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ever, that excepting these two, Egypt hath not produced during these latter ages many men of note, we shall therefore


the Vatican and other public libraries; and since translated at different times, and by several hands into Hebrew (17). ?dly. Jad Cbazaiab, ilMijhnab Hathora, or the repetition of the law, and divided into four parts, and these into 14 books, which are still subdivided into various other titles.

The 1st part, Book I, contains the five following books, under the title of Sepber HamaJakb. or book of knowledge. I. Jejfode Hatborab, or fundamentals of the law. 2. Hadekath, or moral rules. 3. Thalmud Hatborab, or the study of the law. 4. Hamodah Zarah, or of idolatry. 5. Hathejhubab, or of repentance.

Book II. intitled Sepber Aha<vah, book of love, .contains the fix following; <viz. 1. Of the reading of the sacrffd text of Moses, 2. Of prayers and the iacerdotal bleffing. 3. Of phylacteries on the hands, forehead, &c. 4. Of the sacred peniculaments. 5. Of blessing and~ consecration of all things by prayer. 6. Of circumcision.

Book III. intitled Zemanim, of times, contains the 10 following; 1. Of the Sabbath, 2Of mixturers on the Sabbath. 3. Of expiation-day. 4. Of common feasts, or intermediate days between the first and the last of the festivals. 5.0s . laying aside all ferment. 6. Of the blowing of the horn or trumpet on stated days. 7. Of

the annual payment of the side. 8. The consecration of the new moons, Q. Of fasts. 10. Of the feast of Purim or Lots, prescribed in the book of Esther.

Part II. Book IV. intitled Of Women, treats, 1. Of marriages. 2. Of divorce. 3 Of the Jibum Achim, or brethren marrying the deceased brother's widow. 4. Of virgins deflowered by fraud or force. 5. Of adulteresses.

Book V. intitled OfHoliness, treats, 1. Of unlawful coition, incest, C3V 2. Of forbidden meats. 3. Of the due method of killing of beasts, He.

Part III. Book VI. intitled Of Separation, treats, 1. Of oaths. 2. Of vows. 3. Of that of Nazareal. 4. Of the devoting of things and persons to sacred uses, and the estimate of their redemption.

Book VII. 1. Against mixtures of heterogeneous things. 2. Of the poor's gifts or portion to be set aside for them. 3. Of oblations. 4. Of first tithes. 5. Of second tythes. 6. Of first fruits and other offerings for the priests. 7. Of the 7th or jubilee year.

Book VIII. intitled Of the sacred Ministry, treats, 1. Of the temple or sanctuary. 2. Of the vessels used in it for the divine worship. 3. Of the going of the pr;ests into the sanctuary. 4. Of tilings that were not to be offered. 5. Of the offering of sacrifices. 6. Of the daily and other sacrifices. 7. Of defective sacrifices. 8. Of those to be offered on the expiationday. 9. Of transgressions in the eating of the sacrifices.

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leave it, and pass thence into Palestine, where we shall hardly find them in greater plenty.


Book IX. intitled Of Sacrifices, or Things offered, treats, I. Of that of the Passover. 2. Of the appearing before the Lord three times in the year. 3.0s the first-born. 4. Oftrangreffion thro' ignorance. 5. Of those those that need not to be expiated by sacrifice. 6. Of the expiation sacrifice.

Book X. intitled Of Purisications, treats, 1. Of defilements received from dead bodies. 2. Of the red heifer. 3. Of the leprosy. 4. Of those defilements that pollute the beds, houses, &c. 5. Of the fathers or general heads of defilements. 6. Of defilement in eating. 7. Of the pollution or cleansing of vessels. 8. Of baths and washings.

Part IV. Book XI. intitled Of Damages, treats, I. Of sundry kinds of damages to another's property. 2. Of theft. 3- Of restoring that which is stolen or lost. 4. Of pledges. 5- Of manslaughter, and the preserving of the innocent manflayer.

Book XIL intitled, Of Poffij/ions and Acquisitions, treats, I. Of buying and selling. 2. Of public acquisitions by hunting, hihing, tsc. 3. Of neighbours-, and the rights of neighbourhood. 4. Of the guty of messengers sent, and of their punishment for neglect, fraud, tfc. and of the rights of society and commsrce. 5. Of servants.

Book XIII. intitled, Of Judgments, or sentences to be passed by the judges, treats, I. Of hiring and hire. 2. Of lending, pledging, and restoring. 3. Of ma. tual lending and borrowing.

4. Of the doer or guilty person.

5. Of inheritance.

Book XIV. intitled, Of the Judges, treats, 1. Of the Sanhedrin or grand council. 2. Of witnesses and their depositions;

3. Of recusants or rebellions.

4. Of mourning and mourners.

5. Of kings and war. 'These are the chief heads of that celebrated treatise Jad Chazakah, or Strong Hand, of which we thought proper to give this short scantling, that our English reai ders might frame an idea of his clear and exact method of treating and ranging each subject; all which he treats with such perspicuity and strong reasoning,as is far above all that have gone before him, or indeed since. The reader may fee a further account of this author and his books in Wolf'% and Bartolocc'iS Bibliotlieca's, whilst we content ourselves with just mentioning the titles of the rest of his works.

3. His third treatise is intitled Moreh Neiiokim, or the directer or expounder of perplexed texts or places of scripture.

4. His fourth is the Scpher Hammitz-voth, the book of commandments, or an Exposition of the precepts of the Mosaic law, both positive and negative.

5. His Epistle or Discourse on the resurrection of the dead.

6. His Southern Epistle or Letter to the Jcu.s inhabiting

the the southern parts of the world, exhorting them to continue stedfast in the Jrwijb faith.

Jews at Our author tells us that he found at Tyre, in his way thiTyre. ther, about 500 of his nation, some few of whom were well versed in the Thalmud. Most of the rest were employed in the glass manufacture, the Tyrian glass being then in great Samari- esteem. The Samaritans having abandoned their ancient tens. capital, were retired some to Casarea, where he found about 200, and about 100 more at Sichem, which last was become the feat of their religion. The priests there boasted themselves lineally descended from Aaron, and never married out of their own family, that their succession might be preserved unmixed and untainted. They are very strict in solemnizing

7. His letter to the doctors of Marseilles in Provence, which is a kind of answer or confutation of the common Jpuiijh notion about the infallible influence of the stars, and of a Jew ijb impostor who called himself the meffiah.

8. The epistles to the great light, that is to Maimonides himself, and written to him by the learned Jenuijh doctors of France and Spain, with his answers to

. them.

9. A set of sermons wrote by him, and mentioned in this treatise on the sanhedrin, and by the author of the Shaljheleth Hakkabalab, p. 43.

10. His logic divided into 14 chapters, the MS of which is in the Vatican library.

11. His treatise on the preservation of health, dedicated to the king of Egypt, the MS in the Bodleian library.

12. His physical aphorisms, and other small treatises on diseases and their cures.

13. His garden of health, treating of animals, plants*

stones, and other products of the earth.

14. Some other physical treatises in Arabic, and mentioned by Dr. Pococke, senior.

15. His book of the knowledge of God, by the help of his creatures.

16. His treatise on the soul.

17. Comment on Hippocrates.

18. —— on the law.

19. on A-vicen.

20. ■ on the Gemarrab.

21. Pirie Mojhe, or physical extracts out of Galen.

22. Questions and answers concerning various customs.

23. Questions and answers on other subjects.

24. On the thirteen articles of faith.

25. His manuscript copy of the pentateuch, written with his own hand.

These are the most noted of his works. We omit some others of less moment, besides those which himself mentions in some of his treatises, but which are not now to be found. Those who desire to know more of him and his works, may consult among others, the authors quoted in the margin (18).

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their festivals, and offer up their sacrifices on Mount Garizzim, where they pretend the altar was made of those very 11 stones which Joshua caused to be reared into an heap in the midst of Jordan, upon his miraculously passing that of river f. They are scrupulously strict in their washings, and the choice of their cloaths, and never wear those any-where else, in which they go to the synagogue.

J ER USALE M, tho' once the seat of the Jewish religion, Jews ik and so much sighed after by the Jews, had scarcely 200 of Jerusathat nation in it, who were all woollen-dyers, and paid a cer- lem, tain tribute for being the only ones employed in that business. They were settled in one of the quarters of the city, under David's tower, and made but a mean figure in it, and from a false notion which goes among them, that there is still one of the walls of the sanctuary left standing, they commonly chose to go and offer up their prayers before it (D). Other cities of Judea were still more destitute of them, of whom he tells us, he found two in one, twenty in another, most of them dyersv That of Shunam had the most, that is, about 300. Ascalan, once one of the capitals of the Philistines, had 553, the greater part of whom were of the Samaritan sect, a few of them ( Caraites, and the rest Thalmudifis. ,

Upper Galilee, or as it was commonly called Galilee sf the in Upper Gentiles*, had a much greater number of them, and it was into Galilee, that province most of them retired after the destruction of Jerusalem; and where they afterwards founded the famed academy of Tiberias, often mentioned in this chapter; and yet our author found but 50 of them who had a synagogue, and the rest of the town hath nothing left worth notice, but its salubrious, or as the Jews always styled them, miraculous waters, of which we have formerly spokeny. However, ano

f De hoc vid. Anc. Hist. vol. ii. p. 459. * Ibid. p. 454, & seq. * Ibid. vol. x. p. 522. (Z)

(D) Onr author hath embel-, cred building. However, he lished his relation of this ruined tells of the stables of king SoUmetropolis with a description of ?non, the tomb of David, and several noble antiquities still other antiquities of the fame to be seen there; tho' with as« nature, not worth repeating aflittle truth as what is pretended ter him j the reader may fee of the wall; it being plain that ajl that is remaining of that the Romans demolished all be- ancient city and sepulchral mofore them, and, according to numents, in the description we Christ's prediction, left not one have given of its ruinated state stone upon another of that fa- in a former part f.

f Sa Anc. Hj/l. vtl.U f. 446, & Jrf.


ther Jewish traveller1, who was there about 25 or 30 years after, gives a quite different account of that academy and its doctors, whom he went thither to consult; and as it is hardly to be imagined either that it could have recovered itself in so short a time from the abject condition in whjch our author represents it, nor that this latter, who strives every-where else to raise the glory of his nation, should have any private motive to eclipse that of this city; so there can be no other way to reconcile those two travellers, but by supposing that it had undergone some severe change, just before our Benjamin cams to it, occasioned by the incursions of the Arabs, who actually plundered and ravaged it sundry times, till Soliman caused its walls, which had been formerly demolished, to be built upagain; upon which it began to be better inhabited both by Jews and Turks (E). However, as there was a synagogue then extant, and must be supposed to have had some doctors, even in Benjamin's time, there may have been some more come thither since, enough to verify what Aben Ezra fays of them. Jews in From Palestine our author passed into Greece, where

Greece, he found about 200 Jews, who dwelt on and about Mount Parnassus, and lived on the product of it, which was chiefly pulse. They had some rabbies over them; but whatever be the reason, they have been since forbid to settle within some leagues of it. He found 300 of them at Corinth, and 2000 at Thebes, who were either dyers or silk-weavers. The rabbies in this last were so learned, that those only of Constantinople could equal them, the*' we can hear nothing of their productions in that kind. The two most learned of them were Some Sa- °f tne Samaritan sect. There were some more scattered here maritans. and there, some at Lepanto, others at Patras, and other parts of the Turkish empire, but were neither numerous nor wealthy, and as for learning, not to be compared to those that

1 Aben Ezra ap. Basnag. ub. sup. lib. ix. c. 8. § 25.

(E) Accordingly the authorof Christianity, and died at Rome

abook,\nth\edcI beGencalogies of aboat the middle of the 16th

the Just in the/andof lrae\{i()), century, tells us that he had

who is much more modern studied in one of them. We

than either of the former, read of another at Saphelot,

assures us, that in his time this much more famous than either

city had two kind of academies of the others, but which in all

situate without its gates, the one likelihood was not yet in being

small and the other larger. And when Benjamin was there, since

H. Jiulab 'Zona, who embraced he takes no notice of it (20).

(19) VU. Btstiag, ut. sap, I. ix. {. t. § 3,5. (20) U. Hid. & sr?


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