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the breaches before the Germans could prevent them, and for an hour resist the whole force of the garrison; who, overpowered by numbers, are then forced to retreat, after a great loss, though not unrevenged. A few, with their geneial ie la Croy, escape in boats across the Danube e.

According to the Christian historians there were not abovethree thousand two hundred then in Belgrade fit for service, by blow The Wazir invested this city on the first of Otlober, with his ingup troops; who having fired their artillery without waiting till the 8 th (on which day the duke of Croy arrived by boat), stormed the palisades like madmen. Next morning the blue steeple of the castle, which was the principal magazine for ■ powder, took fire, which was soon put out: But in the afternoon it took fire again, and blew up with such violence that it quite overturned the great bulwark which defended the castle; and destroyed one thousand of the garrison, who were drawn-up as well on the parade, as on the walls. So that there were not men enough to defend the breach against the enemy, who were ready to take advantage of the blow, and might have entered with whole squadrons. The duke of Croy also was wounded, and half buried in the rubbish of his lodgings.

It is thought this misfortune happened by the treachery . , of a Turk disguised in German habit; or of some Frenchmen, fa%i„eu who had been employed in the magazines, and had that morning deserted. However, the besieged made the best resistance possible, till their remaining magazines and store-houses took fire, and blew-up one after the other in such a dreadful manner, that not only the greater part of the garrison perished, but one thousand Turks, at that time storming the walls, and entering the city, were also destroyed; while such as remained alive were forced to retreat to their camp, unable to proceed for the smoke. But so soon as it had cleared up a little, the enemy, observing the consternation which the remaining people were in, returned, and rather entered than stormed the city, where they found very few Christians living, or houses standing. Most of the boats were funk with the rubbish which fell into them: those who escaped saved themselves by swimming over the Danube or the Save. General AJpremont, who got-off with the duke of Croy, being blamed afterwards for neglect on this occasion, was cleared by an attestation under the hand of prince Lewis pf Baden f.

* Cant. p. 370. * Ricaut, ubi supra.

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The IVazir, having thus reduced the bulwark of all Hungary sooner than he expected, sends five hundred Spahi's, 'each with two horses, and as'many bushels of meal, to the me relief of Temipwar\ which the Germans had blocked up for

U/51 Pf &e *

,. , three years, after finding it impracticable, by reason of its difficult situation, to take it by assault. The city was defended by Koja Jdffer Pajba (G), whose authority' "was so great with the soldiers, that although many perished by famine, yet the rest refused to feed upon cats and dogs, which are esteemed impure animals by the Turks. They were now reduced to such a degree of necessity, that when the Spahi's arrived, the Janizaries seized on the meal like ravenous wolves. This occasioned a dispute which ended in a bloody fight between the two parties (H): of whom a great number on both sides being'killed upon the sacks, the rest of the Spahi's, with their Pdjbti, are forced by the Janizaries to a speedy slight. Lippa re- KYOPRILI Pajhd, having repaired the ruins of Belgrade, duced, passes the Danube, and taking Lippa, drives the German garrison from Or/cva. He then assaults Effek, a city at the conflux of that river with the Drave; in hopes' by subduing it to secure his new acquisitions from the enemies incursions, and recover Sclavonia: but he was forced to abandon his design, by the resolution of the garrison joined to the approach of winter; and especially by the alteration of affairs in Tr'anfiU vania g. ixiitbother After the loss of Belgrade, the dnkeof Cray, having ralflaces. lied about four hundred men, marched by the way of Titul and Peterwaradin to Ejsek, drawing all the force he could out of the garrisons to secure that place; which the Wazir had ordered the Pa/bd of Bosnia to attack, while he passed the Danube and besieged Lippa, on the Marojk, near Arad. Ax. his approach the Germans quitted Lugts and Karanzebes. Lippa surrendered for want of all provisions, on very honour

e Cant. p. 370, &seq.

(G) That is, old Jaffer. He (H) Ricaut mentions nothing

was famous for his military of this affair. He only fays,

skill, prudence, and integrity, that on the news of the march

He fought several battles with of the Turkijh horse being of- .

tlie Germans, and^held out Te- dered for Upper Hungary, the

mefiuiar and Belgrade against Germans'were so alarmed that

them. He was slain at the bat- they quitted the blockade of

tie of Zenta by the rebellious Great Wdradm.

Janizaries. Cant.

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able conditions, after continual storms by the enemy, who lost eight hundred men to ten of the besieged. Mean time, on the ,2.9th of Qclober, Husstyn, Pasha of Bosnia, appeared' before EJsek with twelve or fifteen thousand men, who, thinking to carry the place at once, immediately stormed the coun- Effek «/terfcarps; but were repulsed with great slaughter by the gar- tempted. rison, though consisting only of two thousand men. The Pa/bA finding himself mistaken in his account, began to open trenches and raise batteries ; with which, by the fifth of November, they had demolished almost all the houses in the town, and seemed to prepare again for a general storm: but the duke and other generals having entered into the counterscarps with undaunted resolution to oppose them, they attempted nothing, as if struck with fear. The duke then returned to his lodgings, where three Turks were brought to him; who being asked why the enemy had made so violent an afiault -without either trenches or earth to cover them ? Tbesiegi answered, That their design was to have taken the town, {{raised. possible, before the Christian army arrived, which they heard was hasting to relieve it. The duke hereupon sent out all the music in. the town to some troops beyond the Dr ave, with orders to march to and fro in the night, causing different marches to be beaten, and trumpets sounded from several quarters; which so alarmed the Turks, that they immediately raised their camp, and fled towards Bosnia. The news of this deliverance being carried to Vienna, the duke of Cray and general Staremberg were mightily cried up for the stratagem h. Let us now look into the affairs of Tranjilvania. About the beginning of this year Michael Apafi (I), prince of that coun- Transiltry, died without issue, and left all his dominions to the em- vania peror of Germany. On the other hand, the Turks had ap- taken, pointed Tekeli to be prince, and sent to his assistance the Serafiier, with ten thousand Turks, the Khan of Tartary, and Consiantine Brankovan (K), prince of Walakhia. The confederate forces, under his conduct, penetrate into Tranjilvania, through the mountains ot Walakhia, at the foot of which they unexpectly inclose Heusler, general of the German troops appointed for defence of that province. Heusler, finding him

b Ricaut, ubi supra.

(J) He was of no great fa- three names of Kantaiuzenui, mily, being son only of the Brankovan, and Batsaraba; all chief magistrate of Cibinina.— which he pretended belonged Cant. to his family, though in fact

(K) Known In Europe by the they did not.—— Cant.

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self drawn into this danger by the treachery of Brankovan, endeavours to open a passage with his sword, and bravely 1 sustains the first onset of the enemy. Yet in the heat of the battle the Hungarians deserting the Germans, attack them in mdrtco- flank, who, terrified at this perfidy, attempt to escape by wred flight: but being inclosed by the enemy, are almost all either slain or taken; and among the latter, Heujler himself'. According to the Christian historians, the Turkish army consisted of sixteen thousand horse, two thousand Janizaries, and five hundred Talpats. With these Tekeli, under whom were nine Pasha's, marched over mountains towards the pass of Terez•war, about three leagues from Kronstadt; where general Heujler lay encamped, with seventeen hundred horse, and five thousand Tranfilvamans, called Zeklers, from the province by Tekeli. so named, under general ToleckL-^The. imperialists, nothing dismayed at the appearance of such unequal forces, with their right-wing, furiously attacked and put to flight the left of the enemy; who would have been intirely defeated, had the Zeklers seconded so good a beginning: but they flying without siring a musket, the Germans, after a long and bloody ■*""- sight were put to the rout. In this action six generals, among

whom was Tolccki, were killed, besides five hundred horse: the rest retreated to Hermanstadt with thirteen standards, twenty-nine colours, with four pieces of cannon, having been taken by the enemy, who lost three thousand men k. Driven TE KE L I, after this victory, marches farther, and is re

tut again ceived by all the inhabitants of the province with great acclamations. But before he could establish himself in his new acquisition, the prince of Baden, hearing that Belgrade, which he intended to have relieved, was lost, marches his forces into Transtlvania, and having taken several cities, endeavours to subdue the rebellious prince. Tekeli, diffident of his strength, on the news of the other's approach, abandons Cibinium (or Herman/ladt) and retires again into Turky ; from whence he never after ventured to return ',

To enter into particulars from the Christian historians:

prince Lewis having, on the news of Heujler's defeat in Tran

Jilvania, departed from Jagodina in Servia with all the force

by prince which could be spared, as hath been already mentioned, passed

Lewis. the Danube near Semen/lria; and on the 16th of September

arrived at Karansebes. On the 21 st they marched thro' the Iron

Gate, a pass which leads into that province, and encamped

near the ruins of Vulpia Trajana, a Roman colony, where

many of the nobility came in to' him; whilst the Rascians

1 Cant. p. 371, 8c scq. k Ricaut, ubisupra. ] Cant.

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entered entered Waldkhia, and put all to fire and sword with the ut- A. D. most cruelty. Otlober the 3d, he came to Hermanstadt, the 1689. capital, and thence to Medies, where several parties of the <w/"v":0 enemy were defeated. All this while Tekeli and his troops never shewed themselves, keeping at least fix leagues distant from the imperialists. As soon as he arrived at Czick, on the borders of Walakhia, the prince of that country left him to secure his territories against the Ra/cians ; and afterwards the Tranfelvanians deserted him. Mean time, being pursued by prince Leiuis, he waS chased through the whole country; and at length was near being surprised about Marienburg. Hereupon, affrighted, he fled by the pass of Bocz into Walakhia; and thus ended his short reign in Transrfvania.

On the first of December prince Lewis arrived at Zatmar, Orsawa on the Santos in Upper Hungary; at what time the Wazir'% ta^et son, with fifteen thousand men, ravaged the country, and summoned St. Jobs: but the prince, having no more than / two thousand horse with him, durst not venture out against them. However, being joined soon after by Negrilli with two thousand more, he pursued a body of twelve thousand Turks, who ravaged the parts about Clausenburg, and drove them quite out of Tranfilvania. The campaign con- «-» j

eluded on this side by the surrender of the J/le of Or/ova (in aa/f/-<,//,. the Danube, and borders of Walakhia) to the Turks, for want of ammunition. The governor, upon the articles granted, desired to be conducted to Belgrade; and although the Turks were honest enough to tell him, that it was then in their hands, he would not believe them, but insisted to be convoy'd thither. In this at length they obliged him, to the fatal cost of him .and his people, who were six hundred men, besides women and children: for when they came to that city, all the men were confined in prisons, where most of them died, excepting those under twenty, whom they circumcised, and compelled to become Mohammedans. As for the women and children they were sold, and all the effects of the unhappy captives seized m. Let us now proceed to the war in other provinces.

In the eleventh month of the fame year (L), the king of Poles inPoland al last brings also his forces into the field, and passing •oadeMolthe Tyras (or Niejlcr) enters Moldavia; but Cantemir, prince davia of that country, knowing what troublesome guests the Poles used, to be, forbids the inhabitants, under a severe penalty,

m Ricaut, ubi supra.

(L) Which falls in August 1690.

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