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from Adrianople to his other capital, where he puts to death Rejeb 'Pajh&, Serafiier of Hungary, for fighting with the Germans contrary to his orders. He likewise banishes the Waz'r, Tesekiar Daghi Mostasa Pajbd, to Malgara, a little town near Rodostus, as a man unqualifiad either for war or the administration of affairs; and advances in his room Kiaferli Most&fa Pajh&, Kaymaykam of Constantinople. The new Wazir immediately fends for the Mufti and Kadio'lasters, with the rest of the Ulema, and generals of the army, who, being met, he orders the interpreters of the law to give their opinion, whether it was proper to desire peace of the Ger~ mans, or recover by force what the confederates had unjustly seized? The Mufti first declares, that it was not contrary to the divine law to desire peace, even of Infidels, in times of necessity. The fame opinion is embraced by the Rumeli Kadio'lajier: but the AnadolKadio'IaJher(A), either by the Wazir'% instigation, or because he saw his provinces out of danger, maintains it to be more eligible, that all the Musulmans mould perish by the sword, than to make Eynallak with the Gya-wrs; since thereby the honour of the prophet and the Koran would be wounded.

The Wazir Kyoperli, who approved of this speech, there- A , . upon said, "That, as often as he had considered the Con-"^Mway. "duct of the ministry for seven years past, against the em"peror of Germany, he could not sufficiently wonder at the "imprudence of the Othman generals, the blindness of the "counsellors, and the fearful or perverse minds of the inter"preters of the law: that the two first minded nothing but "to raise large armies, and fill the treasury by any means; "while the Ulema, content with their stipends, and pre"ferring ease to labour, never concerned themselves whe"ther the Othman state was well administered, or thought "of reforming the vices of the people, which was the source "of all the present calamities; but immediately approved of "the proposals of peace, and almost forced it on the Muful"mans. That when God, still more provoked by this infi"delity, debarred them of peace upon honourable terms, "they returned to their old practice, and cast the blame due "■to the subjects upon the emperor: that, having obtained cenfurts "their ends, they foretold the soldiers, at their departure, firmer m"out of the law, that the Gyawrs would be driven from "'■> ers' "the Othmdn borders: that yet this did not happen, and it "was no wonder God did not assist the Mufulman forces, "since good works, purity in the soldiers, and justice in the

(A) That is the Kadio'ldjkers, of Europe, and Anatolia, or Asia or military lord chief justices "Minor. Mod. Hist. Vol. XIII. D "rulers,

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rulers, those necessary conditions on which the prophet Mohammed promised them success, had all along been wanting: that for his part, to demonstrate the truth of "what he spoke, he desired only twelve thousand true fol"lowers of the Koran, men pure in heart and mind; with "whom he trusted, by God's assistance, to humble the num"berless forces of the Gyawrs, in such a manner as to oblige "them to restore all they had taken from the Otbman empire." , __ To this speech the Mufti replies, that, although the JVa

"ad-tsaCe Zir k'-1^ traceti out tne true causes of the corruptions, and the misfortunes consequent thereupon, yet they could hardly be corrected by the method he proposed; since the army wanted spirit, and the treasury money, the sinews of war. He added, that all people were in hopes of an approaching peace, raised by the letters lately sent by the ambassadors at Vienna. Upon this, the Wazir asks who were the ambassadors, and what peace they were sent to make? The Mufti , having informed him of the whole state of that affair, he is fired with indignation; and, in a long speech, shews, how much the authors of that embassy (of whom he deemed his predecessor to be the principal) had acted against the good of the empire. At lair, raising his voice aloud, he cries out, "I account the ambassadors, with those who sent them, to "be Gyawrs :, and, as such, do I think they will be treated "in the divine judgment: for no true Mufulmdn, versed in "the precepts of the Koran, could have involved the Soltan, "a prince of great mildness and simplicity, in so heinous "and execrable a crime." War re- This strong disposition in the Wazir to war is greatly ensotmedon. couraged by the French ambassador, who possesses the whole court with such a confidence in the arms of France, that a Galiheh Divjau(U) being called, it is unanimously resolved tc> prosecute the war with the utmost vigour. However, that

(U) So is called the Soltan s stand by: but the military offi

Di-wan, held every Sunday and cers, as the Agd of the Janixa

Tuesday, under a Kubbcb in the ries, Spabilar Agafi, Silbadar

large hall of the outer court, Agast, and the rest, sit without

named Babi Humayun. or the the Diivdn at the gate of Bali

sublime Porte. The prime IVa- Humayun. The Soltan hears

fir presides in it, and has, on out of a window over the prime

his right hand, the Rumeli Ka- Waxir% head, all that is done.

di'lajker; on his left, the Ana- The Wazir is dressed in white

dol Kadilajker, with she Mufti silk, with a triangular turban;

(if summoned', and the veil of the other great officers of the

the Kubbeh Waxirs; and lower, Diivdn, in brown garments.—

the Tefterddr. The Reis Effaidi, Cant.
and other chiefs oi (he Kaiemij,

the the treaty, begun at Vienna, might not seem to be broken off without some reason, the Wazir writes to acquaint the emperor's council; " that he had heard some persons were ar"rived at Vienna under the title of ambassadors from the "Porte, and had proposed terms of peace in the Soltan's "name: but that they were impostors, and had either forged "the letters, which they pretended to have received from "that prince, or procured them from the former (Vazir, "without the SoltArfs knowledge b."

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Matters being thus settled, he prepares for an early campaign, by applying his whole care to the railing an army, 'V"f and providing warlike stores. But, finding what the Mufti had said t© be true, that the Qthm&ns were seized with such terror, there were but little hopes of raising forces capable of opposing the Germans .- that the treasury was exhausted, and the people every-where unwilling to perform their duty; he takes a different method of levying troops from that used by his predecessors, which he executes with wonderful art and success. The former Wazirs, in their mandates, had required all persons,whose duty it was, to attend the wars; but he publishes a Ferm&n in another strain: he fays in It, "That, as he found it necessary to trust the command of the "Othman army, against the haughty Germans, to none but "himself, so he would not employ, in this expedition, any "soldiers forced into the service, as knowing the will was "of more value with God than the deed: that he would "only put the Musulmans in mind, that, by the precepts for raising "of God, and his prophet, everyone is commanded neither soldiers s "to avoid martyrdom, nor despair of success, in defence of "the law, and the extirpation of infidels: that every Mw "fulman therefore, who thought himself obliged by this law, "and had resolution to suffer every thing for the faith, ought "to come, and list himself in his army: but that he who "was doubtful, was afraid of being a martyr, or detained "by affairs, which he believed would excuse him before "God, from the service, should have the liberty of staying '* at home; where, after purging himself from ;all criminal "actions, he ought daily to intercede with God for the ar"my's success. It was added, that even tho' such a person "should be of the military order, yet he mould not only be "exempt from punishment, but also enjoy his pay during "his absence."

By this artful mandate both the soldiers and people of ;fSrur*r;. Asia are rouzed as it were from a profound sleep: for till ji„g effea.

b CaNt,p. 363. &seq.

D 2 % then,

A. D. then, whenever they were called to the wars, the greater 1688. part, for fear of the punishment threatened to the unwilling, ^S^f^J hid themselves; and escaped the enquiry of the Pajh&s, partly by gifts, and partly by artifice, and false pretences. But, when they find themselves called <sn, from motives of religion, to war against Infidels, not only those who received the pay, but others, who had been dismissed the service, prepare for the campaign, for fear of being accounted cowards, or Gyawrs, in cafe they staid at home. Thus what the former Wazirs could not effect by the severest threats, or by the Pafias, Kapuji, and Chaufh;" Kyofirioli MosiafA Pajha accomplishes without any difficulty, by one word of the Koran; and raises mote numerous forces than any Wazir had done, since Kara Mojlasa Pajha. j, - Having, by this method, assembled an army, he turns

the trea- ^'ls thoughts towards purging the treasury of money unjustly r raised, and filling it by more honourable means. He finds

the state of accounts in no less confusion than that of other affairs: for the IVazirs, 'and other great men, in the time of peace, had consumed most part of it under various pretences: they had also for bribes granted to some an exemption from tribute, and laid on others a greater burthen than they could bear. Afterwards, on the war breaking out, the Tsfterdars had invented various schemes to fill their empty coffers; by which they had so impoverished the citizens, that nothing was heard but the cries of people calling for the vengeance of God on their oppressors. The Wazir, with great application, removes all those abuses ; restores to the treasury all the money which his predecessors, the Pashas and secretaries, had taken away; establishes new laws For raisinotribute; and orders, that no person of a different religion should be exempt from it. Whereby the Greek monks, before exempt, became subject to the Haraj (W), which he divides

(W) A set tribute, which all afterwards lessened or encreafed

persons, not Mohammedans, are at pleasure, till this Kioprili di

obliged to pay to the Turkijh vided it as in the text.—The

emperors, if he has a mind to Greek monks, ever-since the tak

be a subject of the empire. This ing of Constantinople had been

tribute the Koran has fixed to exempt from the Haraj, or Ka

be 13 drams of pure stiver for raj, by virtue of a writing given

all persons ceme of ripe age. by the pretended prophet Mo

But, in time, this sum being hammed, to the monks of Sinay;

'thought too small, three rixdol- but Kioprili alledged this privi

lars were set upon each person's ledge to be spurious, or, if ge

head, under MohammedII. and nuine, to extend only to the

his three successors j which was Sinaite monks. Cant.

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into three parts, that none might suffer by an unequal assessment j enjoining the richer sort to pay ten Lconines a year, those of a middle rank six, and the poor only three dollars.

All the money which the devotion of their ancestors had left to the treasurers of the J ami, he brings into the publick Seizes treasury ; and answers the Muteveli, who call it sacrilege, that church wealth designed for religious uses, ought to be employed in treasure. religious, wars; adding, that it was more conducive to. the Mufulman interest, to maintain with it the defenders of the holy edifices, than enemies and robbers. He restores to their former integrity the judicial proceedings, which till then had been almost intirely venal; punishes the judges convicted of Reforms corruption with great severity; rescues those who are oppressed '&* law by false accusations without respect of persons; and prevents /"■ every-body from being injured. He orders that neither coin, nor any other provisions, should be violently demanded from the subjects (A), but purchased with ready money at such a price as they should think proper. By these measures having 'acquired a great reputation for prudence, justice, and sanctity, he prepares for the campaign; and lest so many alterations might in his.absence occasion a sedition against the Soltan, he persuades him to remove to Adrianoplc in the spring", where we leave the Wazir for a while, to see what was doing in the interim in Hungary.

Hitherto the imperial arms had been prosperous to a surprising degree: but now the empire being furioully attacked within the very bowels of it, by the arms of France, which obliged the several German princes to provide for their own security, many of the troops who served in Hungary Kassenek were called home. So that the main burden of the war fell besieged. On the emperor, which was carried on with various success, but for the most part prosperous, whilst under the auspicious direction of prince Lewis of Baden. However the year 1690 began not very favourably on Leopold's side : for the prince of. Holjlein, who in Veteran?* absence commanded the army in Albania, hearing that the Turks ravaged the country, he marched to Prijseren, or Prijsma, with some troops to meet them. From hence, on the first of January, he detached the prince of Hanover and colonel Strajj'er with sixteen hundred

»■ Cant. p. 365, & seq.

(A) This piece of justice re- persons, without regard to their

commended Kioprili to all the religion, of which prince Can

Christians residing in Turky. temir gives instances.
His equity extended alike to all

D 3 men

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