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They would have undergone a more severe and destruc- Ferditive one, under king Ferdinand, (who, at the instigation of his nand opbigotted wife, was going to sanctify his war against the Sara- P°sc^' j>? cens by the extirpation of the Jews) had not the bishops, and t'"'>ifi>ofu even the pope, Alexander II. put a stop to his furious zeal, by publicly opposing and condemning it (L). But what most probably put them out of all danger from that monarch and his successor, was the revolution which the Moors caused in Afric, by which Alfonso, distressed on every side, found himself obliged to befriend and caress, instead of oppressing them, in order to make them serviceable to him with their purses and assistance. Accordingly, they were promoted by him to con- A.C. siderable posts, and obtained such other privileges, that pope 1080. Gregory quite disapproved of them (M), tho'his censures could not prevail upon'him to retract them: His grandson Peter %■ Peter was no less deaf to the remonstrances of Nicholas de Valen- refuses to tia, who endeavoured to divert him from joining in the cru- persecute {ade or holy war, lately published; by representing to him them, that he had too many dangerous enemies in his bosom, mean- A» C. ing the Jews, to need to go so far to seek new ones. He I09°*

(L) That pontiff"having been acknowledged in Spain, for the lawful pope, against his competitor Honorius, he wrote them a letter, in which he highly commends their laudable opposition to Ferdinand's bloody design against the Jews, by which he was going to take away the lives of those to whom probably God might grant light and immortality. He condemns his zeal as furious and unchristian, and reminds him of the example of pope Gregory the great, who had strenuously opposed the like persecutions, and the pulling down of the Jewish synagogues. He concludes with shewing them the difference between the §aracens, against whom the prince was going to wage war, and who were persecutors, and the mortal enemies of the Christians and the 'Jews,

who were only a kind of slaves
underthem(2).Ithathbeenque-
stioned whether this letter was
directed to the bilhops of France
or those of Spain; but the conti-
nual wars which the Spanish
monarchs were waging against
the Saracens mentioned in it,
sufficiently shews that it was di-
rected by that pontiff to the bi-
sliops of Spain.

(M) One of them especially,
that pope highly resented; -viz.
his setting up the Jews to be
judges over the Christians, for
which he upbraids him with
having set up the synagogue of
Satan above the church of
Christ (3). Alfonso, however,
was too much intangled with
his war, to listen to his remon-
strances, so that he let the Jews
enjoy their privileges and liber-
ties, in spight of all the'pontiff's
orders to the contrary.

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insisted in particular, that they hated the Christians to such a degree, that they" never gave them any other than a middling greeting; (the reader may see the meaning of that obscure expression in the margin (N).) to which he added many other incentives' equally ridiculous, to which the king, who was averse to persecution, only lent a deaf ear. However, this did not save the Jews from being massacred by the crusaders, in several other parts of Spain, by way of begging a blessing on their holy expedition. Men of Notwithstanding all these persecutions, Spain pro

hartting. duced a great number of learned rabbies, during this 11 th century, particularly the celebrated Samuel Cophjis, a native of Cordowa, who publissied a commentary on the Pentateuch, the manuscript of which is still extant in the Vatican library. Those who have examined it, commend it as an excellent work, only too full of allegories. He died A. C. 1034. Soon after him flourished no less than five Isaacs at once, all of them famed for their writings, whose farther character and works the reader will find in the margin (O). But this increase

(N) He intimated by it, that when the Jews saw a Christian afar off coming towards them, they prayed to the gods and goddesses to destroy him: when he was come nigh enough to him, they wished him health and a long life: and when he was gone far enough out of hearing, they prayed to God that the earth might open and swallow him up, as it did Corah and his rebellious crew; or that the sea might overwhelm him, as it had done Pbaroah (4).

(O) One of them was called Isaac Alpheji, because he was come over from Africa, and out of the kingdom of Fez, into Spain, probably with the Morabethons, or, as Marianna calls them, Almorawidcs, who were descended from the Arabian Homerites, who became Christians in the reign of Justinian. The Morabethons hav

ing conquered Mauritania, under their general Abubekier, his nephew Joseph extended his conquests as far as Spain, where his family reigned till the 12th century. And this Isaac Alpheji may be supposed to have come thither about the fame time, where he was looked upon as the most learned man of his age, and became chief of the captivity there. His epitaph which was wrote in hexameters, was to this purport: "Let it "be engraved on this stone, "that the light of the world is "gone out, and that the foun"tain of wisdom is deposited "within this tomb. Daughters •" of Sitn come and weep; the "world is buried and stricken "with blindness; weep and sigh, "for the ark and the tables of "the law are broken in pieces ". with this doctor (5)."

Another was the son of Ba

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crease of learned men did not fail of increasing their old feuds Feuds ani and quarrels, and still more between their disciples and them.-ÆrwTf For these having gained a taste of polite learning, wanted to among dive still deeper into the arts and sciences, which their mastersTM*'"were n/>less desirous and careful to prevent. We have had frequent occasion, thro' the course of their history, to observe that they bred them up in a singular contempt for all kind of so- Rrophant reign learning; and we find, in the apostil to the text of the /taming Mifbna, a severe curse intailed on him that breeds up a boy, condemned and him that suffers his son to learn the Greek tongue; as if by some, the one was equally impure as the other. But by this time we are now upon, they found it next to impossible to suppress either the knowlege of foreign tongues, or many of their studious disciples consequently from diving into their books, and conceiving a singular liking for polite literature: so that the professors now began to divide themselves on that account, some by endeavouring to suppress and condemn that prophane curiosity, others by restraining it within some limits, and a third fort, by giving it its full scope and liberty (P); and these last so far prevailed, that the young students began to apply themselves so closely to the study of the

ruth, who deduced his genealogy from Barucb, Jeremiah'* secretary, and pretended that his family had passed into Spain at the destruction of Jerusalem by fittv. He was such a lover and master of the mathematics, that the king of Granada called him the Mathematician, and heard him read several lectures onthatscienceatcourt. He continued in that couhtry, greatly esteemed, till his death, which happened a7».ioo7,when he gave an amplcproof of his repentance for having fallenout with the former Isaac, and having rejected all means of being reconciled to him: for, finding his death approaching, he sent his son to him to obtain his pardon; which the other, who was as near his latter end, readily granted, and, as a token of his sincerity, took care of that youth's education whilst he lived. The other

three were likewise men of
learning, but of the same proud
leaven, and so not worth dwell-
ing longer upon.

(P) ft was indeed in a man-
ner impossible for them to pre-
vent the learning of foreign
tongues; for how could they
that lived in Egypt avoid speak-
ing Greek, those in the Roman
empire Latin, those in Spain the
Saracen or Arabic? Notwith-
standing which, R. Solomon, who
was professor at Barcelona, in
this eleventh century, took up-
on him to excommunicate every
Jew that should begin to learn
Greek before he was zo years of
age, which, tho' a wide step
from the rigidnefs of the anci-
ent law, proved so little satis-
factory, that R. Mar, without
minding his anathema, gave
these young students a full liber-
ty to learn both the languages
and sciences.

mathematics,

mathematics and other sciences, that Spain, in a little time,

produced a great number of learned men among them c.

p It proved far otherwise in France, where the scarcity of

teamed rabbies or anY llote was such, during these two centuries, that

in France.wenot rea(* or" above five or fix that distinguislied them- ■

selves for their learning. The most celebrated of them was

R. Ger- R- Gerjbom, or Gerjion, who, whether a native of France, or

shorn, of Mentz in Germany, as most pretend, published there his

book of constitutions, which, tho' it was a long time before

it could meet with the approbation of the rest of the Jewish

doctors, yet it was at length received as a body of excellent

laws, about the year 1204, and its author dignified with

the title of Light of the French captivity*. He is affirmed

by some to have died an. 1028, and by others 40 years later.

So that those who pretend that he flourished in the ninth

century, are egregiously mistaken. He had some eminent

disciples, whose characters and writings the reader will find

in the margin (QJ, • . .

c Gantz & al. ub. sup. d Id. ibid. Bartoloc. ub. sup. torn. iv. p. 69, Si seq. Wolf Bibl. Hæbr. sub voc.

(Q) The most celebrated of. them was R. Jaacob, the son of Jekar, a great musician, and casuist, whole decisions are received with the greatest esteem, and cannot be rejected without incurring a crime. He is said to have flourished about the same time with his master;. and to have died in the fame year. The next was R. Judah, iirnamed Abercellonita, who was a professor of laws at Barcelona, and wrote a treatise on the rights of women, and another on the various Jewish calculations of time j such as from the exod, from the first Je<wijb monarch, from the entry of Alexander into Jerusalem, &c. which last was followed down to the 10th century, when rabbi Sberirah, formerly mentioned, ob

liged the Jews to reckon from the creation of the world f. Judah likewise published some sermons. The last worth mentioning, was R.Moses Hadar/hian, or the Preacher. These two last introduced preaching in their synagogues, which had been till then much neglected; but the latter seems by his tide of Preacher, to have been the most admired, and was likewise the author of the Bereshith Rahhah, or large comment on Genesis, often quoted by Christians (6) against the Jews, and by us frequently in their preceding history. He died in the year 1070, and lest behind him a no less celebrated disciple, i>iz. Solomon Jarchi. OX the Lunatic, whom we have had frequent occasion to mention in this chapter.

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Bcjt among the rest of the French rabbies of this centu- The foam ry, we must not omit the author of the pretended history of Joi'ephus, Jostpp Ben Gorton, whom, as we have elsewhere shewn, the a native a/ Je-ws have substituted for the Greek historian of that name*. France> '* This Jewish impostor, to gain the greater credit with his JU cen"" readers, begins with giving himself out for aroyalprince and priest of the Jewish Has w«, in whose personprovidence hadunitedThe high those two dignities, to war against their enemies. He calls himself '»««* "e the Joseph/u// ofthe spirit ofwisdom and understanding, of conn- %''??' sel, fortitude, knowledge, and of the fear of the Lord; and who'e'' sacrificed his life to the defence of the sanctuary and people of God e. He adds, that one of his soldiers, one day, cried aloud to him, thou art the man of God. Blessed be the God of Israel, ■who hath created the soul that animates thee, and hath endowed. thee with such extraordinary wisdom! And when taken by the Romans, their army asked each other with tears, Is that the persons) admired among the Jews, and so dreaded by the Romans? Hoiu is he caught, who was alone once able to inject terror into our army, and hath filed the universe with the fame of his valiant deeds? Titus himself was no less taken with his person and courage, and raised him above all the priests and Levites' of his nation (R).

We have already taken occasion to speak of his fabulous His history history, and the occasion of his imposing it on the world in fabulous, an age so far remote from that in which he pretends to have an^ nur',te ■wrote it, as well as of the time in which it began to be made '"_ °PP°fiknown to the world, viz. A. C. 1140. His imposture hath tl0n I however so well succeeded by his pirating from the Greek tr?e •* and original Josephus, such facts as were to his purpose, mis-" representing and adding such others as he pleased, and couching his history in the Hebrew tongue, whereby the Greek one became not only neglected but suspicious, and at length rejected as a forgery, by those of his nation. So that we need not wonder if the generality of them have since extolled it to

♦See Anc. Hist vol. x. p. 69;, & (H). eVid. Ladisl. Decree lib. i. c. 10. ap. Verbocz Corp. jur. Hungar.

(R) Thus much we thought pet; tho' we justly may, that so

necessary to mention to give a many ofhis own nation should be

lk.etch of the modesty and e'o- infatuated enough to join in the

quenceofthis ^W')& braggadq- chorus, and raise his character

ciO, in which we need not won- and panegyric even beyond

«ier that a man who designed to , what he himself had done, as

impose such a forgery on the we have had occasion to shew

vvorld, should be so lavish of his at the beginning of this chap

-breath in blowing his own trum- ter:

Mod. Hist. Vol.. XIII. S the

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