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of the other Shehzddeh, and already instructed in the admi- A. D. nistration of affairs, might divest him of both his employ- 1691. ments. « -n-»J

In order therefore to avoid the danger, he resolves to ad- Numereut vance Ahmed, younger brother of Soleyman, and not superior armi to him in wisdom. Accordingly, by the authority which he had gained among all the people, by his successes the last year, he procured him to be unanimously saluted Soltdn the second day after his brother Soleyman'% death. However, lest the malecontents should take occasion from the new Seisin's stupidity to raise a sedition, he departs with him to Adrianople, in the beginning of Shawal, where he applies himself intirely to preparations for war. The Miifulm&ns, excited by the success of the last campaign, voluntarily come from all parts, in such numbers that there never was before so numerous an army seen in the Othman camp. The Wazir here- eswoiuni upon orders the Pasha's not to bring more forces into the /,■„.,. field than had been appointed: since being to fight against the Gya-wrs, he said, there was no occasion for a great army; which besides might want provisions before they reached Buda.

But the soldiers, regardless of this order, flock together in still greater numbers: declaring it was not for hopes of pay, but out of zeal for their law, that they entered into the service : and therefore could be content with their wallet, and place their whole happiness in either becoming Gazi (A), under so successful a general, or being crowned with Shehddet(B).

The Wazir'% fame thus greatly increasing, envy, the per- jthtlaii petual attendant upon merit, could not but cast her darts upon him from the court, her favourite residence. The Kizlar Agaji, and other officers of the inner palace, uneasy to find that Kyoprili Ogli was now possessed of the interest which before they had in the Soltan and people, who now despised them, all conspire his destruction; and abusing the stupidity of their master, fill his mind with suspicions against the Wazir. They inform him, that the' prime minister was contriving to depose him ; and had prevailed on the Janizaries to set up Mqflafa, son of Mohammed, as soon as he sliould decamp from Adrianople. The Soltan, persuaded by this accusation, asks what he thought was to be done? The Kizlar

(A) Gazi, or Ghdzi, signifies the Mohammedans hold that all one who conquers in a religious who are flain in battle against war, or on account of religion. Gyanvrs, or infidels, die martyrs.

(B) That is, Martyrdom i for

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A. D. Agasi advises him to fend the Baltajihir Kyehayasi{C), to tell 1691. the Wazir he wanted to speak with him, and then to do as

C<»*v~0 he thought fit, when he had him in his power.

agnixfttbe During the time this eunuch was suggesting these things to the Soltan, Dihiz Mohammed Aga, a mute (D), held the curtain of the door; and discovering by the motions of their lips and hands, that they were concerting to depose the Wazir, hastens to that minister, and gives him, by signs, an account of the whole affair. While he was yet telling his story, comes the Baltajilar Kyehayasi, and acquaints the Wazir that the Soltan in haste wanted to speak with him. Kyofrili ogli finding by this that the mute's account must be true, immediately orders a horse to be gotten ready for him, and the messenger to go before, telling him that he would presently follow. When he is gone the Wazir fends privately for the Janizar-Aga, and some other Ojdk-Agalari, whom he knew to be his friends; and, having, in a speech, related the services he had done the empire, by recovering several provinces lost by his predecessors, and what he was likely farther to do by the numerous forces he had raised, tells them, that all was going to be overturned, and they with himself to be removed from the army, by the artifices of some at court, who had persuaded the Soltdn, a prince of great goodness, but unskilled in the administration of government (E), that the Wazir and Janizaries were plotting to depose him. He adds, that as he foresaw one of the haughty courtiers would succeed him, who might reduce the Othm&n affairs to a worse condition than ever ; he was therefore 'willing to remind those his friends, that after his removal or death (which, he said, he wished for, that he might not see the approaching ruin of the empire), they would take on them the care of the state, which the emperor was incapable of: "for, concludes he, I scruple to make any resistance to "my Soltan's commands; and therefore have determined

Discover ed by a mute.

(C) The chief officer of the regiment of the Baltaji (hatchet men, or battle axes) ; he is subject, in other respects, to the Kiz/ar Agafi.—Cant.

(D) There are many of these in the palace, whose only business is to hold up the curtain before the door of the room, where the Soltan is talking in private with any of his great

men. Nor are either they, or the dwarfs, and buffoons, ever employed, as most Europeans have affirmed, to put persons privately to death, or even sent on any serious message.—Cant. (E) And who knows not how to return any answer to what is proposed to him but Kbolh, Kbojh.

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"to-morrow, with your consent, to resign to him the seal of A. D. "the empire, and desire leave to go to Mekka*." 1691.

The Janizar-Aga, and the rest of the officers, on hear- '—~v——* ing the IVazir's speech, call the Soltdn stupid, imprudent, sim- S°TM.dt tht pie, and cry out that he is swayed by his courtiers like boughs-''' "^" shaken by the wind: adding, that if he mould persist in his design, they had rather depose him than Kyoprili Ogli, the defender of the law, the restorer of the Othm&n empire, and the invincible general. They promise to flied their blood in defence of a single hair of his head; binding themselves by oath never to suffer any other general during his life, and to execute his commands with the utmost alacrity. The Wazir, who had sent for the officers only to found how they stood affected to him, finding that he might depend on them, fends an answer by a Talkhtjb (F), "That as he was mounting his "horse, he was informed that the soldiers, for some injury "received from the courtiers, were raising a sedition; that "he imagined he might safely defer his obedience to the Sol' "tan's command, in order to put a stop to it: that with "such a view he had sent for the officers of the army, and "would acquaint his majesty next day with the course that "should be taken for appeasing the commotion."

Next day he informs the Soltdn, by another Talhijb, that Ruins bis he had done his utmost to extinguish the latent flame among enemies. the soldiers; but found them so presumptuous as to refuse to return to their duty, till the Kizler Agafi was dismissed, and his secretary delivered-up to a trial. He therefore intreats his majesty, that now the army was ready to set out, and himself full of hopes of success, he would not, by an unseasonable indulgence to his officers, slop the progress of victory, and expose himself to great danger. The Kizler Agafi, who, by this letter, perceived his designs were betrayed to the Wazir, desires the Soltdn to sacrifice him, though a faithful servant, he said, to the good of the empire. But Ahmed refusing, through fondness to the deceiver, the Wazir fends a third Talkbijh; which obliges the Soltdn, for fear of worse consequences, to do as he had desired. Accordingly the KiztIsr Agafi was banished to Egypt; and his secretary, when

a Cant. Hist. Othm. p. 377, & seqq. in Ahmed II.

(F) That is, a relation, or a great sign of his being in dansecount; the name given to the ger. The Tatkijh must be writletters sent by the Wazir to the ten by the Reis Efcr.di, or high Soltdn about publickg affairs; chancellor, and carried in form, wbjch, if rejected, is reckoned Cant.

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brought to the Wazir, was ordered to be hanged in his habit, with a silver ink-pot at his girdle.

1 That minister being thus confirmed in his post, to cut off *,*' all opportunity from the other court-officers to make the like J"' attempts against him, three days after he removes the army

out of Ærianople; and, encamping near the city, prepares every thing necessary for the campaign. Here he receives, with great honour, an ambassador from William III. king of England, who came to offer his master's mediation for settling a peace (A). The Wazir declares he was ready to agree to one upon honourable conditions; but, in reality, intended only to amuse the Germans, till he made himself master of Buda. With this view, he marched with his army to Belgrade: but, being there informed, that the imperialists, under Lewis, prince of Baden, had taken the field, and were advanced to Peterivaradin, he directs his course thither; on whose approach the German general pitches his camp near Ijlankamen, on the banks of the Danube, and. strongly fortifies it. Battle of The Wazir soon after comes up, and places his troops to Iflanka- the right of the imperial camp, in order to prevent their remen, turn. At the fame time five thousand Germans, marching in haste to reinforce prince Lewis, are intercepted, and inclosed by the Turks, in sight of the emperor's army, so that not one of them escaped being killed or taken prisoners. The Germans, who before had designed to attack the Othmdns, on this disaster lose their resolution; and their general too late perceives his error, in suffering himself to be shut-up in so narrow a space, where he could neither open his troops, nor defend them from the enemy's cannon: so that, there being no other way to extricate himself from this dangerous situation, he resolves to force a passage with the sword. While he meditates this design, the Turks, flushed with their late success, rash furiously on the German camp, as if they would destroy the whole army at one effort. The battle continues for six hours doubtful, with equal courage, but with unequal strength. The imperialists, now turning despair into resolution, pass the Turkish trenches; and the Turks, out of shame for loss

(A) Ricaut places this affair did not declare himself on the

in the reign oiSaleyman, and subject. Sir Williams arriving

says, the ambassador, Sir Wil- so late, for he did not get to

Ham Hujfty, set-out for Conftan- Adrianople till June, was owing

simple on the 12th of Jure to the Germans slowness; who,

(which was the day after the though they wished for peace,

Sultan died). He proposed a were very dilatory in giving him

Uti pojjidetis; but the Wazir, their instructions.

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of the victory snatched out of their hands, drive the imperialists back into their works, which they, in their turns, penetrate.

At last, when the victory seems inclined to the Othmans, a-t ^-_;. the JVazir, to dismay by his presence those who still resisted, nain% with his own troop attacks the right wing of the Germans, where he saw the greatest opposition: but, in the heat of th° battle, being wounded in the temples by a musket bullet, he falls from his horse; and, by his death, transfers the victory, already obtained, to the Germans: for his chamberlains, confounded at this unexpected disaster, call their companions, and other officers present, to take up their master's body; during which time the Tubidkhana (B) ceases to found. This cessation occasions great disorder among the Othman troops now victorious: so that the horse, seized with a panic, abandoning the foot, first take to flight, and are soon followed by the Janizaries. The imperialists, who were fighting, not with the hopes of victory, but that they might not die unrevenged, beholding the unexpected flight of the enemy, advanced but slowly, that the Janizaries might have opportunity to retreat: for their strength was so spent, that they could not have stood another engagement.

The rest of the Turkish foot, when they perceive the Jani- 7-1 -r fc zaries to fly, quitting their cannon and camp, follow them ower. with the utmost precipitation. There fell in the batde twenty- thrown eight thousand Turks, but not above three thousand Germans, exclusive of the above-mentioned five regiments. However, when Leopold was informed of the victory, he is reported to have said, that he should be unwilling to conquer often upon such terms, since he could scarce repair the loss of eight regiments in three years; whereas the Soltan could supply the loss of even eighty thousand men in eighty days. After this victory, the prince of Baden recovers Lippa, taken by the Turks the year before, and closely besieges Waradin; while the Turkish army, continuing their flight to Belgrade, there stop, and make AU Pajha their Serajhiera.

Thus the Turkish historians write. Let us now fee if our Bravery historians agree with them. The Wazir being arrived at of Tha$. Belgrade, with an army of one hundred thousand men, besides a vast number of ships and gallies, one hundred of them

"cant. Hist. Othm,p. 381, & scqq.

(B) Warlike mufick, which in it happens to cease, the Janibattle is always near the Wa- zaries take it for an ill omen, zir, and continually playing to and can scarce be restrained animate the soldiers j so that, if from flight. Cant,


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