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to sell or carry any corn to them. This obliges the king, who had already passed the Hierasus (or Pruth) at Stcpha'najti, to fend back some of his troops to procure provisions from other parts. These troops coming to Soroka, a city on the Tyras, and finding it destitute of defence, yet full of stores, take it without opposition; and leaving a strong garrison, return with the provisions to the camp. W'thout The king, relieved by these supplies, marches as far as success. < YaMeni, a valley five miles from JaJJi; but hearing that Buyukli Moflafa Pa/bd, with Nuradin Soltdn, were advancing against him, he resolves to return to Poland. The provisions brought from Soroka being spent, he is again obliged to pass through the mountain country; where they are closely followed by the Tatars, who kill, or take prisoners, a great number of them, as they are gathering fruits in the woods. His return would have been very difficult, if the prince of Moldavia, desirous to drive out the Poles, but not destroy them, had not diverted the Serafiier from a pursuit; by telling him that they were then near their own borders, and unable to do the inhabitants any hurt. Had that general advanced with his army, scarce a Pole could have escaped : for they were so greatly distressed by famine, that the horse voluntarily submitted to the Tatars (M); declaring that they would rather be captives than expire with hunger. Venetian ^F a^ tne Christian powers the Venetians alone met with victories, success. In the beginning of the campaign Monembesta (or Malvafia) the only place which opposed them in the Morea, and had been blocked up for two summers, is besieged by them, and soon obliged by famine to surrender (N). At sea, their admiral Daniel Delphino puts to flight the Kapuddn PaJba, near Mitylene, after sinking and taking several of his strips. Afterwards Cornaro reduces Kanina and Vallona;
(M) There is hardly an ex- all for three Taokbimits apiece, ample in history of an army, —Cant. Neither prince Cantewhich was ever so dispersed mir, nor count Marfigli, in his without fighting, or reduced to Etat. Milit. Emp. Othm. tell the so much misery; although the value of this com. •Polish historians conceal it with (N) Ricaut fays, that turning much care.and extol their king's the blockade, which had held triumphs. I saw certain Tatars seventeen months, into a formal bring back each seven Poles set- siege, they battered the city tered. They were become so both by sea and land. Hereweak with hunger, that they upon the inhabitants, tired out, could make no resistance. Their presently surrendered on the captors not having food suffici- 12th of August, on condition of ent for them, sold them almost being transported to Candia.
1 while while in Dalmatia, Jin Ali Pajba (O), governor of fferccgovina, assaults Nisikhos and Kuzzos, but is defeated, taken prisoner, and his forces dispersed".
RICAUT makes no mention of this defeat of the KapudAn Pafbd; but is particular in his account of the taking of the Knnnina following places. The Venetians landed on the iith of Sep- taken, tember at Valona, and drove seven thousand foot and fifteen hundred horse, who opposed them, beyond the fortress of Kannina, situate on the top of a high craggy rock, four miles distant. Against this fortress they raised batteries in twentyfour hours, and attacking it furiously on all sides, the Turks, after the town was entered, yielded, on condition of marching out with their baggage. Mean time general Spar marched ten miles in pursuit of the fugitives, who on fight of him confusedly fled. The captain-general after this appeared with his whole army before Valona; and on the 18 th sent a menacing summons to the garrison, who, as if designing to make stout resistance sent no answer, but in the night silently stole away. They got in both places one hundred and thirty-four pieces of cannon, some brass, some iron.
As for the affair of Hercegovina, or Arz'xgovina, as our Other sueauthor calls it, the Pajbd Kin Ali, with three thousand men, cejses. had a design to surprise the new conquered Greek subjects of the Venetians at their Easter devotions: but the people of Nixikhi (or Nisikhos) being informed of it, on his approach, left their churches, and after a sharp conflict routed him, flaying seven hundred of his men; and having taken, carried him in chains to Kataro. With the like happy success was the strong fortress of Filiporikh, near Clamez, taken and destroyed by order of general Molino. But the affairs of the Venetians did not succeed so well this year by sea; for In March two of their men of war, xhtSt.Iseppo and St.Mark, being attacked near Kandia by Mezzo Morto, Dey of Algiers, with ten Soltdna's, after the bravest resistance that could be imagined, the latter was blown-up, and the other taken, although it funk in the night with all its cannon, four hours after °.
» Cant. p. 373, &seq. "Ricaut, ubi supra.
(O) Jin is the name of cer- judiceof others, are called Jin,
tain devils, of a grosser kind and said to have the mind and
than S/jaytan (or Satan). They cunning of those devils. Cant.
are supposed to be male and fe- He is written ZinAlee in Ricaut,
male, and get children. Those Z being used for / consonant. who use their parts to the pre
Mod. Hist. Vol. XIII, E, Ths
The campaign being over in Hungary, the Wazir returns with his army to Adrianople, where he is received by the a' people as their deliverer: But the physicians being of opiT^Wazir mon tnat the air of that city did not agree with the Soltan, triumphs, ^q laboured under a dropsy, Kyoprili departs with him to Constantinople, which he enters in a triumphant manner. For three days there were rejoicings, accompanied with feasts and games, which the French ambassador gave, with no less expence than the Turks ; thereby to shew them how acceptable the defeat of the Christians was to the most Christian king.
After this the Wazir applies himself to raising a new and more powerful army than the former, to prosecute the Hungarian war, the command of which he resolves to take in person. He appoints Moftafa PaJbA to be Serastier against the Poles; and Kaplan AH Pajhd aginst the Venetians. This last, encamping at the river Celidnus, restrains the Albanians, just ready to revolt. He also takes possession of Kunina and Vallona, reduced by the Venetians the year before, and now deserted by them P. Affairs of As to the affairs of Hungary, it would be too tedious to Hungary, relate every action which happened before the opening of the campaign in 1691. The brave prince of Hanover we find so early as January marching against count Tekeli, at the pass of Terez ; but advancing before his troops was stiot dead from an ambuscade near the village of Sernist. On the other hand, the castle of Tacket, and fort Waradin, were taken by colonel Pohland; who also defeated the general of Walakhia near Karansebes, and hindered a great body of Turks and Tatars from breaking into Tranfilvania. Of these he killed above a thousand, and took three hundred prisoners, besides much booty. In February the garrison of Great Waradin were defeated by count Nigrelli; and although the Turks took the castle of Novi, yet the Kroats defeated them near that place, and killed a thousand upon the spot. Lugos 'Nor were they less unfortunate at Lugos, where colonel and Kho- Pohland drew the garrison into an ambush; and pursuing »ad taken, them to the castle, had it surrendered after eight hundred and fifty of the defendants were flain out of one thousand. Soon after the garrison of Segedin having surprised the city of Khonad, and killed all the inhabitants, the Turks abandoned the castle in the night. In March the governor of EJfek sentout Percilia, who, with 400 men, surprised and destroyed Jnik, with all in it; routed a body oi Turks and Tatars, kill
» Cant. p. 375,
ing twelve hundred; and returned with a great booty. In like manner Antonio, the famous Rascian captain, took the castle of K&rakanuar, situated on a high rock, by stratagem. After' this he attacked ten /hips sailing from IViddin with provisions for Belgrade, and took two of them; two others fell into the hands-of the Rascians near Modava; and the rest returned. He likewise by artifice dispersed a thousand Turks on their March to surprise Luges.
It being now June, when the year began to be fit for Titulyirgreater actions, count Quido of Staremberg drew together prised. the troops from several parts to Sauseberg; during which the Rascians surprised Titul, and put four hundred Turks to the sword. Mean while Veterani, the general in Servia, hearing that 300 ships laden with provisions, under the convoy of four thousand men, were designed from Widdin to Belgrade, he sent Pohland and Antonio to intercept them with four thousand men. These drawing together so close that they appeared not to be above four hundred, the Turks detached one thousand Janizaries first, and then another party, out of which one thousand were killed, beside many drowned in their retreat; but the ships escaped by getting to the other side of the river. Soon after this a party of Rascians took four hundred waggons, laden with provisions, between Belgrade and Temifuiaer. Another party attacked Kathina Mostdsa, and flew fifteen hundred of his men, near Mitrovitz, which the Turks thereupon quitted q.
All things were now ready for the Hungarian expedi- Soleyman tion; but the Wazir deferred setting-out on account of So- dies, leynian's illness; for he feared that if the Soltdn should die while he was absent, one of Mohammed's sons might succeed, and deprive him either of the IVazirJhip, or command of the army. At length Soltkn Soleym&n, exhausted by an inveterate dropsy, dies on the 26th of Ramazan 1102 (P), having lived j-re; fifty-two years, and reigned three years nine months. t ,02.
SO LETMA N Was from his infancy a valetudinarian, of A.D. a gross body, low stature, a pale and bloated face (Q)f with 1691. eyes like an ox, a black oblong beard, with a mixture of Person'and grey hairs; of a heavy understanding; easily moved by the charaiier. whispers of his chamberlains, and the Koltuk Wazirleri (R) .
* Ricaut, ubi supra.
(P) 7«»Mith 1693. he agrees with the Turkish hi
(Q) Ricaut fays he had a long storian. and lean visage, but not an un- (R) So called from having graceful aspect. In other respects alone the privilege of touching
£ 2 the
A. D. but none among the Othmdn Salt ans was more eminent for 1691. sanctity, devotion, and (S) observance of the law r. Ricaut
^SV**) says, that as books were his entertainment in his confined life, so he seemed to have had an affection for them in the choice he made of Kupriogli for his favourite, who was esteemed a learned man in that country, and to have had the best library of any man in the whole empire: however Soleymart was no other than a dull, heavy, simple, and weak man, fitter to be a Derwjfb than an emperor'.
The Reign of Ahmed II.
21 Soltan rpHE death of Soleyman, though long expected and Ahmed J^ wished for, yet silled the Othman court with new and II. secret commotions. The nobles, with almost all the people,
were for advancing either Mqftafa or Ahmed, sons of Mohammed; and some were even for Mohammed himself, whom they had deprived of the crown. The choice of any of these "Was dangerous to the Wazir: for if Mohammed should be restored, he was apprehensive of his life; as being suspected to have been pretty deeply concerned in the sedition which deposed him. On the other hand, if either of that prince's sons were elected, he was afraid lest those youths, who had been liberally educated in the palace, contrary to the custom
r Cant. p. 375,& seq. 'Ricaut. ubi supra.
the So/tan when he walks, or the throne he leaped from
gets on horseback, or of support- thence, and went to a cistern;
ing him under the arm-fits: where finding no water, he, by
which last word Koltuk signifies, pronouncing the word BismiUa
They are the chief courtiers, who hi, brought water out of the
have a prospect to be made Wa- marble; and having taken Ab
tdrs or Pajhds, when vacancies deft, commanded it to return in
happen; and among them are again. On other occasions he
the six chief officers at court.— knew not the most common
Cant. affairs of life. One day he
(S) TheTurishave no So/tax, took some round fishes roasted
whose holiness they so much ex- for cakes, and next day asked
tol. They even ascribe mira- for more of those cakes. —
cles to him. Among the rest, Cant.
they fay, when first placed on