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the Ikies, and so many learned men among the Christians have been deceived by it. As to the fuller confutation of the author and his history, and the many falshoods, contradictions, absurdities, <bc. which plainly prove its forgery, we shall, for brevity's fake, refer our readers to the authors quoted in the margin f, and proceed with Oot Jewish history in other nations in Europe. Jews in We begin to find them flourishing in Hungary towards the Hungary, latter end of the 11 th century, when St. Ladijlaus, who then A. C. reigned, convened a synod, in which were made several regula1092. tions, such as if a Jew mould marry, or, as the act words it, fibi ajsociaverit, a Christian woman, or buy a Christian stave, they mould be set at liberty, and the price given for them confiscated to the bishop S. His son Cohman being come to the throne, forbad them, by a new law, the using of Christian slaves, but permitted them to buy and cultivate lands, on condition they used no other but Pagan slaves, and settled ,- only in such places as were under the jurisdiction of a bi

shop h. These two laws shew the Jews to have been numerous and powerful in that kingdom. Suctefit* They were no less so in Germany and Bohemia, where Hungary they had built many stately synagogues, in most of their noted WBohe- cjt;eS) particularly in the former, at Treves, Cologn, Mentz, mm' and Franc/art. They had likewise settled themselves in the

latter, ever since the 10th century, when they assisted the Christians against the irruptions of the barbarians, and for which they were allowed to have a synagogue there also (S).

They

rCoLODAN. Reg. deer. lib. i. ad an. 1100 ap. Vbrbocz. ub. sup.p. 65. « Josippon feu Joseph Bin Gorion. Hist. Jud. libri sex p. 309, & 346. h Ce hoc vid. Basnac. Hist, des Juifs lib. ix. an. 6. pass.

(S) We are told however, other world; there being scarce

that they were so much terrified a night in which there were not

by a variety of prodigies which some travellers from the one to

seemed to threaten the destruc- the other. Pope Benediil XII.

tion of the world, that having was seen to come from thence,

lost all hopes of the coming of mounted on a black horse, to

the Messiah, they for the most givo notice of a bishop being

part embraced Christianity, cruelly tormented there, be

And indeed, if we may believe cause all his alms had been the

thole historians, this eleventh fruit of his extortions; and to

century was remarkably preg- advise his surviving brother t«

nant with such wonders, and open the chests of his ill-gottert

nothing so common as the then wealth, and distribute it to the

intercourse between this and the po?r. Others came to inform

against They underwent indeed, in several parts, some grievous persecutions from the zealots, such as those we have hinted under the last note; but the emperor Henry (not the Vth, as the Jews have mistaken it \ but his father, who was then at variance with pope Gregory about some investitures) having de- TroteSci dared himself for them, they were not only resettled in their an- by the cmcient abodes, but had, by his orders, all the goods refunded/«w, which they had been plundered of. This occasioned fresh A. C. complaints and accusations, they being charged with having 1096. magnified their losses, in order to enrich themselves by a more plentisu] restitution, which, if true, they did easily bear the scandal of, for the advantage they gained by it.

But what most contribnted to kindle the heat and fury of the zealots against them, was the march of the crusaders Ncjfacrii thro' Cologn, Mentz, Worms, Spires, and other cities of Ger- y'he cru~ many, where they committed fresh massacres in every one'* A Q from April to July, on those that refused to be converted. ,"" The Jewi/b historians reckon but 5000 that were either butchered or drowned; and as to the number of those that saved themselves by dissembling, it was beyond computek; and they are so far from having exaggerated the particulars of that persecution, that the Christians make the number of thefor

'Shalflieleth Kakka'oalah, sub A. M. 4856. p. 110. k Id. ibid.

against whole monasteries of they were caught plundering
nuns, who were employed in the Christians as well as the
making drawers for men, which Jews, ravishing their wives, and
made them burn with lust to- giving themselves up to all kind
wards them. All which, and of debaucheries: and he was
many more, passed for current surprised in the midst of them,
in those times. and slain with the greatest pare
However, those prodigies had of his troops. (7) The land-
not converted such numbers of grave of Lininghcn having tak-
the Jews, but that there was still en it in his head to follow his
left a quantity sufficient to stir up steps, and declare himself the
theze&l of a priest named Gttifial persecutor of the Jews, had
against them, who at the head of likewise made some havock
15000 banditti, committed the among them, and penetrated as
most horrid outrages against far as the Hungarian borders,
them, and was supported and when he was likewise surprised
encouraged in it by ibme of the and defeated by the brave Hun-
crowned heads. He had *1- garians, who were come to put
ready gone thro' Franconia, and a stop to his farther pro-
was entered Hungary, when gress (8). *

(7) Mtmfin'i Ctr/m, Gematt, I. jv. S? xvi. p. 123—it<. (8) IJ. Ibid. & Pist*. Ji-jl. Otrnt urn. iii-jki A. C ic*9.

S a mer

mer maich greater, and the manner of it even more dreadful ' (T): and as for the latter, they only made a shew of Christianity till the storm was over, and relapsed all into Judaism by the next year. The bishop of Spires, more humane than the rest, not only protected those that took refuge under him, but caused some of their persecutors to be hanged. The Bavarian annalists give us a still more dreadful account of those in their country m, of whom they tell us above 12,000 were slain; and all agree that the number of those that perished in other parts of Germany was almost in* finite. ...

During This was the first crusade; the next, which was publilh

thesecond e(j j0 years after, might have proved no less violent against crusade, them, (it being promoted with great zeal and success along the Rhine, by the hermit Rodolphns, who was charged with the c f care of it: the common cry of the preachers being then, that they must exterminate all the enemies of Christ within their own territories, before they went to seek new ones in foreign parts) had not this pulpit eloquence alarmed them time enough to give them an opportunity of retiring to Nuremberg, and other principal cities, where they met with a kind reception and a protection from the emperor. It must be owned, however, that that hermit's persecuting doctrine was displeasing to many Christian bishops and others, and

1 Vid. Addit. ad Lambert Schaffnaburg. Pistor. Hist.

Germ. torn. iii. ad. A. C. 1089. Berthold. Constant. Append.

'ad. Herm. ap. WuR5Tis,tom. i. p. 375. Hist. Trevor. ap. Da

Cher. specil. torn, xii.p. 236. œ Aventin. Annal. Bosor, lib.

v. p. 361.

(T) These inform us that tism; whilst others, more desthere were no less than 1400 perate, put an end to their burnt at Mentz, and that the own lives. Much the fame was disorder which happened on done at Triers, or Treves, where that occasion, was the cause of the very women, at the fight of one half of that city being re- the coming crusaders, murdered duced to ashes. Those of Worms their own childrenjtelling them went to beg the bishop's pro- that it was much better thus to tection, who refused to grant it, dispatch and send them into unless they turned Christians; Abraham's bosom, than to leave and as the people were very them to the mercy of the eager, they gave them so Christians. Others loading little time to deliberate, that themselves with stones, flung the most intimidated -of them themselves and them into the immediately accepted of bap- Rhine (9).

(g) Vid. Hist. Germ, (r al.sup. that,

that that St. Bernard did in particular write a letter to the archbishop of Mcntz, in which he highly condemned it;,and was for having that fiery zealot sent back to his solitude n. Ne- Protested vertheless, the flame was spread far and near by his trumpet- k> '&' em' ers, not only in Germany, but in most other parts of Europe, Terorand vast multitudes were massacred by the Christians, besides a much greater number, if we may believe the Je-wifi chronologers; who being driven into despair by the cruelties they were made-to undergo, made away with themselves0. We ■ are now come to the end of the nth century, which was closed with those butcheries in most parts of Europe, and with a fuller account of which our readers will easily dispense, whilst we now take a view of their more peaceable and flourishing state in the east, during the 12th century.

The author whom we have followed, and whose character Benjamin the reader will see in the margin (V), tells us that he found seve- 0/Tude

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(V) We shall, for want of a better guide, be chiefly obliged for the account of the Jeivs, during this 12th century, both in the east and west, to the noted traveller of their nation Benjamin, sirnamed of Tudela, a city in Navarre, his nativeplace, and often quoted in this chap. ter; who tells us that he had visited most of these parts. But we have had occasion before now to observe that he is, in the main, a very fabulous writer, and hath not scrupled to interlard his account with many absurd and incredible stories, to raise the credit of his nation. He hath even invented new countries, and mentioned kingdoms and cities, and places not then in being: and to others he ascribes many ridiculous particulars, scarce worth mentioning after him. We shall however, give our readers an in

stance or two by way of sam-
ple to the rest, which we design
to pass by.

Of this nature is what he tells
us of the city of Petbora, the
residence of Balaam, said by
Moses to have been near the
river Euphrates (10), and where
our traveller tells us was still
standing the tower in which he
lived, and which had been
built by his magic art; and the
synagogue, pretended to have
been built by Ezra, upon his
leaving Babylon to return into
Judea, with the rest of the cap-
tivity; as if that great Jewish
leader would spend his time in
building such places in Babylon
for his brethren, when he was
going to lead them thence back
into their own land. Another
of his synagogues he mentions
in a city built by Omar, one of
the first and most successful
Khalifs, at the foot of Mount

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la's cba- ral considerable synagogues, and a great number of Je-ws,

raBer and-who lived there at their ease, and enjoyed the liberty of their

trawls, religion unmolested p. ♦ That of Bajforah, mentioned in the

last note, and situated in an island of .the Tygris, had 4000

Jews in Jews; that of Jlmozal answering to the ancient Nineveh, and

the east, built 0f its old materials, had 7000 more. In this last he found

gacheus, a prince descended from the house of David, and Be

ren alPherec, a famed astronomer, who associated himself as a

kind of chaplain to king Zin-Aldin (W). Passing thro'JcVÆo

both, in his way to Bagdad, he found 2000 settled there, and

500 at Karchemi/h, famed for the defeat of Pharoah Necho,

andsituateonthebanksof the Euphrates. Pundebita, or as he

writes it, Pum-beditha, once so famed, as we have seen, tho' much

sunk from its pristine grandeur, and then named Aliobari, or El

nebar, had still a few doctors, tho' almost forsaken, and about

Prince of 2opo Jews, some of whom applied themselves to thestudy of the

the capti- law. It stiewed still the tomb oi'Bo/lenai, a prince of the captivity,

<vity,i who had married a daughter of the king of Persia, and those of

tenth, and two celebrated doctors, and the two synagogues they had built

p Itikerar- p. 59> & seq.

Ararat (ti), where the ark
rested, ahd with the remains of
of which he built a stately
mosque; as if those materials,
supposing them to have lasted
ever since the flood, could be
fit for such an edifice. Besides,
that city did not stand at the
foot of Ararat, but on the
mouth of the Tigris, and seems
designed to prevent the Persi-
ans from sailing into India thro'
the Perse gulph, and was
Called Balfora, or Bajforah.
These are some of the absurdi-
ties with which he hath blend-
ed the relation we are speaking
of, but which hinder not its
giving us the best general idea
of the state of the Jcuijh na-
tion that can be had during this
century. However, as the route
which he took from Europe thi-
ther is contrary to the method

we have followed in this chapter, we shall stick to this last, and begin, as we have hitherto done, with the eastern parts, and those in particular there which lie along the Euphrates.

(W) It may seem strange that a Jeivijh astronomer should be chaplain to a Mohammedan prince, for such was Zin-Aldin above-mentioned, who was brother to Nor-Aidin king of Syria, whom the Mojlems reverenced not only as a grand conqueror, but as one of their greatest saints. But if we consider how apt the generality of the Jews were to temporize, either thro' fear, or for their own interest, we {hall not be surprized to find that great astronomer so compilable to the religion of his prince (12).

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