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my against the Christians; and suffered his zeal to transport him beyond all bounds, as one may fee by his book of the wars of the Lord, and his treatise on faith and alliance with heretics, meaning the Christians (Y). His son David, or, as his name is commonly abridged, Radak, for Rabbi David Kimchi, was more learned than either of them (Z), and much more moderate towards the Christians. His works, which the reader may fee an account of in the last note, are still very useful and esteemed, particularly his grammar and com' ment upon the Psalms, which have been translated into Latin, as well as some other of his commentaries, and inserted into the Latin Bibles of Venice and Basil. He had a brother named Moses, who was likewise a man of learning] and the author of a treatise, intituled, The Garden of Delight, which treated of the state of the soul, but hath never been printed. The manuscript of it is in the Vatican library B. Solomon Another famed rabbi of this century, was the learned Jarchi. Solomon Jarchi, sliled by some the son of Isaac, and by others Rashi, which is only an abbreviation of his name, a native of

m Bartol. ub. sup. torn. iv. Wolf. ub. sup. N. 495, & ali. sub. nom. Gantz, ub. sup. sub an. 4950. Shalsheleth, - sub. A. C. 1192.

(Y) There is some dispute
whether he was of French or
Sfani/h origin, which is occa-
sioned by his son R. David
being stiled provenc:al, dwelling
at Narbonne; which city belongs
now to the French, but did then
to the Spaniards, as we observed
in the last note. And this at
ence decides the controversy.
, (Z) The Jews, alluding to
his surname, affirm, that there
can be no Kemach, meal without
a Kimchi, or miller; meaning
that there can be no true learn-
ing without him; and indeed
there is hardly a better help to
the Hebrew tongue than his
grammar; which, though he
took the greater part of it
from an Arabic one, print-
ed by one Abul Valid Ma-

rom, yet he so much improved and enlarged, that it appears a quite new work. It is intituled, Miklol, perfection (different from Miklol Jos hi, or perfection of beauty, of R. Solomn Ben Melei), and consists of two parts, the one of which is the grammar, and the second a lexicon of all the Hebrew roots. His "|£)1D r\y> or pen of a writer, is of the Majsoretic kind, and commended by the learned Elias Lcvita. Some other treatises are likewise ascribed to him in the same way j but what he has been most famed for, is his comments upon most books of the Old Testament. He is likewise said to have written 1 version of them all in Sff nijh (33).

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Troyei in Champagne, who left it to travel into Judea and Persia, and upon his return, applied himself wholly to the study and teaching of the thalmud (A). His comment on the Gemarrak hath been so highly esteemed, that it hath gained him the title of Prince of Commentators; tho' his notes on the sacred books are so fraught with fables and thalmudic visions, that he is as much despised for it, as he is admired for the other. He died at Treves, in the 75th year of his His death, age (B), and his corpse was carried to Prague, where his A. C. tomb is still to be seen ". The Jews in general had many 1180. famed men in most sciences; such as Kimchi for grammar, Judah Alcharifi, R. Hallevi, Joseph Hadajian, of Cordoua, and Ab en Ezra for poetry; the last named, and Abraham Nassi, for astronomy. It were endless to go thro' the names of their celebrated profeflbrs; we shall only mention one; viz. Isaac

"Id.ibid.

(A) His surname, Jarchi, which we have elsewhere observed, signifies Lunatic, hath been variously canvassed, some deriving it from the city of Luxe/ in Languedoc, where was an academy, which hath been rendered famous by his professorship; others from that of Luna in Italy. We have likewise seen that name given to the celebrated R. Samuel, on account os their great (kill in astronomy -f. It were therefore vain to hunt aster uncertain etymologies, even tho' the subject were of greater moment than this. To come therefore to something better worth knowing;

His method of teaching and disputing was somewhat singular. He had made, during his travels, a collection of the most difficult points he had met with, together with their decisions by the learned. Upon his return, he went and visited all the academies and schools, and disput

ed about them; and upon his
going away, threw down a
quire, in which those decisions
were written, without the name
of any author; and those quires
were carefully collected every-
where, and amounted to a pro-
digious number; and it was by
the help of those that the glos*
on the thalmud is said to have
been compiled.

(B) He left three daughters,
whom he married to as many
learned doctors; the most famed
of whom was R. Meir, who
helped to collect the scattered
quires of his father in-law, and
to compile the gloss above-men-
tioned, from them. Jarchi had
some grandsons likewise, who
assisted him in it ; viz.. Jaacob
of Orleans, commonly called
Rath, and R. Thorn, likewise
surnamed Rath. The former
died in Champagne, and the o-
thcr was murdered an. Iico,
and his writings were destroyed
with him ^34).

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Jews/am- Hazaken, or the elder, who had sixty disciples so skilled in ed on other the Gemarrah, that they could extempore dispute on any point accounts, that was proposed to them out of it, and deduce arguments fro and con from it. One of these disciples was the famed Judah of Paris, who became very famous in the following century °. In Ger- Those of Germany made themselves remarkable rather many for their piety, miracles, and prophecies, than for their learngnut fro- jng . an(j( ;f we may believe their authors R. Samuel, who lived pbets and at yienna^ gained the title of prophet, on account of the many tnirac - orac|es wnich he there delivered. His son Judah, sirnamed 'the Pious, was no less famous for the miracles attributed to - \ , . him, and fit only for a Jewish creed (C). This century likePious h' w'k Prod"ced some learned women: and one of the Jewmiraculousi/h travellers, mentioned a little higher, extols a daughter deliver- or trie chief of the captivity in the east, who was so learned once. both in the law and in the thalmud, that she read lectures thro' the lattice of her window, to a great number of disciples, so that they only heard without seeing her, and being in danger of becoming enamoured with her, or she with them f. We have likewise seen in this chapter, some Jews in the highest posts in the courts of several princes; others at the head of armies, and exercising their several functions with great applause. Portugal, amongst others, produced a most celebrated one, who not only raised himself, by dint of merit, to the command of the army, but by his singular modesty, as \vell as his valour and success, eluded all the cabals and intrigues of the Portuguese ministry against him (D). We might

here

° Gantz, & al. ub. sup. P Itinerar. R. Pet Ach, ap. WacensEiL,inSottah, p. 220.

(C) To give a (ketch of it, R. 'thus miraculously preserved, beGbedaliah,inh\sS(>a/jMet/j($$), ing then big with him. And tells us, that being overtaken in the learned Wagenfeil prefers a narrow lane, at Worms, by a this last relation, which he had waggon, which must unavoida- from the mouths of some credibly have crushed him to death ble Jmvs,-who (hewed him the against the wall, the brutish wag- very spot; which hollow they goner driving on with all speed, pretend is still to be seen r» the in spite of his cries to stop; the wall. Worms was then full of wall gave way just in the place them, and no less pregnant of where he steod, and left room their miracles, for the carriage to go on with- (D) This was the great Dom. out hurting him. Others fay it Solomon, the son Of Jechmab, was judah's mother who was who wasias great a philosopher

f3s; Sbal]btlttb,p. 55.

here mention likewise some of their learned, that forsook the Converts synagogue in this century, to turn either Mohammedans or and aposChristians; but as that would carry us too far, we shall only'"'"give an instance of each in the following note (E), and pro- . ceed to some more momentous transactions in it, viz. the several false Messiahs that appeared both in the east and west during this interval.

as general. His merit raised him t» the dignity of fieldmailer-general, An. C. 1190, Which was then the highest post in the militia; in which he behaved so well, that he obtained the command of the whole army. His valour and success raised him very powerful enemies among the grandees, whom he overcame by his singular modesty; and not content with practising it himself, he inspired his nation with h; and having observed that their rideing on horseback along the streets was displeasing to the Portuguese, he prevailed upon them to leave it off, as well as the wearing of silk garments.

(E) Of the first fort was the famed apostate Samuel-Ben Jebudab, or, as he is commonly called, Asmouil, a Spaniard by birth, and by profession a physician, who, to convince the Moslems of the sincerity of his conversion, wrote a book against tlae Jeivt, an. 1174, in which he charges them with having altered the law of Moses. This accusation was greedily swallowed by them, and is still to this day; insomuch, that they forbid the quoting or translating any part of the Pentateuch according to the Jenvi/b or Christian copies. They allege against

them, that there is not a word in them about the resurrection of the dead, the life to come, prayers, alms, &c. But whether he furnished them with those objections out of hatred to them, or whether he did not rather mean by those alterations he charges the Jews with, the false interpretations of tha thalmudists, we cannot affirm (36). Of the latter or Christian converts, we shall only mention Peter dlpbonso; which names were given him, the former, because he was baptised on St. Peter $ festival, and the other by the king of that name, who was his godfather (37). He was a native of Osea, and professed Judaism till the 40th yeas of his age, and after his conversion was made physician to Jlphonso VII. who was king of Caftile and Leon, and died an. 1108. Pedro wrote some dialogues against the Je<ws, which are still preserved (38), and from which one may conclude he had more zeal than skill in that controversy, if he was not rather more influenced by worldly views than solid arguments; for from this instance one may fee that there weie no encouragements wanting to bring them over.

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FalseMes- Of these authors reckon no less than nine or ten; fe that Jiabs. the great number of their learned could neither hinder their impostures, nor the people's credulity. The first of these apJ" * peared in Fra?ice, An. 1137. The place of his birth or manifestation is not mentioned by any author ; only they tell us that Lewis, who was then on the throne, caused their synagogues to be pulled down, and the Jewi/h nation to be severely treated : from which we may conclude that he had imJsccondin P°s<-'d ol1 a great part of his nation (F). In the following Pcriid, year another appeared in Persia, and drew such multitudes afA. C. ter him, that the king thought fit to oblige the rest of the 1138. Jews to summon him, and order him to lay down his arms; which they tried at first in vain, till he seemed moved at the sight of the multitudes of children, which the sorrowful mothers brought before him to excite his pity, fie then propoled to that monarch, that he should pay him the charges of the war, and let him lead his troops away unmolested; which, to the wonder of the Jews, was agreed to)' and the sum stipulated by the Messiah paid down, and the troops disbanded. But the king finding himself out of danger, obliged the disarmed Jews to reimburse him the money; and, as some add, caused the impostor's head to be struck off'1. A third in MA IM 0 N ID E S mentions a third, which appeared in France, Spain about I o years before he wrote, who brought a severe ■"• ^" persecution on their nation. He was a native cf-Cordoua, and 1 lSf' was supported in his imposture by one of the greatest rabbies in that city, who wrote a book to prove before-hand the nearness of his appearing by the stars. Our author adds, that the better and wiser sort looked upon the fellow as arnadman; but as those are few, in comparison of the rest, they could not hinder his gaining credit among them, till his disappointment undeceived them '. Ten years after that, another cheat proclaimed the coming of the Messiah within a year; and his prediction proving false, occasioned new troubles and perse

1 Solom. Ben Viro. ub. sup. 169. Lemtde Pseudo Mess Judcor. p. 36. 'Maimon. Epist. de Reg. Aust. ap. Vurlt. p. 293.

(FJ Maimonides, who lived another Jeimjh writer (4.0) com

30 years after, tells us, that the plains, that on account of that

French, into whose hands he impostor, they had pulled down

fell, put him to death, and with a great number of synagogues

him the holy assembly (39). And in France.

(39) Epist. de Aufirit. Reg. sp. iVurst.tut, w Gaittx Tztmtcb f. o<,3 {fa) Sthrn. Ben Virg. ub. sup, f, 169.

cutions

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