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Mean time the followers of Tedik (or GyeMk) increasing A. D. \nAfi*, the ministry to pacify them, promised to employ 1688. them in the Hungarian war, and make Yeghen their general. 1,""''«,","' But as soon as news was brought of that rebel's death, the yye°uk * mind of the Porte altered; and orders were sent to the Kay-'"'"-''' maykdm, not only to prevent the Asiatics from passing into Europe, but also to destroy them in their own country. Accordingly he attacked, and defeated a large party of them near Skutari. Yet this did not discourage Tedik, who, with six thousand men, marched towards Prasa.; and, having defeated the Pajha of that place, with the Nefiran, or militia, caused himself to be proclaimed king of Anatolia. After this, he laid siege to Angora (Enguri, or Ancyra) which was forced to redeem itself by the payment of eighty purses, each containing five hundred dollars.

Hereupon the Turkish court returned to their old method He is killed fair promises, assuring Tedik and his accomplices both of ed. pardon and reward, in cafe they would return to their duty. But this had no effect; for under pretence of zeal for religion, which they alledged was corrupted by the then governors, they summoned all the inhabitants of Anatolia to defend the fame. At length, the Beglerbeg of that province being honoured with the title of Tefujh, or inquisitor, first exposed to the people the perfidious designs of Tedik against the faith; and then, with six thousand choice men, attacked his camp with such success, that he gained a complete victory. Most of the commanders were either slain (among whom was Tedik), or taken; and the men who survived the battle, suffered to return to their respective homes. In the mean time, Rejeb < Pajha was made Serafiier, in the room of Teghen; whose nephew, with forty of his followers, and the governor of Wid' din put in by Teghen, being taken, were put to death u.

The domestic enemies being suppressed, the Soltan is more jpa;rs 0t at liberty to prepare against the foreign. And first, in order ^Morea. to secure the southern provinces against the Venetian arms, he sets free Liberius Cheralkhari (O), who had been confined

Ricaut, ubi supr.

(O) Better known to Europe- lot for several years: but at

ans by the name of Liberaki, length taken by the ;urks, was

which is a corruption of Libe- sent to the gallics; from whence

rius, according to the manner he was set free, for advice men

of the Greeks. He was a native tioned in the text; and honoured

of Mania, the antient Lakania. with a Saxjdk, but no Tug, <in

He in his youth served in the der the title of Mania Beghi.-—

Venetian fleet; then turned pi- Cant.


in the gallies; and appoints him prince of Mania, or the Maynottce. He was induced to this, partly by the success of his arms in Moldavia, which convinced him that a Christian governor could much more easily keep his Christian subjects in. obedience, than a Turkish; and partly, by the assurances of Liberius, that all the people of Morea were alienated from the Venetians, for endeavouring to force on them the Romijh religion; and that therefore, they would soon submit again to the Othman dominion, in case a prince of the Greek church was made governor of that province (O). Seghed- The affairs being settled, §oleyman, to terrify the enemy, •wat taken, and animate his own soldiers, declares, that he will comHei noo m&n-d ,the army in person against the Germans; and having A. D. raised as many troops as he could, marches towards Servia, 1688. as if he intended to besiege Belgrade: but being informed at Sofia, that Seghedwar (or Sigeth), famous for the martyrdom of Soleymdn I. had been forced by famine to surrender (P); and that the imperial army, which, he imagined, had been wholly employed against the French, was marching from Belgrade against him with great expedition; he, in a fright, stops at Sofia, and leaves the armj to. the conduct of the Serastier Rejcb Pajhd, with orders not rashly to hazard a battle, fhtSerat- ^ut onty prevent the progress of the enemy. The Serajkier Icier rout- being come to the river Morava, in sight of the Germans, ed. and deceived by his astrologer (Q__), who, from his obser

vation of the stars, promised him certain victory, bravely attacks them; but is obliged to retire, with great loss, to Nijsa. Yet his eyes were so far from being open at this misfortune, that having recruited his forces, he engages them a second time, depending on the predictions of the fame astrologer: however being quickly defeated, and almost his whole

(O) The truth of this we shall easily give credit to their pre

sind verified in the beginning of dictions, fancying that the heq

the 18th century.' venly bodies are the instruments

(P) After it had been block- by which providence performs

ed up for two years, and the every thing; and which by their

articles signed on the 28th of figures express what ought to be

"January 168J by the emperor, done. Likewise, that on the

Eut Kaaifia and Great Waradin, foreheads of all men are writ

though brought to the like ex- ten, in their mother's womb,

tremity, held out still. Ricaut. whatever is to befall them, ac

( Q_)A|though the Turks are cording to the harmony of the

forbidden sorcery, and all kinds stars. The Waxtr% courts are

of divination j for the Koran ex- full of such prophets, but they

presly declares, Kiulli Mumji- never dare foretell unhappy

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army army destroyed, he escapes with a few followers, perceiving, A.D. too late, the vanity of his superstition. After this, the Ger- 1688, mans over-run at once all Servia, take Widdin, Nijsa, She-' *" Mm*4 hirkioi, and burn Siopia, a city of Bulgaria ".

As the merit of a victory depends much on the knowlege , &""* of the strength of both armies, an historian cannot shew greater partiality, or want of flcill, than in omitting to mention what number of men each consisted of. According to the foregoing account of the Serq/iier's defeat, the reader will be apt to conclude, that the Turks were much inferior to the imperialists in force; whereas, if the Christian writers may be credited, they had twice or thrice the advantage ia numbers. Prince Lewis of Baden, having reinforced Belgrade with two thousand foot, and fortified Seviendria, marched . with his army, and encamped near Morava: but on news of the Turks retreat, on the 2d of August, he pursued them towards Nijsa with the rest of his army, which cpnsisted only of eighteen thqusand men ; whereas the Turks amounted to forty thousand, besides undisciplined troops. They had not marched far, before their put-guards were attacked by a body of Tatars; two of whom being taken, informed them, 7£/Turk» that a great body of Turks and Tatars under Soltan Galga,, routed. the Khan's son, designed to attack them qn one side near Passarovitz, while the Serajlier inclosed them on the qther side, with an army of fifty thousand men, in order to put-off their provisions. The prince thereupon resolved to dislodge the Serajiier, who was encamped within two hours march, and, on. the 29th of August, advanced briskly against him. On this unexpected motion the Turks retreated for three hours; when coming to a pass, they stood their ground, but were soon routed, and dispersed in the woods, with the loss of four hundred horse and twelve standards. Many were killed afterwards by the hussars who hunted them; and the roads strewed with arms and cloaths, which to escape the better, they threw away. ^ Ta_

Enpouraged with this success, owing chiefly to the con- tars "_ duct of the generals Veterani and Picolomini, the prince re- fad. pasted the Mprava; in order to attack Soltan Galga encamped with his Tatars beyond that river, before he could join with the Turkish cavalry lately defeated. As the road lay by a very Harrow passage through a thick wood, half an hour's march in length, which opened into a small plain; five hundred men were sent under count Solaro to secure that paslage. In this design they were opposed by three thousand Janizaries, <iad a good body of horse. But general Heistcr coming to

* Cant. p. 360, & seqq.

A. D. their assistance, so advantageously posted himself within the 1688. woods and thick bushes, that he maintained the pass til] ^- ■"/" ""' next morning; when prince Lewis advanced with his main » • force in a.great fog, and posted himself before the wood. On the right hand, he was sheltered by thickets, and bushy grounds almost impassable; and his left wing extended to the bank of the Morava. Join the But before the'cavalry could arrive, the fog dissipated, and Turks, unexpectedly discovered the whole Turki/h army drawn up in order of battle, just fronting the imperial infantry; which the Turks instantly attacked with such unusual violence, that prince Lewis had scarce time to range his second line in a posture of defence. However the imperialists stood the shock from their great and small shot, with much firmness; then playing their parts, the fight grew very hot for two hours together within pistol-shot; when the music of the cavalry, which now came up, sounding without the forest, the enemy was struck with such fear, that they retreated into the neighbouring wood, and thence into a plain behind it, where they entrenched themselves. Here being followed by the imperialists, the cannon was played hotly on both sides for an hour and half; after which, the Turks retired to another trench encompassed with a ditch of water, and accessible only in one place.

Hereupon count Palfi was ordered with his regiment, to . ar~ enter the wood, and found all his warlike instruments, in . 'order to make the enemy believe some great body was ad

vancing to fall on their rear, while count Picolomini with the van attacked them in front. This he did with such resolution, in spite of their cannon, that they presently quitted that post also, and retreated in disorder through the woods, followed by the imperialists; who would have made a dreadful slaughter had not the ways been narrow, and unknown to them: however they pursued them to their camp at Pata/chin, which they abandoned, leaving behind all their artillery (R), ammunition, provision, and baggage. In. their way to Jagodina on the Morava, whither they fled in great disorder, numbers of them were cut-off by the Hungarians and Rascians ; M»ho brought also to the camp many prisoners, and thirty-six pieces of cannon of the largest size x. Battle of The prince, after he had refreshed his forces, began his Niffa. march to Nijsa, twenty leagues distant, through woods and

1 Ricaut, ubisupr.

(R) 105 brass cannon, and three mortars.

mountains. mountains. The Turks had still most of their army intire, and were besides reinforced with twenty thousand men; yet on his approach, the Serajhier quitted that city, and encamped near it by the fide of the Nifsava. The prince pitched his tents within a league of Nijsa, near a little river which falls into the Niffava; and on the 24th of September, about five in the evening, possessed himself of the sides of the hill over the enemy's camp, in spite of all their oppofii tion. This done, lest the Turks should fortify their camp in the night, he resolves to attack them off-hand; extending his right wing towards the foot of the hill, and his,left along the plain to the banks of the Niffa-Oa. The Serafiier hereupon caused the greater part of his cavalry, drawn-upon the declivity of the hill, to charge the infantry of the left wing: but seeing them advance with their cannon in front, they wheeled about towards the right wing; and attacked them at the foot of the hill on the flank, which could not be secured.


This produced some confusion among the Hujsars: but f^Turks being timely supported by other troops, the Turkish horse owr. must have been routed, had not some of their own troops thrvwn, fired on them, and forced them to stand their ground. However the main body under Beifter, being ordered to attack the enemy on the hill, after a long conflict gained the top; whither the duke of Cray, who commanded towards the river? {con after arriving, the Turks were quickly driven from thence with great slaughter. Notwithstanding this, the enemy's horse rallying again in the plains, made another vigorous assault on the left wing, but were repulsed; when the Janizaries, who were making new trenches, fired on them, and forced them to stand another charge, which they diet with great firmness against the Hujsars. However these, being succoured by the Regiment of Caprara, at last forced them in-tirely to quit the field, and furiously pursued them to their very camp. Mean time another party of horse attacked their main body: but count Staremberg coming to their assistance, the enemy was put to a disorderly flight, and pursued till night parted them.

In this action ten thousand Turks were killed, and not above three hundred Germans; which was the more surprising, as the former were reckoned to amount to eighty thousand, the latter to scarce fifteen thousand men. The, booty too was very great, consisting os thirty pieces of cannon, many thousands of tents, and divers standards, besides^ store of provision.

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