is dift'erendy related by another chronologer (zoY who tells us that tha Samaritans having had some skirmishes with the Christians at Naplouse their capital, in which they had burnt some of their houses, and Justinian having caused their governor to be put to death, for not having timely suppressed them, they grew so desperate, as to chose one Julian, a captain of banditti, to be their king, and fell foul upon the Christians, overthrew their churches in several parts of the province, massacred /Imo

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Much such another happened at Casarea, about twenty- Jews refive years after; in which the Samaritans and Jews, though volt at mortal enemies to each other, as we have had frequent occa- Cæsarea, sions to shew, did yet join forces against the Christians, demo- A.C.555. listied their churches, massacred great numbers of them, and particularly the governor in his own palace0. His lady, having happily escaped their fury, sent word to Justinian of all that happened; who immediately sent Æamantius thither to take full information of the facts ; which being conveyed to court, with all their aggravations, the richer Jews had their goods confiscated, great numbers of those who had had a hand in the revolt were beheaded or banished, and their execution performed •with such severity as made the rest of the Jewish nation tremble, and prevented for a time their taking up arms against the Christians (Z).

They did however join with the Goths in Italy against Help to deJujliman, and his general Belifarius; especially at the city offendNzNaples, which the latter was then besieging (A), and in which P^s,

. ^ey;

e Id. ibid. P. Vanfred. Hist, in Bibliot. Max. patr. torn. xiii. p. 376. Cedren, Annal. p. 316.

■nos, bishop of Naplouse, cut his clergy into mince-meat, and fried it with their relics, and committed many other disorders of the like kind, where-e ver they came; insomuch that people were afraid to travel, till the revolt was quelled by the emperor's troops.

Among the other exploits which Julian did at that capital, laving entered it when they were performing their races and games, hefet himself up as judge of the prizes; and Nicias having gained one, and applying to him for it, he aflced him what his religion was, and finding that he was a Christian, immediately cut off his head, as unworthy of the crown; but being soon after defeated and taken his head was likewise taken off, and sent to the emperor, together with the crown he had on. Twenty thousand of his troops

were flain upon the spot j the
rest retired to Mounts Garizzim,
Jrparizim, and other mountain-
ous parts of Tracbonitis; and
about 20,000 of the young pri-
soners were fold for slaves, and
sent into Persia and India.

(Z) Some modern historians
make this second revolt against
Justinian to have been soon af-
ter followed by a third j but as
neither the Greet authors, who
would hardly have omitted it,
nor Paul the deacon, from
whom they pretend to quote it,
mention any thing of it; it is
more likely that they had
smarted too much in the second,
to have been so quickly drawn
into a third.

(A) That general having quitted the Vandals in Jfrie, and recovered the Ca.credjeiui/b vessels, which Titus had carried from Jerusaletn to Rome, and GenjEfwhad seized on at the sacking

of

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